World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Türkmenabat

 

Türkmenabat

Türkmenabat
Charjew, Chardzhou
Türkmenabat is located in Turkmenistan
Türkmenabat
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates:
Country Turkmenistan
Province Lebap Province
Elevation 187 m (614 ft)
Population (2009 census)[1]
 • Total 253,000

Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Turkmen: Түркменабат, Persian: ترکمن آباد), formerly and since medieval times, Chardzhou (Russian: Чарджоу, Turkmen: Чәрҗев), also spelled Çärjew, Chardjui, Charjou, Chardzhev, Charjev, Chärjew, or Charjew (Persian: چهارجوی for 'four canals'), ancient Amul, is a city in Turkmenistan, capital of Lebap Province. As of 2009, it had a population of approximately 254,000 people (up from 161,000 in the 1989 census).

Contents

  • Geography 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
  • Climate 4
  • Demographics 5
  • Transport 6
  • Culture 7
  • Education 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Geography

Türkmenabat is located at an altitude of 187 meters on the banks of the Amu-Darya River, near the border with Uzbekistan. Türkmenabat is at the center of Lebap province, which has borders with three provinces in Turkmenistan: Mary, Ahal and Daşoguz. The province also borders with Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.

History

Although now a modern industrial city, Türkmenabat has a history of over 2,000 years. In ancient times, it was known as Āmul (to be distinguished from the Iranian city of Amol). The river Amu Darya is said to mean River of Āmul, named after this ancient city. Türkmenabat was the hub in an intersection between 3 paths of the Great Silk Way leading to Bukhara, Khiva and Merv. . Āmul was for centuries an important town of the relatively backward Uzbek feudal khanate (later emirate) of Bukhara.

When the Russian Empire invaded all of Central Asian Turkestan, Āmul became the city controlling the Bukhara emirate, a vassal of Russia which pledged allegiance to the Russian emperor. The modern city was founded in 1886, when Cossack Russians settled in what is now Türkmenabat, naming their settlement New-Chardjuy. The settlement here was necessary to complete the construction of the Trans-Caspian railway.

After the revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks came into power in Russia, communists merged former khanates into republics on the basis of nationality. Thus, Türkmenabat (known as Chardjuy at those times) was passed to the newly created Turkmen Soviet Socialistic Republic in order to reduce the territory and strength of a highly nationalistic Uzbekistan.

Its role as a railway junction, and the high fertility of the Amu-Darya region, made it the major trade center for agricultural products in the northeast region of the country. The city has food processing, textile (cotton processing and silk) factories. Chardzhou was Turkmenistan's industrial and transport hub during the Soviet period, but most of these related jobs and transport opportunities have been relocated to Ashgabat or closed since Turkmenistan's independence.

Geography

Some 70 kilometres (43 miles) south of Türkmenabat in the East Karakum Desert is the Repetek Nature Reserve, famed for its zemzen, or desert crocodiles.

Climate

Türkmenabat has a cool desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk), with cool winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months.

Climate data for Türkmenabat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
28.4
(83.1)
33.9
(93)
40.3
(104.5)
42.2
(108)
44.0
(111.2)
44.9
(112.8)
43.0
(109.4)
40.4
(104.7)
35.6
(96.1)
31.3
(88.3)
25.7
(78.3)
44.9
(112.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
10.0
(50)
16.0
(60.8)
24.4
(75.9)
30.4
(86.7)
34.8
(94.6)
36.4
(97.5)
34.5
(94.1)
29.7
(85.5)
22.6
(72.7)
15.0
(59)
8.3
(46.9)
22.41
(72.33)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
3.7
(38.7)
9.2
(48.6)
17.1
(62.8)
23.3
(73.9)
27.6
(81.7)
29.3
(84.7)
26.9
(80.4)
21.2
(70.2)
13.9
(57)
7.6
(45.7)
2.7
(36.9)
15.29
(59.53)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.1
(30)
3.6
(38.5)
10.4
(50.7)
15.7
(60.3)
19.5
(67.1)
21.4
(70.5)
19.0
(66.2)
13.1
(55.6)
6.6
(43.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
8.73
(47.73)
Record low °C (°F) −23.8
(−10.8)
−22.2
(−8)
−16.3
(2.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.8
(33.4)
9.4
(48.9)
11.2
(52.2)
9.1
(48.4)
2.8
(37)
−9.5
(14.9)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−23.8
(−10.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.75)
17.4
(0.685)
26.7
(1.051)
22.4
(0.882)
10.4
(0.409)
1.5
(0.059)
1.0
(0.039)
0.1
(0.004)
0.5
(0.02)
4.6
(0.181)
9.8
(0.386)
16.1
(0.634)
129.5
(5.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.3 5.8 5.6 4.7 2.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.5 5.2 6.3 38.6
Average relative humidity (%) 76.9 69.6 59.4 51.4 43.1 36.0 37.4 38.1 43.3 54.4 69.3 77.2 54.68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 153.2 197.6 242.1 330.3 384.5 395.3 379.1 322.7 267.7 193.7 132.0 3,130
Source #1: climatebase.ru[2]
Source #2: NOAA (1961-1990)[3]

Demographics

Türkmenabat is unusual in Turkmenistan because it has population which speaks its own dialect. This regional dialect mostly consist of Turkmen language, Uzbek language and Persian language,which has heavily influenced the area's culture and customs.This dialect mostly spoken in Turkmenabat and Northern provinces of Lebap.

Transport

Türkmenabat is connected with the Turkmen capital Ashgabat and Turkmen port city Türkmenbaşy by Turkmenistan Airlines and the M37 highway. Türkmenabat is also connected by train to every province in Turkmenistan.

Culture

Tasinlikler meydanchasy is a park where people celebrate national holidays. Türkmenabat also well known for its bazaars. The largest bazaar is "World bazaar" which is known by the name Dunya bazar. Other well-known bazaars are Gok bazar and Merkezi bazar. People from all around the country come to Türkmenabat in order to purchase local, Chinese, Turkish, Uzbek and Russian goods. Dunya bazar has many sections, including those for jewelry, home appliances, clothes, diary, cars, and other items.

One of the most attractive places in Türkmenabat is Zaton, is an artificial beach, located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the center of the city. During the whole summer youth gather at 'Zaton' for relaxation and enjoyment.

The youth in Türkmenabat lack many normal opportunities of having fun and enjoying their spare time. They spend their spare time mainly in clubs and pubs, but they do not have any place to meet the world culture. Despite being a city with over 200,000 people, it lacks entertainment facilities such as cinema, a modern theatre, a zoo, or a theme park with newest attractions for children and youth. The only two ex-cinemas have been rented to entrepreneurs and became wed-centers, the place where the wedding ceremonies are being made. The cultural and historical knowledge of the modern youth that don't have the opportunity to study abroad is poor. The city doesn't have modern libraries. The only internet cafes are held by the state, which controls the internet traffic.

Education

Türkmenabat has one state-owned University specializing in teacher training (known in Turkmen as: Seýitnazar Seýdi adyndaky Türkmen Döwlet Mugallymçylyk Instituty'), a medical college, carrier schools, public schools, and specialised arts and sports schools. Until recently, there was a Tutkmenabat Turkmen-Turkish High School which was part of the countrywide network of Turkmen-Turkish schools, and one of the leading schools in the city. It followed a national educational curriculum, where students have a good opportunity to learn English as well as Turkish and Russian languages. Students of this school have attended international Olympiads and gained many medals in different branches of Science and Technology. Students of Turkmen-Turkish Schools are honored as 'Pride of Nation'. As a result of recent changes in education policy, Turkmen-Turkish school in Türkmenabat was turned into a specialised boarding school.

References

  1. ^ Population census 1989, Demoscope Weekly, No. 359-360, 1–18 January 2009 (search for Туркменская ССР) (Russian)
  2. ^ "Chardzhou, Turkmenistan". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Climate Normals for Charjew".  

External links

  • MSN Map - elevation = 187m

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.