World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pill millipede

Article Id: WHEBN0003622564
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pill millipede  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Millipede, Sphaerotheriida, Armadillidiidae, Woodlouse, List of Myriapoda species of Ireland
Collection: Millipedes
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Pill millipede

Pill millipedes
A giant pill millipede from India.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Diplopoda
Subclass: Chilognatha
Infraclass: Pentazonia
Superorder: Oniscomorpha
Pocock, 1887 [1]
Orders

Glomerida
Sphaerotheriida
Amynilyspedida

Synonyms

Armadillomorpha Verhoeff, 1915

Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha. The name Oniscomorpha refers to the millipedes' resemblance to certain woodlice (Oniscidea), also called pillbugs or "roly-polies". However, millipedes and woodlice are not closely related, belonging to the subphyla Myriapoda and Crustacea, respectively.

Pill millipedes are relatively short-bodied compared to most other millipedes, with only eleven to thirteen body segments,[2] and are capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed. This ability evolved separately in each of the two orders, making it a case of convergent evolution, rather than homology.[3] Pill millipedes are detritivorous, feeding on decomposing plant matter, usually in woodlands.[4]

Comparison of a pill millipede (above: Glomeris marginata) and a pillbug (below: Armadillidium vulgare)


Orders

Glomerida

The order Glomerida is predominantly found in the Northern Hemisphere and includes species such as Glomeris marginata, the common European pill millipede. They have from eleven to twelve body segments, and possess dorsal ozopores (openings of the repugnatorial glands) rather than the lateral ozopores found on many other millipedes.[3] Glomeridans reach maximum lengths of 20 mm (0.79 in), and eyes, if present, are in a single row of ocelli.[5] The order contains approximately 450 species[6] found in Europe, South-east Asia and the Americas from California to Guatemala.[7] Four species are present in the British Isles.[8]

Sphaerotheriida

The order Sphaerotheriida is a Gondwana-distribution taxon, with around 100 species in southern Africa, Madagascar,[9] Australasia[10] and South East Asia.[7] Five species, all in the genus Procyliosoma are present in New Zealand,[10] and around thirty species are present in Australia.[11] Sphaerotheriidans have thirteen body segments, and do not possess repugnatorial glands. Spherotheriidans reach larger size than Glomeridans (up to 10 cm (3.9 in)), and always possess large, kidney-shaped eyes.[5]

Amynilyspedida

Amynilyspes wortheni fossil illustration

Oniscomorpha also includes the extinct order Amynilyspedida from the upper Carboniferous of North America.[2][12] Amynilyspedida differs from the other Oniscomorph orders in having 14-15 segments.[13] The order contains the genus Amynilyspes with unique spines on the tergites and possibly the genus Glomeropsis.[13]

References

  1. ^ Shear, W. (2011). "Class Diplopoda de Blainville in Gervais, 1844. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa 3148: 159–164. 
  2. ^ a b P. R. Racheboeuf, J. T. Hannibal & J. Vannier (2004). (Oniscomorpha) from the Stephania lagerstätte of Montceau-les-Mines, France"Anymilyspes"A new species of the diplopod .  
  3. ^ a b "Defining Features of Nominal Clades of Diplopoda" ( 
  4. ^ "Pill millipedes fact file".  
  5. ^ a b "Diagnostic features of Millipede Orders" (PDF). Milli-PEET Identification Tables. The Field Museum, Chicago. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Golovatch, Sergei; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; Akkari, Nesrine; Stoev, Pavel; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques (2009). Latreille, 1802 (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae) in North Africa"Glomeris"The millipede genus (PDF). ZooKeys 12: 47–86.  
  7. ^ a b "Biogeography of millipede families" ( 
  8. ^ "Millipedes of Britain and Ireland: systematic check list". British Myriapod and Isopod Group. Retrieved March 2014. 
  9. ^ Wesener, T.; Bespalova, I.; Sierwald, P. (2010). )"Zoosphaerium"Madagascar's living giants: discovery of five new species of endemic giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae: .  
  10. ^ a b M. A. Minor & A.W. Robertson (May 7, 2007). "Diplopoda". Guide to New Zealand soil invertebrates.  
  11. ^ "Checklist for Sphaerotheriida Brandt, 1833". Australian Faunal Directory.  
  12. ^ Hoffman, R. L. 1969. Myriapoda, exclusive of Insecta. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. R, Arthropoda 4, ed. RC Moore, 2:R572–606. Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas.
  13. ^ a b Hannibal, Joseph T; Feldmann, Rodney M. (1981). "Systematics and Functional Morphology of Oniscomorph Millipedes (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) from the Carboniferous of North America". Journal of Paleontology 55 (4): 730–746. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.