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Title: Psychrophile  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Extremophile, Endolith, Thermophile, Hyperthermophile, Watermelon snow
Collection: Cryobiology, Microbial Growth and Nutrition, Psychrophiles
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. cryophilic) are [1] They can be contrasted with thermophiles, which thrive at unusually hot temperatures. In addition to that, distinctions between mesophilic and psychrophilic cold-shock response, including lack of repression of house-keeping protein synthesis and the presence of cold-acclimation proteins (Caps) in pyschrophiles, does exist.[2] The environments they inhabit are ubiquitous on Earth, as a large fraction of our planetary surface experiences temperatures lower than 15 °C. They are present in alpine and arctic soils, high-latitude and deep ocean waters, polar ice, glaciers, and snowfields. They are of particular interest to astrobiology, the field dedicated to the formulation of theory about the possibility of extraterrestrial life, and to geomicrobiology, the study of microbes active in geochemical processes. In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000-litre biogas digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 litres of methane per day, about 20–30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates.[3]

Psychrophiles use a wide variety of [1] Psychrophiles are characterized by lipid cell membranes chemically resistant to the stiffening caused by extreme cold, and often create protein 'antifreezes' to keep their internal space liquid and protect their DNA even in temperatures below water's freezing point. A commonly accepted hypothesis for this cold adaptation is the activity-stability-flexibility relationship, suggesting that psychrophilic enzymes increase the flexibility of their structure to compensate for the 'freezing effect' of cold habitats.[2]

Examples are Arthrobacter sp., Psychrobacter sp. and members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Hyphomonas, and Sphingomonas. Another example is the Chryseobacterium greenlandensis, a psychrophile that was found in 120,000 years old ice.


  • Psychrophiles vs. Psychrotrophs 1
  • Further reading 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Psychrophiles vs. Psychrotrophs

In 1940, ZoBell and Conn stated that they have never encountered “true psychrophiles” or organisms that grow best at relatively low temperatures.[5] In 1958, J. L. Ingraham supported this by concluding that there are very few or possibly no bacteria that fit the textbook definitions of psychrophiles. Richard Y. Morita emphasizes this by using the term “psychrotrophic” to describe organisms that do not meet the definition of psychrophiles. The confusion between the terms Psychrotrophs and psychrophiles was started because investigators were unaware of the thermolability of psychrophilic organisms at the laboratory temperatures. Due to this, early investigators did not determine the cardinal temperatures for their isolates.[6] The similarity between these two is that they are both capable of growing at zero, but optimum and upper temperature limits for the growth are lower for psychrophiles compared to psychrotrophs.[7] Psychrophiles are also more often isolated from permanently cold habitats compared to psychrotrophs. Although Psychrophilic enzymes remain under-used because the cost of production and processing at low temperatures is higher than for the commercial enzymes that are presently in use, the attention and resurgence of research interest in psychrophiles and psychrotrophs will be a contributor to the betterment of the environment and the desire to conserve energy.[7]

Further reading

  • Asim K. Bej; Jackie Aislabie; Ronald M. Atlas (15 December 2009). Polar Microbiology: The Ecology, Biodiversity and Bioremediation Potential of Microorganisms in Extremely Cold Environments. Crc Pr Inc.  

See also


  1. ^ a b Feller, Georges, and Charles Gerday. "Psychrophilic Enzymes: Hot Topics in Cold Adaptation." Nat Rev Micro Nature Reviews Microbiology 1.3 (2003): 200-08. Web.
  2. ^ a b D'amico, Salvino, Tony Collins, Jean-Claude Marx, Georges Feller, and Charles Gerday. "Psychrophilic Microorganisms: Challenges for Life."EMBO Rep EMBO Reports 7.4 (2006): 385-89. Web.
  3. ^ Gupta, Sujata (2010-11-06). "Biogas comes in from the cold". New Scientist (London: Sunita Harrington). p. 14. Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  4. ^ Riou-Nivert, Philippe (2001). Les résineux - Tome 1 : connaissance et reconnaissance, p. 79 (Institut pour le développement forestier)
  5. ^ Ingraham, J. L. "Growth of psychrophilic bacteria." Journal of bacteriology 76.1 (1958): 75.
  6. ^ Morita, Richard Y. "Psychrophilic bacteria." Bacteriological reviews 39.2 (1975): 144.
  7. ^ a b Russell, N. J., P. Harrisson, I. A. Johnston, R. Jaenicke, M. Zuber, F. Franks, and D. Wynn-Williams. "Cold Adaptation of Microorganisms [and Discussion]." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences.Vol. 326, No. 1237, Life at Low Temperatures (1990): 595-611. JSTOR. Web.
  • Yoshinori Murata; et al. (2006). "Genome-wide expression analysis of yeast response during exposure to 4C". Extremophiles 10 (2): 117–112.  
  • Mikucki JA; et al. (2009). "A contemporary microbially maintained subglacial ferrous 'ocean'". Science 324 (5925): 397–400.  
  • Sandle, T. and Skinner, K. (2013). Study of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microorganisms isolated in cold rooms used for pharmaceutical processing, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114 (4), 1166—1174 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12101
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