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Voiceless alveolar affricate

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Voiceless alveolar affricate

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
t͡s
t͜s
IPA number 103 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʦ
Unicode (hex) U+02A6
X-SAMPA ts
Kirshenbaum ts
Sound
source ·

The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of Japanese, in Mandarin Chinese, and in Cantonese, among many others. International auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.

Contents

  • Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
      • Dentalized laminal alveolar 1.2.1
      • Non-retracted alveolar 1.2.2
      • Variable 1.2.3
  • Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [s] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʃ] or laminal [ʂ].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe цуакъэ     'shoes'
Armenian Eastern[2] ցանց     'net' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Basque[3] hotz [o̞t̻͡s̪] 'cold' Contrasts with a sibilant affricate with an apical fricative component.[3]
Belarusian[4] цеканне [ˈt̻͡s̪ekän̪ʲe] 'tsekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian цена [t̻͡s̪ɛˈn̪a] 'price'
Chechen церг [t̻͡s̪erg] 'tooth'
Chinese Mandarin[5][6] 早餐/zǎocān [t̻͡s̪ɑʊ˨˩ t̻͡s̪ʰan˥] 'breakfast' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czech[7] co [t̻͡s̪o̝] 'what' See Czech phonology
Hungarian[8] cica [ˈt̻͡s̪it̻͡s̪ɒ] 'kitten' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[9]
Kazakh[10] Only in loanwords from Russian[11]
Kyrgyz[12] Only in loanwords from Russian.[12] See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian[13] cena [ˈt̻͡s̪en̪ä] 'price' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[14] цвет [t̻͡s̪ve̞t̪] 'flower' See Macedonian phonology
Polish[15] co     'what' See Polish phonology
Romanian[16] preț [pre̞t̻͡s̪] 'price' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] царь [t̻͡s̪ärʲ] 'Tsar' See Russian phonology
[19] циљ / cilj [t̻͡s̪îːʎ] 'target' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak cudzí [ˈt̻͡s̪ud̪͡z̪iː] 'foreign'
Slovene[20] cvet [t̻͡s̪ʋéːt̪] 'bloom' See Slovene phonology
Spanish Mexican exterior [e̞t̻͡s̪t̪e̞ˈɾjo̞r] 'exterior'
Ukrainian[21] цей [t̻͡s̪ɛj] 'this one' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[22] cybla [ˈt̻͡s̪ɪblä] 'onion'
Uzbek[23]

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хьаца [χaˈtsa] 'hornbeam' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe цэ [t͡sa] 'tooth'
Ainu チュㇰ [t͡suk̚] 'autumn'
Arabic Najdi[24] ك‍يف [t͡saif] 'how' Corresponds to /k/ in other dialects
Albanian cimbidh [t͡simbið] 'tongs'
Asturian Some dialects[25] otso [ot͡so] 'eight' Corresponds to standard /t͡ʃ/
Azerbaijani Some Western dialects çay/چای [t͡sɑj] 'tea' Corresponds to /t͡ʃ/ in other dialects
Basque[3] hots [ot̻͡s̺] 'sound' The fricative component is apical. Contrasts with a laminal affricate with a dentalized fricative component.[3]
Berber Kabyle iḥeşşeḇ [iħət͡sːəβ] 'he counts'
Catalan[26] potser [puˈtt̻͡s̺e] 'maybe' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik[27] cetaman [t͡səˈtaman] 'four' Allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before schwa
Cherokee ᏣᎳᎩ/tsa-la-gi [t͡salaɡi] 'Cherokee'
Chinese Cantonese /zai1 [t͡sɐi˥] 'squeeze' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology
Danish Standard[29] to [ˈt̻͡s̺oːˀ] 'two' The fricative component is apical.[29] In some accents, it is realized as [tʰ].[29] Usually transcribed /tˢ/ or /t/. Contrasts with the unaspirated stop [t], which is usually transcribed /d̥/ or /d/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Groningen mat [ˈmat͡sʰ] 'rug' Aspirated; common allophone of /t/. Doesn't occur in onsets of stressed syllables. See Dutch phonology
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[30] [ˈmät͡s] 'market' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /t/.[30] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[31] tea [ˈt͡səˑi̯] 'tea' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /t/.[32][33] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[33] [ˈt͡sɪˑi̯]
New York[34] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /t/.[34] See English phonology
New Zealand[35] Word-initial allophone of /t/.[35] See English phonology
North Wales[36] [ˈt͡siː] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /t/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [tʰ].[36] See English phonology
Scouse[37] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /t/.[37] See English phonology
Esperanto ceceo [t͡seˈt͡seo] 'tsetse fly' See Esperanto phonology
French Quebec petit [pət͡si] 'small' Allophone of /t/ before /i/ and /y/. See Quebec French phonology
[38] კა [kʼɑt͡si] 'man'
Greek κορίτσι/korítsi [ko̞ˈɾit͡si] 'girl' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew צבע [ˈt͡se̞vä] 'color' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Japanese なみ/tsunami [t͡su͍namʲi] 'tsunami' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian цы [t͡sə] 'hair'
Khowar څیڅیق [t͡sit͡seq] 'children'
Kiowa ch [t͡séː] 'short'
Low German Gronings dialect zet [ˈz̠ɛt͡sʰ] 'put' (past participle) Aspirated; common allophone of /t/. Doesn't occur in onsets of stressed syllables.
Marathi [t͡səv] 'taste' See Marathi phonology; depending on the word, the letter च may also be pronounced as /tʃə/
Maltese zokk [t͡sokː] '(tree) trunk'
Nez Perce cíickan [ˈt͡siːt͡skan] 'blanket'
Pashto څه [t͡sə] 'what'
Portuguese European[39] parte sem vida [ˈpaɾt͡sẽj ˈviðə] 'lifeless part' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[40]
Brazilian[39][40] participação [pɐχt͡sipɐˈsɜ̃w] 'participation'
Most speakers[41] shiatsu [ɕiˈat͡su] 'shiatsu' Marginal sound. Many Brazilians might break the affricate with epenthetic [i], often subsequently palatalizing /t/, specially in pre-tonic contexts (e.g. tsunami [tɕisuˈnɜ̃mʲi]).[42] See Portuguese phonology
Sardinian Campidanese petza [ˈpɛt͡sa] 'meat'
Spanish Chilean ancha [ˈänʲt͡sʲä] 'wide (sg. fem.)' Palatalized;[43] with an apical fricative component. It corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Madrid[43]
Tanacross dzeen [t͡seːn] 'day'
West Frisian tsiis [t͡siːs] 'cheese'
Yi zy/ [t͡sɪ˧] 'to plant' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[44] Zweck [t͡sv̥ɛk] 'purpose' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[44] See Standard German phonology
Italian Standard[45] grazia [ˈɡrät͡ːsjä] 'grace' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[45] See Italian phonology

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
t͡θ̠
t͡θ͇
t͡ɹ̝̊

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[46] tree [t͡ɹ̝̊ʷiː] 'tree' Phonetic realization of the sequence /tr/; more commonly postalveolar [t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔].[46] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[46]
Italian Sicily[47] straniero [st͡θ̠äˈnjɛɾo] 'foreign' Apical. Regional realization of the sequence /tr/; may be a sequence [tθ̠] or [tð̠] instead.[48] See Italian phonology

See also

References

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 6.
  3. ^ a b c d Hualde, Lujanbio & Zubiri (2010:1). Although this paper discusses mainly the Goizueta dialect, the authors state that it has "a typical, conservative consonant inventory for a Basque variety".
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 48-49.
  5. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109-110.
  6. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17-25.
  7. ^ Palková (1994), pp. 234-235.
  8. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  9. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  10. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  11. ^ Kara (2002), p. 11.
  12. ^ a b Kara (2003), p. 11.
  13. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  14. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  15. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 160.
  16. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  17. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  18. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  21. ^ S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  22. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22 and 38).
  23. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  24. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  25. ^ (Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Page 14
  26. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007), p. 144.
  27. ^ Jacobson (1995), p. 2.
  28. ^ Grønnum (2005:120)
  29. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005), p. 120.
  30. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  31. ^ Wells (1982a), pp. 322-323.
  32. ^ Wells (1982a), p. 323.
  33. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  34. ^ a b Wells (1982b), p. 515.
  35. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  36. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  37. ^ a b Wells (1982a), p. 372.
  38. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  39. ^ a b (Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  40. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite
  41. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  42. ^ A influência da percepção inferencial na formação de vogal epentética em estrangeirismos – Aline Aver Vanin
  43. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  44. ^ a b Mangold (2005), pp. 50 and 52.
  45. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  46. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188 and 192.
  47. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  48. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.

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