World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Turkish people

Article Id: WHEBN0002088822
Reproduction Date:

Title: Turkish people  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of consorts of the Ottoman sultans, Turks in Bulgaria, Demographics of Germany, Demographics of Berlin, Turks in Europe
Collection: Ethnic Groups in Europe, Ethnic Turkish People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Turkish people

Total population
c. 74–92 million[a]
Regions with significant populations

 Turkey 65,500,000–70,200,000[1][2]
 Northern Cyprus 280,000 d[›][3][4]

Top immigrant destinations
 Germany 2,800,000–3,000,000 (including Turkish Kurds)f[›]b[›][5][6][7][8]
 France 500,000–1,000,000[9][10]
 United Kingdom 500,000a[›][11][12][13]
 Netherlands 396,414e[›]–500,000c[›][14][15][16][17]
 Austria 350,000–500,000[18][19]
 Belgium 200,000[20][21][22]
 United States 196,222-500,000 b[›][23][24][25][26]
 Sweden 100,000-150,000[27][28]
  Switzerland 70,440 e[›][29]
 Australia 66,919-150,000 b[›][30][31][32][33]
 Denmark 28,892 f[›]b[›][34]
 Canada 24,910 b[›][35]
 Italy 22,580 e[›][36]
 Israel 22,000[37]
 Algeria 600,000–3,300,000 b[›][38][39][40]
 Iraq 500,000–3,000,000[41][42][43]
 Tunisia 500,000–2,400,000 b[›][44][45][46]
 Syria 100,000–3,500,000[47][48][49][50][51]
 Saudi Arabia 150,000–200,000 b[›][44][52]
 Egypt 100,000–1,500,000 b[›][53][54]
 Jordan 60,000[44]
 Lebanon 50,000–80,000[55][56]

50,000 b[›][44]

minorities in the Balkans
 Bulgaria 588,318–800,000[57][58][59]
 Greece 80,000–130,000 g[›][60]-[61]
 Macedonia 77,959[62][63][64][65]
 Romania 27,700[66][67][68]


minorities in the former USSR states
 Russia 109,883–150,000[70][71]
 Kazakhstan 104,792–150,000 h[›][72][73]
 Kyrgyzstan 40,953-50,000 h[›][74][73][75]
 Azerbaijan 38,000–110,000 h[›][76][73][77][78]

Predominantly Sunni Islam[79][80][81][82]

(nondenominational · Alevi · Bektashi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari · Muwahhid Muslim)
Minority irreligious[79][83] Christianity[84][85][86] Judaism
Related ethnic groups

Other Western Asian peoples

minorities within the Arab League

a. ^ The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations.

Turkish people (Turkish: Türk milleti), Turks (Turkish: Türkler) or Anatolian Turks (Turkish: Anadolu Türkleri) are a Turkic ethnic group. They are mostly made up of assimilated Anatolian populations and are native to the Republic of Turkey. They are also the most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe, North America, and Oceania. Historical minorities and creole populations of Turkish descent dating back to the early modern period exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire, such as the Balkans, the Middle East, and North Africa, while more recent displacement of Meskhetian Turks from the Caucasus has resulted in new minorities in many former Soviet states.[87][88][89][90][91]


  • Etymology and ethnic identity 1
  • History 2
    • Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages 2.1
    • Seljuk era 2.2
    • Beyliks era 2.3
    • Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı Devleti-İmparatorluğu) 2.4
    • Modern era 2.5
  • Genetics 3
    • Y-DNA haplogroup distributions in Turkish people 3.1
  • Geographic distribution 4
    • Traditional areas of Turkish settlement 4.1
      • Turkey 4.1.1
      • Cyprus 4.1.2
      • Meskhetia 4.1.3
      • Balkans 4.1.4
      • Levant 4.1.5
      • North Africa 4.1.6
    • Modern diaspora 4.2
      • Western Europe 4.2.1
      • North America 4.2.2
      • Oceania 4.2.3
      • Former Soviet Union 4.2.4
  • Culture 5
    • Arts and Architecture 5.1
    • Language 5.2
    • Religion 5.3
  • See also 6
  • References and notes 7
  • Bibliography 8
  • External links 9

Etymology and ethnic identity

The ethnonym "Turk" may be first mentioned in Herodotus' (c. 484–425 BCE) work "Targitas";[92] furthermore, during the first century CE., Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area.[92] The first definite reference to the "Turks" come mainly from Chinese sources in the sixth century. In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue" (Chinese: 突厥; Wade–Giles: T’u-chüe), which referred to the Göktürks.[93][94] Although "Turk" refers to Turkish people, it may also sometimes refer to the wider language group of Turkic peoples. They are closely related to Azerbaijani people also known as Azerbaijani Turks who are ethnically Iranic and live primarily in Azerbaijan Republic and Iran[95]

In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers. The Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks.[96] In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.[97] The Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule.

During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks.[98] On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered Turks.[99] Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship."[100] Currently, a new constitution is being written, which may address citizenship and ethnicity issues.[101]


Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages

Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, and in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.[102]j[›] After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, and -by the first century BC- it is generally thought that the native Anatolian languages had become extinct.[103][104][105]

In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, and include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages.[106] Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather, carpets, and horses for wood, silk, vegetables and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic-speaking people were followers of Tengriism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were also adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism.[107][92] However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as servants, during the booty of Arab raids and conquests.[92] The Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries, Sufis, and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasids, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers.[92] By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle. As the Abbasid caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops.[92]

Seljuk era

The Öksökö, symbol of the Seljuk Turks.

During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia.[108] When the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them.[109] Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.[110][111] Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and gradually spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.[109]

In dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade.[112] Once the Crusaders took Iznik, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum from their new capital, Konya, in 1097.[109] By the 12th century the Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region "Turchia" or "Turkey", meaning "the land of the Turks".[113] The Turkish society of Anatolia was divided into urban, rural and nomadic populations;[114] the other Turkoman tribes who had also swept into Anatolia at the same time as the Seljuk Turks were those who kept their nomadic ways.[109] These tribes were more numerous than the Seljuk Turks, and rejecting the sedentary lifestyle, adhered to an Islam impregnated with animism and shamanism from their central Asian steppeland origins, which then mixed with new Christian influences. From this popular and syncretist Islam, with its mystical and revolutionary aspects, sects such as the Alevis and Bektashis emerged.[109] Furthermore, the intermarriage between the Turks and local inhabitants, as well as the conversion of many to Islam, also increased the Turkish-speaking Muslim population in Anatolia.[109][115]

By 1243, at the Battle of Köse Dağ, the Mongols defeated the Seljuk Turks and became the new rulers of Anatolia, and in 1256, the second Mongol invasion of Anatolia caused widespread destruction. Particularly after 1277, political stability within the Seljuk territories rapidly disintegrated, leading to the strengthening of Turkoman principalities in the western and southern parts of Anatolia called the "beyliks".[116]

Beyliks era

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.

Once the Seljuk Turks were defeated by the Mongol's conquest of Anatolia, the Turks became the vassal of the Ilkhans who established their own empire in the vast area stretching from present-day Afghanistan to present-day Turkey.[117] As the Mongols occupied more lands in Asia Minor, the Turks moved further to western Anatolia and settled in the Seljuk-Byzantine frontier.[117] By the last decades of the 13th century, the Ilkhans and their Seljuk vassals lost control over much of Anatolia to these Turkoman peoples.[117] A number of Turkish lords managed to establish themselves as rulers of various principalities, known as "Beyliks" or emirates. Amongst these beyliks, along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched the beyliks of Karasi, Saruhan, Aydin, Menteşe and Teke. Inland from Teke was Hamid and east of Karasi was the beylik of Germiyan.

To the north-west of Anatolia, around Söğüt, was the small and, at this stage, insignificant, Ottoman beylik. It was hemmed in to the east by other more substantial powers like Karaman on Iconium, which ruled from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Although the Ottomans were only a small principality among the numerous Turkish beyliks, and thus posed the smallest threat to the Byzantine authority, their location in north-western Anatolia, in the former Byzantine province of Bithynia, became a fortunate position for their future conquests. The Latins, who had conquered the city of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, established a Latin Empire (1204–61), divided the former Byzantine territories in the Balkans and the Aegean among themselves, and forced the Byzantine Emperors into exile at Nicaea (present-day Iznik). From 1261 onwards, the Byzantines were largely preoccupied with regaining their control in the Balkans.[117] Toward the end of the 13th century, as Mongol power began to decline, the Turcoman chiefs assumed greater independence.[118]

Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı Devleti-İmparatorluğu)

The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th century, and then the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, resulted in Turkish refugees, known as "Muhacirs", from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.

Under its founder, Osman I, the Ottoman beylik expanded along the Sakarya River and westward towards the Sea of Marmara. Thus, the population of western Asia Minor had largely become Turkish-speaking and Muslim in religion.[117] It was under his son, Orhan I, who had attacked and conquered the important urban center of Bursa in 1326, proclaiming it as the Ottoman capital, that the Ottoman Empire developed considerably. In 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and established a foothold on the Gallipoli Peninsula while at the same time pushing east and taking Ankara.[119][120] Many Turks from Anatolia began to settle in the region abandoned by the inhabitants who had fled Thrace before the Ottoman invasion.[121] However, the Byzantines were not the only ones to suffer from the Ottoman advancement for, in the mid-1330s, Orhan annexed the Turkish beylik of Karasi. This advancement was maintained by Murad I who more than tripled the territories under his direct rule, reaching some 100,000 square miles, evenly distributed in Europe and Asia Minor.[122] Gains in Anatolia were matched by those in Europe; once the Ottoman forces took Edirne (Adrianople), which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, they opened their way into Bulgaria and Macedonia in 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa.[123] With the conquests of Thrace, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, significant numbers of Turkish emigrants settled in these regions.[121] This form of Ottoman-Turkish colonization became a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans. The settlers consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants, dervishes, preachers and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel.[124]

In 1453, Ottoman armies, under Sultan Mehmed II, conquered Constantinople.[122] Mehmed reconstructed and repopulated the city, and made it the new Ottoman capital.[125] After the Fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion with its borders eventually going deep into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.[126] Selim I dramatically expanded the empire’s eastern and southern frontiers in the Battle of Chaldiran and gained recognition as the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.[127] His successor, Suleiman the Magnificent, further expanded the conquests after capturing Belgrade in 1521 and using its territorial base to conquer Hungary, and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács as well as also pushing the frontiers of the empire to the east.[128] Following Suleiman's death, Ottoman victories continued, albeit less frequently than before. The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.[129] However, after its defeat at the Battle of Vienna, in 1683, the Ottoman army was met by ambushes and further defeats; the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, which granted Austria the provinces of Hungary and Transylvania, marked the first time in history that the Ottoman Empire actually relinquished territory.[130]

Turkish woman in Ottoman costume

By the 19th century, the empire began to decline when ethno-nationalist uprisings occurred across the empire. Thus, the last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Turkish-Muslim refugees from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.[131] By 1913, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress started a program of forcible Turkification of non-Turkish minorities.[132][133] By 1914, the World War I broke out, and the Turks scored some success in Gallipoli during the Battle of the Dardanelles in 1915. During World War I, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress continued with its Turkification policies, which effected non-Turkish minorities, such as the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide and the Greeks during various campaigns of ethnic cleansing and expulsion.[134][135][136][137][138] In 1918, the Ottoman Government agreed to the Mudros Armistice with the Allies.

The Treaty of Sèvres —signed in 1920 by the government of Mehmet VI— dismantled the Ottoman Empire. The Turks, under Mustafa Kemal, rejected the treaty and fought the Turkish War of Independence, resulting in the abortion of that text, never ratified,[139] and the abolition of the Sultanate. Thus, the 623-year-old Ottoman Empire ended.[140]

Modern era

Once Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish War of Independence against the Allied forces that occupied the former Ottoman Empire, he united the Turkish Muslim majority and successfully led them from 1919 to 1922 in overthrowing the occupying forces out of what the Turkish National Movement considered the Turkish homeland.[141] The Turkish identity became the unifying force when, in 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed and the newly founded Republic of Turkey was formally established. Atatürk's presidency was marked by a series of radical political and social reforms that transformed Turkey into a secular, modern republic with civil and political equality for sectarian minorities and women.[142]

Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Turks, as well as other Muslims, from the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta (Hatay), the Middle East, and the Soviet Union continued to arrive in Turkey, most of whom settled in urban north-western Anatolia.[143][144] The bulk of these immigrants, known as "Muhacirs", were the Balkan Turks who faced harassment and discrimination in their homelands.[143] However, there were still remnants of a Turkish population in many of these countries because the Turkish government wanted to preserve these communities so that the Turkish character of these neighbouring territories could be maintained.[145] One of the last stages of ethnic Turks immigrating to Turkey was between 1940 and 1990 when about 700,000 Turks arrived from Bulgaria. Today, between a third and a quarter of Turkey's population are the descendants of these immigrants.[144]


The extent to which gene flow from Central Asia has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people, and the role of the 11th century invasion by Turkic peoples, has been the subject of various studies. Several studies have concluded that the historical and indigenous Anatolian groups are the primary source of the present-day Turkish population.[146]k[›][147][148][149][150] This is unsurprising, as the Turkish people are a collection of assimilated peoples who were formed from their adoption of Islam and the Turkish language, with even the Turkish state considering all those who have citizenship there to be Turkish. Furthermore, various studies suggested that, although the early Turkic invaders carried out an invasion with

  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

External links

  • Abadan-Unat, Nermin (2011), Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen, Berghahn Books, .  
  • Abazov, Rafis (2009), Culture and Customs of Turkey, Greenwood Publishing Group, .  
  • Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi 7: 91–110 
  • Abrahams, Fred (1996), A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia, Human Rights Watch, .  
  • Ágoston, Gábor (2010), "Introduction", in Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, .  
  • Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi 7: 91–110 
  • Akgündüz, Ahmet (2008), Labour migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960–1974: A multidisciplinary analysis, Ashgate Publishing, .  
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences, Center for Applied Linguistics 
  • Babak, Vladimir; Vaisman, Demian; Wasserman, Aryeh (2004), Political Organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Sources and Documents, Routledge, .  
  • Baedeker, Karl (2000), Egypt, Elibron, .  
  • Bainbridge, James (2009), Turkey, Lonely Planet, .  
  • Baran, Zeyno (2010), Torn Country: Turkey Between Secularism and Islamism, Hoover Press, .  
  • Bennigsen, Alexandre; Broxup, Marie (1983), The Islamic threat to the Soviet State, Taylor & Francis, .  
  • Bokova, Irena (2010), "Recontructions of Identities: Regional vs. National or Dynamics of Cultrual Relations", in Ruegg, François; Boscoboinik, Andrea, From Palermo to Penang: A Journey Into Political Anthropology, LIT Verlag Münster,  
  • Bogle, Emory C. (1998), Islam: Origin and Belief, University of Texas Press, .  
  • Bosma, Ulbe; Lucassen, Jan; Oostindie, Gert (2012), "Introduction. Postcolonial Migrations and Identity Politics: Towards a Comparative Perspective", Postcolonial Migrants and Identity Politics: Europe, Russia, Japan and the United States in Comparison, Berghahn Books, .  
  • Brendemoen, Bernt (2002), The Turkish Dialects of Trabzon: Analysis, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, .  
  • Brendemoen, Bernt (2006), "Ottoman or Iranian? An example of Turkic-Iranian language contact in East Anatolian dialects", in Johanson, Lars; Bulut, Christiane, Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, .  
  • Brizic, Katharina; Yağmur, Kutlay (2008), "Mapping linguistic diversity in an emigration and immigration context: Case studies on Turkey and Austria", in Barni, Monica; Extra, Guus (eds), Mapping Linguistic Diversity in Multicultural Contexts, Walter de Gruyter, p. 248, .  
  • Brozba, Gabriela (2010), Between Reality and Myth: A Corpus-based Analysis of the Stereotypic Image of Some Romanian Ethnic Minorities, GRIN Verlag, .  
  • Bruce, Anthony (2003), The Last Crusade. The Palestine Campaign in the First World War, John Murray, .  
  • Çaǧaptay, Soner (2006), Islam, Secularism, and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?, Taylor & Francis, .  
  • Çaǧaptay, Soner (2006), "Passage to Turkishness: immigration and religion in modern Turkey", in Gülalp, Haldun, Citizenship And Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-state, Taylor & Francis, .  
  • Campbell, George L. (1998), Concise Compendium of the World's Languages, Psychology Press, .  
  • Cassia, Paul Sant (2007), Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, .  
  • Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2005), History Of Middle East, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, .  
  • Cleland, Bilal (2001), "The History of Muslims in Australia", in Saeed, Abdullah; Akbarzadeh, Shahram, Muslim Communities in Australia, University of New South Wales, .  
  • Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece, Hurst & Co. Publishers, .  
  • Constantin, Daniela L.; Goschin, Zizi; Dragusin, Mariana (2008), "Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (20): 28–41 
  • Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, .  
  • Darke, Diana (2011), Eastern Turkey, Bradt Travel Guides, .  
  • Delibaşı, Melek (1994), "The Era of Yunus Emre and Turkish Humanism", Yunus Emre: Spiritual Experience and Culture, Università Gregoriana, .  
  • Duiker, William J.; Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2012), World History, Cengage Learning, .  
  • Elsie, Robert (2010), Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, Scarecrow Press, .  
  • Eminov, Ali (1997), Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, .  
  • Ergener, Rashid; Ergener, Resit (2002), About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture, Pilgrims Process, .  
  • Evans, Thammy (2010), Macedonia, Bradt Travel Guides, .  
  • Farkas, Evelyn N. (2003), Fractured States and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, Ethiopia, and Bosnia in the 1990s, Palgrave Macmillan, .  
  • Faroqhi, Suraiya (2005), Subjects Of The Sultan: Culture And Daily Life In The Ottoman Empire, I.B.Tauris, .  
  • Findley, Carter V. (2005), The Turks in World History, Oxford University Press, .  
  • Fleet, Kate (1999), European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey, Cambridge University Press, .  
  • Friedman, Victor A. (2003), Turkish in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology and other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, .  
  • Friedman, Victor A. (2006), "Western Rumelian Turkish in Macedonia and adjacent areas", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Johanson, Lars, Turkic Languages in Contact, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, .  
  • Gogolin, Ingrid (2002), Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe: From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education (PDF), Council of Europe .
  • Göcek, Fatma Müge (2011), The Transformation of Turkey: Redefining State and Society from the Ottoman Empire to the Modern Era, I.B.Tauris, .  
  • Hatay, Mete (2007), Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking? (PDF), International Peace Research Institute, .  
  • Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2010), Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Cengage Learning, .  
  • Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir’in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış" (PDF), Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 32 (0): 1–12 
  • Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Mahley, Robert W. (2012), "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations", Annals of Human Genetics (Blackwell Publishing) 76 (2): 128–141,  
  • Home Affairs Committee (2011), Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union (PDF), The Stationery Office,  
  • Hopkins, Liza (2011), "A Contested Identity: Resisting the Category Muslim-Australian", Immigrants & Minorities (Routledge) 29 (1): 110–131,  .
  • Hüssein, Serkan (2007), Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia, Serkan Hussein, .  
  • İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin (2005), "Institutionalisation of Science in the Medreses of Pre-Ottoman and Ottoman Turkey", in Irzik, Gürol; Güzeldere, Güven, Turkish Studies in the History And Philosophy of Science, Springer, .  
  • Ilican, Murat Erdal (2011), "Cypriots, Turkish", in Cole, Jeffrey, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, .  
  • International Business Publications (2004), Turkey Foreign Policy And Government Guide, International Business Publications, .  
  • International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group 
  • International Crisis Group (2010). "Cyprus: Bridging the Property Divide". International Crisis Group. .
  • Jawhar, Raber Tal’at (2010), "The Iraqi Turkmen Front", in Catusse, Myriam; Karam, Karam (eds.), Returning to Political Parties?, The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, pp. 313–328, .  
  • Johanson, Lars (2001), Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map (PDF), Stockholm: Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul 
  • Johanson, Lars (2011), "Multilingual states and empires in the history of Europe: the Ottoman Empire", in Kortmann, Bernd; Van Der Auwera, Johan (eds), The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter,  
  • Kaplan, Robert D. (2002), "Who Are the Turks?", in Villers, James, Travelers' Tales Turkey: True Stories, Travelers' Tales, .  
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (2000), "Historical Continuity and Identity Change or How to be Modern Muslim, Ottoman, and Turk", in Karpat, Kemal H., Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL,  .
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL,  .
  • Kasaba, Reşat (2008), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, .  
  • Kasaba, Reşat (2009), A Moveable Empire: Ottoman Nomads, Migrants, and Refugees, University of Washington Press, .  
  • Kermeli, Eugenia (2010), "Byzantine Empire", in Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, .  
  • Khazanov, Anatoly Michailovich (1995), After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States, University of Wisconsin Press, .  
  • Kia, Mehrdad (2011), Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire, ABC-CLIO, .  
  • King Baudouin Foundation (2008), "Diaspora philanthropy – a growing trend", Turkish communities and the EU (PDF), King Baudouin Foundation .
  • Kirişci, Kemal (2006), "Migration and Turkey: the dynamics of state, society and politics", in Kasaba, Reşat (ed), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, .  
  • Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, .  
  • Köprülü, Mehmet Fuat (1992), The Origins of the Ottoman Empire, SUNY Press, .  
  • Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, .  
  • Kurbanov, Rafik Osman-Ogly; Kurbanov, Erjan Rafik-Ogly (1995), "Religion and Politics in the Caucasus", in Bourdeaux, Michael (ed), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M.E. Sharpe, .  
  • Kushner, David (1997). "Self-Perception and Identity in Contemporary Turkey". Journal of Contemporary History 32: 219–233. 
  • Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; von Koppenfels, Amanda Klekowski (2002), New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 187, .  
  • Leiser, Gary (2005), "Turks", in Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization, Routledge, .  
  • Leveau, Remy; Hunter, Shireen T. (2002), "Islam in France", in Hunter, Shireen, Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape, Greenwood Publishing Group, .  
  • Levine, Lynn A. (2010), Frommer's Turkey, John Wiley & Sons, .  
  • Minahan, James (2002), Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: L-R, Greenwood Publishing Group, .  
  • Meeker, M. E. (1971). "The Black Sea Turks: Some Aspects of Their Ethnic and Cultural Background". International Journal of Middle East Studies 2: 318–345.  
  • National Institute of Statistics (2002), Population by ethnic groups, regions, counties and areas (PDF), Romania – National Institute of Statistics 
  • Oçak, Ahmet Yaçar (2012), "Islam in Asia Minor", in El Hareir, Idris; M'Baye, Ravane, Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: Vol.3: The Spread of Islam Throughout the World, UNESCO, .  
  • Orhan, Oytun (2010), The Forgotten Turks: Turkmens of Lebanon (PDF), ORSAM .
  • OSCE (2010), "Community Profile: Kosovo Turks", Kosovo Communities Profile, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe .
  • Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, .  
  • Özkaya, Abdi Noyan (2007), "Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti’nin Politikaları" (PDF), Review of International Law and Politics 2 (8) .
  • Öztürkmen, Ali; Duman, Bilgay; Orhan, Oytun (2011), Suriye'de değişim ortaya çıkardığı toplum: Suriye Türkmenleri, ORSAM .
  • Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies 3 (1): 100–125,  
  • Park, Bill (2005), Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives, Taylor & Francis,  
  • Phillips, David L. (2006), Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco, Basic Books,  
  • Phinnemore, David (2006), The EU and Romania: Accession and Beyond, The Federal Trust for Education & Research, .  
  • Polian, Pavel (2004), Against Their will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR, Central European University Press, .  
  • Quataert, Donald (2000), The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922, Cambridge University Press, .  
  • Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office (2005), Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 (PDF), Republic of Macedonia – State Statistical Office 
  • Romanian National Institute of Statistics (2011), Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011 (PDF), Romania-National Institute of Statistics 
  • Ryazantsev, Sergey V. (2009), "Turkish Communities in the Russian Federation" (PDF), International Journal on Multicultural Societies 11 (2): 155–173 .
  • Saeed, Abdullah (2003), Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, .  
  • Saunders, John Joseph (1965), "The Turkish Irruption", A History of Medieval Islam, Routledge, .  
  • Scarce, Jennifer M. (2003), Women's Costume of the Near and Middle East, Routledge, .  
  • Seher, Cesur-Kılıçaslan; Terzioğlu, Günsel (2012), "Families Immigrating from Bulgaria to Turkey Since 1878", in Roth, Klaus; Hayden, Robert, Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe: Historical and Cultural Aspects, Volume 1, LIT Verlag Münster, .  
  • Shaw, Stanford J. (1976), History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Volume 1 , Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808, Cambridge University Press, .  
  • Somel, Selçuk Akşin (2003), Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, Scarecrow Press, .  
  • Sosyal, Levent (2011), "Turks", in Cole, Jeffrey, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, .  
  • Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2007), Iraq: People, History, Politics, Polity, .  
  • Stavrianos, Leften Stavros (2000), The Balkans Since 1453, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, .  
  • Stokes, Jamie; Gorman, Anthony (2010), "Turkic Peoples", Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Infobase Publishing, .  
  • Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps Books, .  
  • Stokes, Jamie; Gorman, Anthony (2010), "Turks: nationality", Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Infobase Publishing, .  
  • Tomlinson, Kathryn (2005), "Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia", in Crossley, James G.; Karner, Christian (eds.), Writing History, Constructing Religion, Ashgate Publishing, .  
  • Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008), Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
  • Twigg, Stephen; Schaefer, Sarah; Austin, Greg; Parker, Kate (2005), Turks in Europe: Why are we afraid? (PDF), The Foreign Policy Centre,  
  • UNHCR (1999), Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Azerbaijan (PDF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees .
  • UNHCR (1999), Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Georgia (PDF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees .
  • Whitman, Lois (1990), Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece, Human Rights Watch, .  
  • Wolf-Gazo, Ernest. (1996) "John Dewey in Turkey: An Educational Mission". Retrieved 6 March 2006.
  • Yardumian, Aram; Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks? A Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia (M.E. Sharpe) 50 (1): 6–42.  
  • Yiangou, Anastasia (2010), Cyprus in World War II: Politics and Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean, I.B.Tauris, .  
  • Zeytinoğlu, Güneş N.; Bonnabeau, Richard F.; Eşkinat, Rana (2012), "Ethnopolitical Conflict in Turkey: Turkish Armenians: From Nationalism to Diaspora", in Landis, Dan; Albert, Rosita D., Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives, Springer, .  


  1. ^ Milliyet. "55 milyon kişi 'etnik olarak' Türk". Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b CIA. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  3. ^ CIA. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 13 June 2015. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ [4] German Statistical Office-Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund
  6. ^ "Zensusdatenbank - Ergebnisse des Zensus 2011". Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Kötter et al. 2003, 55.
  8. ^ a b Haviland et al. 2010, 675.
  9. ^ Leveau & Hunter 2002, 6.
  10. ^ Fransa Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği. "2011 YILI DİTİB KADIN KOLLARI GENEL TOPLANTISI PARİS DİTİB’DE YAPILDI". Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Home Affairs Committee 2011, 38
  12. ^ "UK immigration analysis needed on Turkish legal migration, say MPs". The Guardian. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  13. ^ Federation of Turkish Associations UK (19 June 2008). "Short history of the Federation of Turkish Associations in UK". Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  14. ^ "Foreigners in thee Netherlands". 
  15. ^ Netherlands Info Services. "Dutch Queen Tells Turkey 'First Steps Taken' On EU Membership Road". Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  16. ^ Dutch News. "Dutch Turks swindled, AFM to investigate". Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  17. ^ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2008, 11.
  18. ^ "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010. 
  19. ^ CBN. "Turkey's Islamic Ambitions Grip Austria". Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  20. ^
  21. ^ King Baudouin Foundation 2008, 5.
  22. ^ De Morgen. "Koning Boudewijnstichting doorprikt clichés rond Belgische Turken". Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  23. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. "TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  24. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. "Immigration and Ethnicity: Turks". Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  25. ^ a b c The Washington Diplomat. "Census Takes Aim to Tally'Hard to Count' Populations". Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Farkas 2003, 40.
  27. ^ Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. "Turkiet är en viktig bro mellan Öst och Väst". Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  28. ^ Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. "Ankara Historia". Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  29. ^ Ständige ausländische Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, am Ende des Jahres Swiss Federal Statistical Office, accessed 6 October 2014
  30. ^ 2011 census
  31. ^ "Old foes, new friends". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 April 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2008. 
  32. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (2010). "Turkey-Australia: "From Çanakkale to a Great Friendship". Retrieved 14 July 2011. 
  33. ^ OECD (2009). "International Questionnaire: Migrant Education Policies in Response to Longstanding Diversity: TURKEY" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 3. 
  34. ^ Statistikbanken. "Danmarks Statistik". Retrieved 2015-06-13. 
  35. ^ a b "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census)". 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  36. ^
  37. ^ Council of Europe 2007, 131.
  38. ^ a b Turkish Embassy in Algeria 2008, 4.
  39. ^ a b Oxford Business Group 2008, 10.
  40. ^ a b Zaman. "Türk’ün Cezayir’deki lakabı: Hıyarunnas!". Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  41. ^ Park 2005, 37.
  42. ^ Phillips 2006, 112.
  43. ^ Taylor 2004, 28.
  44. ^ a b c d Akar 1993, 95.
  45. ^ Zaman. "Türk işadamları Tunus’ta yatırım imkanı aradı". Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  46. ^ Ertan, Fikret (1998), Tunus ve tarih, Zaman .
  47. ^ Phillips, David J. (1 January 2001). Peoples on the Move: Introducing the Nomads of the World. William Carey Library. p. 301.  
  48. ^ Özkaya 2007, 112.
  49. ^ International Strategic Research Organization, An Aspect that Gets Overlooked: The Turks of Syria and Turkey, retrieved 2 February 2013 .
  50. ^ "A unified Syria without Assad is what Turkmen are after", Today's Zaman, retrieved 2 February 2013 .
  51. ^ ORSAM Report No: 83, The Turkmens of Syria, Quoted from page 16 (in Turkish): "Değişik kaynaklar ve saha çalışmasında elde edilen verilerden yola çıkarak Suriye Türkmenlerinin toplam nüfusu 3,5 milyon civarındadır."
  52. ^ Karpat 2004, 12.
  53. ^ a b Baedeker 2000, lviii.
  54. ^ a b Akar 1993, 94.
  55. ^ a b Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition". Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  56. ^ "Tension adds to existing wounds in Lebanon". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  57. ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Population Census in the Republic of Bulgaria (Final data)" (PDF). National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. 
  58. ^ a b Sosyal 2011, 369.
  59. ^ Bokova 2010, 170.
  60. ^ a b "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  61. ^ a b c Whitman 1990, i.
  62. ^
  63. ^ a b Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office 2005, 34.
  64. ^ Knowlton 2005, 66.
  65. ^ a b Abrahams 1996, 53.
  66. ^ (Romanian) "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011", at the 2011 Romanian census site; accessed July 11, 2013
  67. ^ a b Phinnemore 2006, 157.
  68. ^ Constantin, Goschin & Dragusin 2008, 59.
  69. ^ a b 2011 census in the Republic of Kosovo
  70. ^ 2010 Russia census
  71. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 172.
  72. ^ Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. Этнодемографический сборник Республики Казахстан 2014.
  73. ^ a b c Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13.
  74. ^ Kyrgyz 2009 census
  75. ^ IRIN Asia. "KYRGYZSTAN: Focus on Mesketian Turks". Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  76. ^ Переписи населения Азербайджана 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009 годов
  77. ^ a b UNHCR 1999, 14.
  78. ^ a b NATO Parliamentary Assembly. "Minorities in the South Caucasus: Factor of Instability?". Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  79. ^ a b c "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life Survey" (PDF). Konda Arastirma. September 2007. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  80. ^ "IHGD - Soru Cevap - Azınlıklar". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  81. ^ "THE ALEVI OF ANATOLIA: TURKEY'S LARGEST MINORITY". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  82. ^ "Shi'a". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  83. ^ ReportDGResearchSocialValuesEN2.PDF
  84. ^ 35,000 Moslems convert into Christianity each year in Turkey.
  85. ^ a b "TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  86. ^ "BBC News - When Muslims become Christians". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  87. ^ Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı. "YURTDIŞINDAKİ VATANDAŞLARIMIZLA İLGİLİ SAYISAL BİLGİLER". Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^ a b c d e f Leiser 2005, 837.
  93. ^ Stokes & Gorman 2010, 707.
  94. ^ Findley 2005, 21.
  95. ^ "Turk, n.1". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. 2 November 2012
  96. ^ (Kushner 1997: 219; Meeker 1971: 322)
  97. ^ (Kushner 1997: 220–221)
  98. ^ (Meeker 1971: 322)
  99. ^ (Meeker 1971: 323)
  100. ^ "Turkish Citizenship Law" (PDF). 29 May 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  101. ^ "BDP won’t object to 'Turkishness' in constitution, says Türk". TODAY'S ZAMAN. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  102. ^ Stokes & Gorman 2010, 721.
  103. ^ Theo van den Hout (27 October 2011). The Elements of Hittite. Cambridge University Press. p. 1.  
  104. ^ Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press.  
  105. ^ Carlos Quiles, Fernando López-Menchero (5 October 2009). A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Second Edition: Language and Culture, Writing System and Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Texts and Dictionary. Indo-European Association. pp. 99–.  
  106. ^ Findley 2005, 39
  107. ^ Frederik Coene, The Caucasus-An Introduction, p.77 Taylor & Francis, 2009
  108. ^ Duiker & Spielvogel 2012, 192.
  109. ^ a b c d e f Darke 2011, 16.
  110. ^ Chaurasia 2005, 181.
  111. ^ Bainbridge 2009, 33.
  112. ^ Duiker & Spielvogel 2012, 193.
  113. ^ Ágoston 2010, 574.
  114. ^ Delibaşı 1994, 7.
  115. ^ International Business Publications 2004, 64
  116. ^ Somel 2003, 266.
  117. ^ a b c d e Ágoston 2010, xxv.
  118. ^ Kia 2011, 1.
  119. ^ Fleet 1999, 5.
  120. ^ Kia 2011, 2.
  121. ^ a b Köprülü 1992, 110.
  122. ^ a b Ágoston 2010, xxvi.
  123. ^ Fleet 1999, 6.
  124. ^ Eminov 1997, 27.
  125. ^ Kermeli 2010, 111.
  126. ^ Kia 2011, 5.
  127. ^ Quataert 2000, 21.
  128. ^ Kia 2011, 6.
  129. ^ Quataert 2000, 24.
  130. ^ Levine 2010, 28.
  131. ^ Karpat 2004, 5–6.
  132. ^ Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, ed. (2012). Century of Genocide. Routledge. pp. 118–124.  
  133. ^ Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish national movement : its origins and development (1. ed.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. p. 104.  
  134. ^ Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' crime against humanity: the Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 29.  
  135. ^ Bjornlund, Matthias (March 2008). "The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification". Journal of Genocide Research (Taylor & Francis) 10 (1): 41–57.  
  136. ^  
  137. ^  
  138. ^ J.M. Winter, ed. (2003). America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 60.  
  139. ^ The Turkish Straits. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  140. ^ Levine 2010, 29.
  141. ^ Göcek 2011, 22.
  142. ^ Göcek 2011, 23.
  143. ^ a b Çaǧaptay 2006, 82.
  144. ^ a b Bosma, Lucassen & Oostindie 2012, 17
  145. ^ Çaǧaptay 2006, 84.
  146. ^ a b Yardumian, Aram; Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks?". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 50: 6–42.  
  147. ^ a b Rosser, Z.; Zerjal, T.; Hurles, M.; Adojaan, M.; Alavantic, D.; Amorim, A.; Amos, W.; Armenteros, M.; Arroyo, E.; Barbujani, G.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Bertranpetit, J.; Bosch, E.; Bradley, D. G.; Brede, G.; Cooper, G.; Côrte-Real, H. B.; De Knijff, P.; Decorte, R.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Evgrafov, O.; Gilissen, A.; Glisic, S.; Gölge, M.; Hill, E. W.; Jeziorowska, A.; Kalaydjieva, L.; Kayser, M.; Kivisild, T. (2000). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language". The American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–1543.  [5]
  148. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Kivisild, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Cavalleri, G. L.; Lillie, A. S.; Roseman, C. C.; Lin, A. A.; Prince, K.; Oefner, P. J.; Shen, P.; Semino, O.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Underhill, P. A. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics 114 (2): 127–148.  [6]
  149. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Karin, M.; Bendikuze, N.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Moscoso, J.; Silvera, C.; Oguz, F. S.; Sarper Diler, A.; De Pacho, A.; Allende, L.; Guillen, J.; Martinez Laso, J. (2001). "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 308–317.  
  150. ^ a b Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.; Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Pitchappan, R.; Shanmugalakshmi, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Read, M.; Pearson, N. M.; Zerjal, T.; Webster, M. T.; Zholoshvili, I.; Jamarjashvili, E.; Gambarov, S.; Nikbin, B.; Dostiev, A.; Aknazarov, O.; Zalloua, P.; Tsoy, I.; Kitaev, M.; Mirrakhimov, M.; Chariev, A.; Bodmer, W. F. (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (18): 10244–10249.  
  151. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Martinez-Laso, J. (2002). "Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective". Tissue Antigens 60 (2): 111–121.  
  152. ^ Berkman, C. C.; Dinc, H.; Sekeryapan, C.; Togan, I. (2008). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136 (1): 11–18.  
  153. ^ Comas, D.; Schmid, H.; Braeuer, S.; Flaiz, C.; Busquets, A.; Calafell, F.; Bertranpetit, J.; Scheil, H. -G.; Huckenbeck, W.; Efremovska, L.; Schmidt, H. (2004). "Alu insertion polymorphisms in the Balkans and the origins of the Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (2): 120–127.  
  154. ^ Machulla, H. K. G.; Batnasan, D.; Steinborn, F.; Uyar, F. A.; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G.; Oguz, F. S.; Carin, M. N.; Dorak, M. T. (2003). "Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks". Tissue Antigens 61 (4): 292–299.  
  155. ^ Ottoni, C.; Ricaut, F. O. X.; Vanderheyden, N.; Brucato, N.; Waelkens, M.; Decorte, R. (2011). "Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia". European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (5): 571–576.  
  156. ^ Cansu ÇAMLIBEL (24 December 2009). "Turks, Armenians share similar genes, say scientists". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  157. ^ Hodoğlugil, U. U.; Mahley, R. W. (2012). "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations". Annals of Human Genetics 76 (2): 128–141.  
  158. ^
  159. ^
  160. ^
  161. ^
  162. ^
  163. ^ Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148, Springer-Verlag 2003
  164. ^ Cruciani, F.; La Fratta, R.; Torroni, A.; Underhill, P. A.; Scozzari, R. (2006). "Molecular dissection of the Y chromosome haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A posteriori evaluation of a microsatellite-network-based approach through six new biallelic markers". Human Mutation 27 (8): 831–2.  
  165. ^ Rafis Abazov (2009). Culture and Customs of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1071.  
  166. ^ Hatay 2007, 22.
  167. ^ a b Hatay 2007, 23.
  168. ^ "UNFICYP: United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus". United Nations. 
  169. ^ a b Aydıngün et al. 2006, 4
  170. ^ Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
  171. ^ Tomlinson 2005, 107.
  172. ^ a b Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
  173. ^ Cornell 2001, 183.
  174. ^ Federal Office of Statistics. "Population grouped according to ethnicity, by censuses 1961–1991". Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  175. ^ Sosyal 2011, 368.
  176. ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Census (Final data)". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. p. 4. 
  177. ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2001). "2001 Census". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. 
  178. ^ Sosyal 2011, 369
  179. ^ Novinite. "Scientists Raise Alarm over Apocalyptic Scenario for Bulgarian Ethnicity". Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  180. ^ Croatian Bureau of Statistics. "POPULATION BY ETHNICITY, BY TOWNS/MUNICIPALITIES, CENSUS 2001". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 
  181. ^ Zaman. "Altepe'den Hırvat Müslümanlara moral". Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  182. ^ a b Clogg 2002, 84.
  183. ^ Elsie 2010, 276.
  184. ^ Evans 2010, 11.
  185. ^ Evans 2010, 228.
  186. ^ Statistical Office of Montenegro. "Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, etnicity, religion and mother tongue, per municipalities" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  187. ^ "Turks in Montenegrin town not afraid to show identity anymore". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  188. ^ Brozba 2010, 48.
  189. ^ National Institute of Statistics 2011, 10
  190. ^ Sosyal 2011, 368
  191. ^ Constantin, Goschin & Dragusin 2008, 59
  192. ^ Ergener & Ergener 2002, 106.
  193. ^ Whitman 1990, 2.
  194. ^ Taylor 2004, 30.
  195. ^ a b Taylor 2004, 31.
  196. ^ Stansfield 2007, 70.
  197. ^ a b Jawhar 2010, 314.
  198. ^ International Crisis Group 2008, 16
  199. ^ Library of Congress, Iraq: Other Minorities, Library of Congress Country Studies, retrieved 24 November 2011 
  200. ^ Yeni Asya. "Osmanlı devlet geleneği yaşatılıyor". Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  201. ^ Orhan 2010, 8.
  202. ^ a b Orhan 2010, 13.
  203. ^ Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 6.
  204. ^ Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 7.
  205. ^ Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 8.
  206. ^ a b Hizmetli 1953, 10.
  207. ^ Pan 1949, 103.
  208. ^ Abadan-Unat 2011, 12.
  209. ^ Sosyal 2011, 367.
  210. ^ Akgündüz 2008, 61.
  211. ^ Kasaba 2008, 192.
  212. ^ Twigg et al. 2005, 33
  213. ^ Karpat 2004, 627.
  214. ^ Hüssein 2007, 17
  215. ^ Cleland 2001, 24
  216. ^ Hüssein 2007, 19
  217. ^ a b Hüssein 2007, 196
  218. ^ a b c Hopkins 2011, 116
  219. ^ a b Saeed 2003, 9
  220. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex Australia". Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  221. ^ TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Briefing Notes on the Cyprus Issue". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  222. ^ Kibris Gazetesi. "Avustralya'daki Kıbrıslı Türkler ve Temsilcilik...". Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  223. ^ BRT. "AVUSTURALYA’DA KIBRS TÜRKÜNÜN SESİ". Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  224. ^ Star Kıbrıs. "Sözünüzü Tutun". Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  225. ^ "Old foes, new friends". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 April 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2008. 
  226. ^ "Avustralyalı Türkler'den, TRT Türk'e tepki". Milliyet. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  227. ^ Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2006). "Community Information Summary:Bulgaria" (PDF). Australian Government. p. 2. 
  228. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2006 Census Ethnic Media Package". Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  229. ^ Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2006). "Community Information Summary:Iraq" (PDF). Australian Government. p. 1. 
  230. ^ a b c d e f UNHCR 1999b, 20.
  231. ^ UNHCR 1999b, 21.
  232. ^ Aydıngün et al. 2006, 1
  233. ^ a b The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. "Population by ethnic groups". Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  234. ^ UNHCR 1999a, 14.
  235. ^ Necipoğlu, Gülru (1995). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 12. Leiden : E.J. Brill. p. 60.  
  236. ^ Grabar, Oleg (1985). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 3. Leiden : E.J. Brill,.  
  237. ^ Ibrahim Kaya (2004). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. pp. 57–58.  
  238. ^ "Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize". BBC. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 12 December 2006. 
  239. ^ a b Martin Dunford; Terry Richardson (3 June 2013). The Rough Guide to Turkey. Rough Guides. pp. 647–.  
  240. ^ Johanson 2011, 734–738.
  241. ^ a b Johanson 2011, 738.
  242. ^ Lester 1997; Wolf-Gazo 1996
  243. ^ George L. Campbell (1 September 2003). Concise Compendium of the World's Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 547–.  
  244. ^ Johanson 2001, 16.
  245. ^ Brendemoen 2002, 27.
  246. ^ Brendemoen 2006, 227.
  247. ^ Friedman 2003, 51.
  248. ^ Johanson 2011, 739.
  249. ^ a b Aydıngün et al. 2006, 23
  250. ^ "CIA World Factbook".  
  251. ^ Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK).  
  252. ^ Pieter H. Omtzigt; Markus K. Tozman; Andrea Tyndall (2012). The Slow Disappearance of the Syriacs from Turkey: And of the Grounds of the Mor Gabriel Monastery. LIT Verlag Münster.  
  253. ^ Religious Freedom Report U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
  254. ^ Judith R. Baskin; Kenneth Seeskin (2010). The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–.  
  255. ^ "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom - The Christian Century". The Christian Century. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  256. ^ Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  257. ^ "TURKEY: Protestant church closed down - Church In Chains - Ireland :: An Irish voice for suffering, persecuted Christians Worldwide". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  258. ^ KONDA (2007). "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life Survey" (PDF). Konda Arastirma. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  259. ^ Ahmet T. Kuru; Alfred C. Stepan (2012). Democracy, Islam, and secularism in Turkey. Columbia University Press.  
  260. ^ "More secular, green Turkey wanted: Poll". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  261. ^ Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
  262. ^ Laschet, Armin (17 September 2011). "İngiltere'deki Türkler". Hürriyet Daily News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  263. ^ Akben, Gözde (11 February 2010). "Olmalı mı Olmamalı mı?". Star Kıbrıs. Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  264. ^ Cemal, Akay (2 June 2011). "Dıştaki gençlerin askerlik sorunu çözülmedikçe…". Kıbrıs Gazetesi. Archived from the original on 1 August 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  265. ^ The Sophia Echo. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in The Netherlands". Retrieved 26 July 2009. 
  266. ^ Hatay 2007, 40.
  267. ^ MigrantsInGreece. "Data on immigrants in Greece, from Census 2001, Legalization applications 1998, and valid Residence Permits, 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  268. ^ Агентство РК по статистике. "ПЕРЕПИСЬ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН 2009 ГОДА" (PDF). p. 10. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  269. ^ National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. "Population and Housing Census 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  270. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации". Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  271. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  272. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  273. ^ Aydıngün et al. 2006, 1.
  274. ^ Khazanov 1995, 202.
  275. ^ Babak, Vaisman & Wasserman 2004, 253.
  276. ^ Helton, Arthur C. (1998). "Meskhetian Turks: Solutions and Human Security". Open Society Institute. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  277. ^ Laczko, Stacher & von Koppenfels 2002, 187.
  278. ^ Steven A. Glazer (2011-03-22). "Turkey: Country Studies". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  279. ^ L. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza; Paolo, Menozzi; Alberto, Piazza (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press. pp. 243, 299.  

^ a: According to the Home Affairs Committee this includes 300,000 Turkish Cypriots.[261] However, some estimates suggest that the Turkish Cypriot community in the UK has reached between 350,000[262] to 400,000.[263][264]
^ b: Includes people of mixed ethnic background.
^ c: A further 10,000–30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority are Bulgarian Turks and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.[265]
^ d: This includes Turkish settlers. 2,000 of these Turkish Cypriots currently reside in the southern part of the island, the rest on the northern.[266]
^ e: This figure only includes Turkish citizens. Therefore, this also includes ethnic minorities from Turkey; however, it does not include ethnic Turks who have either been born and/or have become naturalised citizens. Furthermore, these figures do not include ethnic Turkish minorities from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania or any other traditional area of Turkish settlement because they are registered as citizens from the country they have immigrated from rather than their ethnic Turkish identity.
^ f: In addition to Turkish citizens, this figure includes people with ancestral background related to Turkey, so it includes ethnic minorities of Turkey.
^ g: This figure only includes Turks of Western Thrace. A further 5,000 live in the Rhodes and Kos.[182] In addition to this, 8,297 immigrants live in Greece.[267]
^ h: These figures only include the Meskhetian Turks. According to official census's there were 38,000 Turks in Azerbaijan (2009),[233] 97,015 in Kazakhstan (2009),[268] 39,133 in Kyrgyzstan (2009),[269] 109,883 in Russia (2010),[270] and 9,180 in Ukraine (2001).[271] A further 106,302 Turks were recorded in Uzbekistan's last census in 1989[272] although the majority left for Azerbaijan and Russia during the 1989 pogroms in the Ferghana Valley. Official data regarding the Turks in the former Soviet Union is unlikely to provide a true indication of their population as many have been registered as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek".[273] In Kazakhstan only a third of them were recorded as Turks, the rest had been arbitrarily declared members of other ethnic groups.[274][275] Similarly, in Azerbaijan, much of the community is officially registered as "Azerbaijani"[276] even though the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported, in 1999, that 100,000 Meskhetian Turks were living there.[77]
^ i: A further 30,000 Bulgarian Turks live in Sweden.[277]
^ j: "The history of Turkey encompasses, first, the history of Anatolia before the coming of the Turks and of the civilizations—Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine—of which the Turkish nation is the heir by assimilation or example. Second, it includes the history of the Turkish peoples, including the Seljuks, who brought Islam and the Turkish language to Anatolia. Third, it is the history of the Ottoman Empire, a vast, cosmopolitan, pan-Islamic state that developed from a small Turkish amirate in Anatolia and that for centuries was a world power."[278]
^ k: The Turks are also defined by the country of origin. Turkey, once Asia Minor or Anatolia, has a very long and complex history. It was one of the major regions of agricultural development in the early Neolithic and may have been the place of origin and spread of lndo-European languages at that time. The Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly lndo-European-speaking population (Greek being the official language of the Byzantine empire), and genetically there is very little difference between Turkey and the neighboring countries. The number of Turkish invaders was probably rather small and was genetically diluted by the large number of aborigines."
"The consideration of demographic quantities suggests that the present genetic picture of the aboriginal world is determined largely by the history of Paleolithic and Neolithic people, when the greatest relative changes in population numbers took place."[279]

References and notes

See also

According to KONDA research, only 9.7% of the population described themselves as "fully devout," while 52.8% described themselves as "religious."[258] 69.4% of the respondents reported that they or their wives cover their heads (1.3% reporting chador), although this rate decreases in several demographics: 53% in ages 18–28, 27.5% in university graduates, 16.1% in masters-or-higher-degree holders.[79] Turkey has also been a secular state since Ataturk.[259] According to a poll, 90% of respondents said the country should be defined as secular in the new Constitution that is being written.[260]

According to the CIA factbook, 99.8% of the population in Turkey is Muslim, most of them being Sunni. The remaining 0.2% is mostly Christian and Jewish.[250] There are also some estimated 10 to 15 million Alevi Muslims in Turkey.[251] Christians in Turkey include Assyrians/Syriacs,[252] Armenians, and Greeks.[253] Jewish people in Turkey include those that descend from Sephardic Jews who escaped Spain in 15th century and Greek-speaking Jews from Byzantine times.[254] There is an ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community most of them came from recent Muslim Turkish backgrounds, rather than from ethnic minorities.[85][255][256][257]

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is an example of the most common form of a Turkish mosque with a central dome and cascading semi-and quarter-domes and minarets.


There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Russian, and Uzbek), which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian and Soviet rule.[249]

One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic alphabet based Ottoman script. Over time, this change, together with changes in Turkey's system of education, would lead to more widespread literacy in the country.[242] Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul.[243] Nonetheless, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s.[244] The terms ağız or şive often refer to the different types of Turkish dialects.

The Turkish language also known as Istanbul Turkish is a southern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey, Balkans, the island of Cyprus, Meskhetia, and other areas of traditional settlement that formerly, in whole or part, belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Turkish is the official language of Turkey. In the Balkans, Turkish is still spoken by Turkish minorities who still live there, especially in Bulgaria, Greece (mainly in Western Thrace), Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania (mainly in Gagauzia).[240] The Turkish language was introduced to Cyprus with the Ottoman conquest in 1571 and became the politically dominant, prestigious language, of the administration.[241]

Atatürk introducing the Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. 20 September 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)


Traditional Turkish music include Arabesk, Turkish folk music (Halk Müziği), Fasıl, and Ottoman classical music (sanat music) that originates from the Ottoman court.[239] Contemporary Turkish music include Turkish pop music, rock, and Turkish hip hop genres.[239]

As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.[237] The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[238]

Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period. Ottoman architecture, influenced by Seljuk, Byzantine and Islamic architecture, came to develop a style all of its own.[235] Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as a synthesis of the architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.[236]

An example of Turkish classical music.

Problems playing this file? See .
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.

Arts and Architecture


The Turkish people traditionally lived in the Meskhetian Turks from their homeland in 1944, during the Second World War, the majority settled in Central Asia.[230] According to the 1989 Soviet Census, which was the last Soviet Census, 106,000 Meskhetian Turks lived in Uzbekistan, 50,000 in Kazakhstan, and 21,000 in Kyrgyzstan.[230] However, in 1989, the Meshetian Turks who had settled in Uzbekistan became the target of a pogrom in the Fergana valley, which was the principal destination for Meskhetian Turkish deportees, after an uprising of nationalism by the Uzbeks.[230] The riots had left hundreds of Turks dead or injured and nearly 1,000 properties were destroyed; thus, thousands of Meskhetian Turks were forced into renewed exile.[230] The majority of Meskhetian Turks, about 70,000, went to Azerbaijan, whilst the remainder went to various regions of Russia (especially Krasnodar Krai), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine.[230][231] Soviet authorities recorded many Meskhetian Turks as belonging to other nationalities such as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek".[230][232] Hence, official census's have not shown a true reflection of the Turkish population; for example, according to the 2009 Azerbaijani census, there were 38,000 Turks living in the country;[233] yet in 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees stated that there were 100,000 Meskhetian Turks living in the country.[234] Furthermore, in 2001, the Baku Institute of Peace and Democracy suggested that there was between 90,000 to 110,000 Meskhetian Turks living in Azerbaijan.[78]

Former Soviet Union

A notable scale of Turkish migration to Australia began in the late 1940s when Turkish Cypriots began to leave the island of Cyprus for economic reasons, and then, during the Cyprus conflict, for political reasons, marking the beginning of a Turkish Cypriot immigration trend to Australia.[214] The Turkish Cypriot community were the only Muslims acceptable under the White Australia Policy;[215] many of these early immigrants found jobs working in factories, out in the fields, or building national infrastructure.[216] In 1967, the governments of Australia and Turkey signed an agreement to allow Turkish citizens to immigrate to Australia.[217] Prior to this recruitment agreement, there were less than 3,000 people of Turkish origin in Australia.[218] According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, nearly 19,000 Turkish immigrants arrived from 1968–1974.[217] They came largely from rural areas of Turkey, approximately 30% were skilled and 70% were unskilled workers.[219] However, this changed in the 1980s when the number of skilled Turks applying to enter Australia had increased considerably.[219] Over the next 35 years the Turkish population rose to almost 100,000.[218] More than half of the Turkish community settled in Victoria, mostly in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne.[218] According to the 2006 Australian Census, 59,402 people claimed Turkish ancestry;[220] however, this does not show a true reflection of the Turkish Australian community as it is estimated that between 40,000 to 120,000 Turkish Cypriots[221][222][223][224] and 150,000 to 200,000 mainland Turks[225][226] live in Australia. Furthermore, there has also been ethnic Turks who have migrated to Australia from Bulgaria,[227] Greece,[228] Iraq,[229] and the Republic of Macedonia.[228]


Compared to Turkish immigration to Europe, migration to Turkish, "Say" means "to count" and "to respect") to identify the estimated 500,000 Turks now living in the United States.[25]

North America

Current estimates suggests that there is approximately 9 million Turks living in Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967.[210][211][212] More recently, Bulgarian Turks, Romanian Turks, and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.

After World War II, West Germany began to experience its greatest economic boom ("Wirtschaftswunder") and in 1961 invited the Turks as guest workers ("Gastarbeiter") to make up for the shortage of workers. The concept of the Gastarbeiter continued with Turkey bearing agreements with Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 1964, with France in 1965; and with Sweden in 1967.[208]

The Turks in Germany number about 4 million,[7][8] which constitutes the largest Turkish community in Western Europe, as well as the largest within the Turkish diaspora.

Western Europe

Modern diaspora

Region settlement Year of Turkish settlement Name of Turkish community Current status
Algeria 1517 Algerian Turks Estimates on the Algerian Turkish community vary significantly, according to the Turkish Embassy in Algeria there is between 600,000 to 2 million people of Turkish origin living in Algeria.[38] The Oxford Business Group has suggested that people of Turkish descent make up 5% of Algeria's total population, accounting to about 1.7 million.[39] However, other estimates state that the Turkish community make up 10–25% of Algeria's population, if the Turkish-Algerian creole population known as the Kouloughlis are included.[40][206]
Egypt 1517 Egyptian Turks About 100,000[53] Turks are still living in Egypt are often called "Egyptian Turkmens" or "Egyptian Turks" because various Turkic migrations to Egypt began as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants, about 1.5 million, have assimilated into the Arab population.[54]
Libya 1551 Libyan Turks In 1936 there were 35,000 Turks living in Libya, forming about 5% of the total population at the time.[207]
Tunisia 1574 Tunisian Turks As much as 25% of Tunisia's population are of Turkish origin.[206]

North Africa

Region of settlement Year of Turkish settlement Name of Turkish community Current status
Iraq 1534 Iraqi Turks The Turks of Iraq are often called "Iraqi Turkmens" or "Iraqi Turcomans" because there have been various Turkic migrations to Iraq, from as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants of these first migrants are assimilated into the local Arab population.[194] Once Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Iraq in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region.[195][196][197] Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[198][199][195][197]
Jordan 1516 Jordanian Turks There exists a small minority of about 5,000 people in the country who are the descendants of the Ottoman-Turkish colonisers.[200]
Lebanon 1516 Lebanese Turks The Turkish community in Lebanon currently numbers about 80,000.[55] Turks were brought into the region along with Sultan Selim I’s army during his campaign to Egypt. The descendants of these early Ottoman Turkish settlors mainly live in Akkar and Baalbeck.[201] Late Ottoman-Turkish migration continued when the Ottoman Empire lost its dominion over the island of Crete, in modern-day Greece.[202] After 1897, when the Ottomans lost control of the island, the Ottoman Empire sent ships to protect the island’s Cretan Turks, most settled in Izmir and Mersin, but some of them were also sent to Tripoli, Lebanon.[202]
Syria 1516 Syrian Turks The Turks of Syria are often called "Syrian Turkmens" or "Syrian Turcomans" because various Turkic migrations to Syria began as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants of these first migrants are assimilated into the local Arab population. In 1516 Sultan Selim I conquered Syria and the region was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918.[203] Hence, during the 402 years of Ottoman-Turkish rule, Turks migrated from Anatolia to Syria for centuries, establishing themselves as a significant community.[204] Today, there are about 1.5 million Turks living in Syria who still speak Turkish, although about a further 2 million are believed assimilated within the Arab population.[205]


Region of settlement Year of Turkish settlement Name of Turkish community Current status
Albania Albanian Turks The 2011 Albannian census recorded 714 people speaking Turkish as mother tongue.
Bosnia 1463 Bosnian Turks The 1991 Bosnian census showed that there was a minority of 267 Turks.[174] However current estimates suggest that there are actually 50,000 Turks living in the country.[175]
Bulgaria 1396 Bulgarian Turks In the 2011 Bulgarian census, which did not receive a response regarding ethnicity by the total population, 588,318 people, or 8.8% of the self-appointed, determined their ethnicity as Turkish;[176] while the latest census of the entire population—the 2001 census—recorded 746,664 Turks, or 9.4% of the population.[177] Other estimates suggests that there are 750,000[178] to up to around 1 million Turks in the country.[179]
Croatia Croatian Turks According to the 2001 Croatian census the Turkish minority numbered 300.[180] More recent estimates have suggested that there are 2,000 Turks in Croatia.[181]
Dodecanese 1523 Dodecanese Turks Some 5,000 Turks live in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos.[182]
Kosovo 1389 Kosovan Turks[183] There are 18,000 Turks in Kosovo, representing around 1% of the population.[69]
Republic of Macedonia 1392 Macedonian Turks[184] The 2002 Macedonian census states that there were 77,959 Macedonian Turks, forming about 4% of the total population and constituting a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica.[63] However, academic estimates suggest that they actually number between 170,000–200,000.[58][65] Furthermore, about 200,000 Macedonian Turks have migrated to Turkey during World War I and World War II due to persecutions and discrimination[185]
Montenegro 1496 Montenegrin Turks There were 104 Montenegrin Turks according to the 2011 census.[186] The majority left their homes and migrated to Turkey in the 1900s.[187]
Dobruja 1388 Romanian Turks[188] There were 27,700 Romanian Turks living in the country according to the 2011 Romanian census.[189] However, academic estimates suggest that the community numbers between 55,000[190][67] and 80,000.[191]
Serbia Serbian Turks The 2002 Serbian census does not include Kosovo and it recorded 522 Turks.
Western Thrace 1354 Western Thrace Turks The Greek government refers to the community as "Greek Muslims" or "Hellenic Muslims" and denies the existence of a Turkish minority in Western Thrace, the easternmost poart of Northern Greece.[61] Population estimates around 1990 were about 80,000–130,000,[61] while there are more recent estimates giving both lower and higher numbers for the total Muslim minority.[60][192] Between 300,000 to 400,000 have emigrated to Turkey since 1923.[193]


[172] The


The Turkish Cypriots are the ethnic Turks whose Ottoman Turkish forbears colonised the island of Cyprus in 1571. About 30,000 Turkish soldiers were given land once they settled in Cyprus, which bequeathed a significant Turkish community. In 1960, a census by the new Republic's government revealed that the Turkish Cypriots formed 18.2% of the island's population.[166] However, once inter-communal fighting and ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974 occurred between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots, known as the "Cyprus conflict", the Greek Cypriot government conducted a census in 1973, albeit without the Turkish Cypriot populace. A year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government’s Department of Statistics and Research estimated the Turkish Cypriot population was 118,000 (or 18.4%).[167] A coup d'état in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greeks and Greek Cypriots favouring union with Greece (also known as "Enosis") was followed by military intervention by Turkey whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island.[168] Hence, census's conducted by the Republic of Cyprus have excluded the Turkish Cypriot population that had settled in the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.[167] Between 1975 and 1981, Turkey encouraged its own citizens to settle in Northern Cyprus; a report by CIA suggests that 200,000 of the residents of Cyprus are Turkish.


Ethnic Turks make up between 70% to 75% of Turkey's population.[2]

In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuks began penetrating into the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting Turkification of the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Anatolia and gradually spread over the region. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.[165]


Traditional areas of Turkish settlement

Distribution of Turks in Turkey (majority - green)

Geographic distribution

  • J2=24% – J2 (M172)[148] Typical of west Mediterranean populations
  • R1b=14.7%[148] Widespread in western Eurasia, with distinct 'west Asian' and 'west European' lineages.
  • G=10.9%[148] – Typical of people from the Caucasus and to a lesser extent the Middle East, southern parts of Central Asia, and Europe.
  • E3b-M35=10.7%[148] (E3b1-M78 and E3b3-M123 accounting for all E representatives in the sample, besides a single E3b2-M81 chromosome). E-M78 occurs commonly, and is found in northern and eastern Africa, western Asia[164] Haplogroup E-M123 is found in both Africa and Eurasia.
  • J1=9%[148] – Typical amongst people from the Arabian Peninsula and Dagestan (ranging from 3% from Turks around Konya to 12% in Kurds).
  • R1a=6.9%[148] – Common in various Central Asian, North Indian, and Eastern European populations.
  • I=5.3%[148] – Common in Scandinavia, Sardinia, the Balkans, eastern Europe and among Kurds.
  • K=4.5%[148] – Typical of Asian populations and Caucasian populations.
  • L=4.2%[148] – Typical of Indian Subcontinent and Khorasan populations. Found sporadically in the Middle East and the Caucasus.
  • N=3.8%[148] – Typical of Uralic, Siberian and Altaic populations.
  • T=2.5%[148] – Typical of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, Northeast African and South Asian populations
  • Q=1.9%[148] – Typical of Northern Altaic populations.

Some of the percentages identified were:[148]

According to Cinnioglu et al., (2004)[163] there are many Y-DNA haplogroups present in Turkey. The majority haplogroups are shared with their "West Asian" and "Caucasian' neighbours. By contrast, "Central Asian" haplogroups are rarer, N and Q)- 5.7% (but it rises to 36% if K, R1a, R1b and L- which infrequently occur in Central Asia, but are notable in many other Western Turkic groups), India H, R2 – 1.5% and Africa A, E3*, E3a – 1%.

Y-DNA haplogroup distributions in Turkish people

Y chromosome Haplogroup distribution of Turkish people.[148]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.