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Maribyrnong River

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Title: Maribyrnong River  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Little Yarra River, O'Shannassy River, Plenty River (Victoria), Lerderderg River, Dandenong Creek
Collection: Geography of Melbourne, Rivers of Victoria (Australia), Tributaries of the Yarra River
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Maribyrnong River

Maribyrnong (Mareingalk,[1] Mirrangbamurn[2])
Salt Water River[3]
River[3]
The Maribyrnong River as it flows past the Melbourne suburb of Essendon West
Name origin: Woiwurrung
Country Australia
State Victoria
Region North–western Melbourne
Part of Port Phillip catchment
City Melbourne
Source Macedon Ranges, Great Dividing Range
Source confluence Deep and Jackson Creeks
 - location Taylors Lakes
 - elevation 66 m (217 ft)
 - coordinates
Mouth confluence with the Yarra River
 - location Yarraville
 - elevation 0.2 m (1 ft)
 - coordinates
Length 50 km (31 mi)
Basin 1,450 km2 (559.8 sq mi) [4]
Contour map of the river basin
Wikimedia Commons:
[3][5]
Maribyrnong River in the suburb Maribyrnong.

The Maribyrnong River is a perennial river[3] of the Port Phillip catchment, located in the north–western suburbs of Melbourne, in the Australian state of Victoria.

Contents

  • Course 1
    • Headwaters 1.1
    • Middle reaches 1.2
    • Lower reaches 1.3
  • Geography 2
  • Etymology 3
  • History 4
  • Recreational use 5
  • Crossings 6
  • Flora and fauna 7
    • Native species 7.1
    • Introduced species 7.2
  • Environmental issues 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Course

The Maribyrnong River draws its headwaters from near Mount Macedon within the Macedon Ranges, part of the Great Dividing Range. Formed by the confluence of the Jackson Creek and the Deep Creek below Taylors Lakes, the river flows generally southward, joined by two minor tributaries before reaching its confluence with the Yarra River at Yarraville, to eventually empty into Port Phillip. The river descends 68 metres (223 ft) over its 40-kilometre (25 mi) course.[5]

Headwaters

Jackson Creek, a tributary of the Maribyrnong River at Clarkefield.

The head of the Maribyrnong catchment is situated in the Macedon Ranges region of central Victoria around 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of organ pipes.

Middle reaches

Maribyrnong River at Brimbank Park

The river flows south and west. At Keilor the river winds back on itself in a giant horsehoe bend, before winding south again at Brimbank Park. Here the river flows 55 metres (180 ft) below the western plains. Horseshoe Bend Farm is a small scale farm open to schools, kindergartens, playgroups and the general public. Brimbank Park forms a huge amphitheatre in the bend in the river with picnic areas, cycle and walking trails, and a café, that is usually busy on weekends and public holidays. The area is rich in birdlife and native fauna. The Maribyrnong River Trail shared path starts at Brimbank Park, following mostly beside the river to near its conjunction with the Yarra River in Footscray. At Avondale Heights and Essendon West residents have a spectacular view over the river valley to the skyscrapers of the Melbourne CBD.

Lower reaches

The river flows past Pipemakers Park at Maribyrnong and Melbourne's Living Museum of the West which presents information on the history of the river and the early industrial history of the site. Dolphins are sometimes sighted in the lower reaches of the river, along with many water birds, especially at Burndap Park. Footscray Park opposite the Flemington Racecourse is only metres down river from Pipemakers Park and Burndap Park, the river then meanders across the floodplain to its juncture with the Yarra River at Yarraville.

Geography

The geographic features and tributaries of the river are listed below, tributaries in bold:[6]

The Maribyrnong River is a tributary of the Yarra River

  • Yarraville Wharves
  • Maribyrnong Berth
  • Newells Paddock Wetlands
  • Burndap Lakes
  • Jacks Canal
  • Frogs Hollow Wetland
  • Cliffs
  • Steele or Rose Creek
  • Grimes Flat
  • Kulin Wetlands
  • Taylors Creek
  • Horseshoe Bend
  • Gumms Corner
  • Unnamed Creek
  • Jackson Creek / Deep Creek

Etymology

The river was initially named Saltwater River[7] by early settlers, due to the tidal nature of its lower reaches. The name Maribyrnong however, is derived from either mirring-gnay-bir-nong which in Woiwurrung, the language of the local Wurundjeri people, is said to mean "I can hear a ringtail possum"[7] or "saltwater river"[8] (Gunung or Gunnung is Woiwurrung for river,[9] as seen in the names of other watercourses in the area, such as; Koonung Creek and Birrarung).

Marriburnong is an alternate spelling listed on a map dated from 1840.[8]

The inner western and north-western suburbs of Melbourne are located in the vicinity of the Maribyrnong River and the river has given its name to the suburb of Maribyrnong and the local government area, the City of Maribyrnong.

History

The Maribyrnong River valley has been home for the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin nation for up to 40,000 years. Human remains dated at least 15,000–years–old have been found along the river, with much older signs of human habitation also present.

The first Europeans to explore along the river were the party led by Charles Grimes, Deputy Surveyor-General of New South Wales, in February 1803. John Batman is likely to have explored up the river in early 1835. With the establishment of the colony of Melbourne later that year, sheep runs were soon established by Edmund Davis Fergusson and Michael Solomon in the Avondale and Sunshine areas. On Solomon's sheep station the ford now near the west end of Canning Street in Avondale Heights soon became known as Solomon's Ford. This was the lowest crossing on the Saltwater (Maribyrnong) River, and the furthest inland point of tidal influence. Batman is believed to have crossed the river at this point probably in the well worn steps of Aboriginals. It was for many years the only way from Melbourne to Geelong and land west.

During the second half of the 19th century much of Melbourne's industry was located along the river, and the water became very degraded. With the closure of many industries since the 1960s and 1970s, much river front land has opened up to parkland and highly sought after residential estates.

Recreational use

Maribyrnong River Bike Path
Maribyrnong River at Footscray looking towards Melbourne CBD.
Length 50km
Difficulty Easy

As the second major river in metropolitan Melbourne, the Maribyrnong plays a very important part in Melbourne's recreation. Boating, cycling along its bike paths such as the Maribyrnong River Trail, fishing, and walking. Light bushwalking can also be done and nature watchers can observe Australian native fauna such as echidna, wallabies as well as the ubiquitous possums and flying foxes.

Crossings

Road and rail bridges and other crossing points along the Maribyrnong River include:[10]

  • Shepherd Bridge – primary arterial road
  • South Kensington-West Footscray railway
  • Hopetoun Bridge – primary arterial road
  • Suburban railway to Footscray
  • Former stock bridge – relocated from Punt Road, South Yarra
  • Lynchs Bridge – primary arterial road
  • Farnsworth Avenue Bridge – secondary arterial road
  • Pipemakers Park Footbridge
  • Maribyrnong Road Bridge – primary arterial road
  • Afton Street Footbridge – pedestrian
  • Canning Street Bridge (1970) – primary arterial road
  • Medway Golf Club Footbridge
  • Solomons Ford – historic crossing point
  • Maribyrnong River Viaduct, on the Albion-Jacana railway
  • E.J. Whitten Bridge – Western Ring Road
  • Ford
  • Ford
  • Old Calder Highway Bridge – primary arterial road
  • Historic Calder Bridge (1868)
  • Calder Freeway Bridge
  • Flora Street Bridge – local road and private access
  • Historic Arundel Road Bridge – (built 1906-7, closed to vehicles 1989, closed to pedestrians 2007)[11]
  • Arundel Road Bridge (1989) – local road

Flora and fauna

The river as it flows through Aberfeldie.
A starfish in the Maribyrnong River near the Flemington Racecourse.

Native species

Many native species exist along the Maribyrnong River with many species thriving in the area.[12] Native mammals include swamp wallabies, grey-headed flying foxes, common brushtail possums, common ringtail possums, water rats, echidnas, and platypus in the upper reaches of the river. Native reptile species include eastern brown snakes, tiger snakes, skinks, and common snakeneck turtles. Native birds include the eastern whipbird, cockatoo, rainbow lorikeet, galah, brown falcon, peregrine falcon, square-tailed kite, royal spoonbill, black swan, Pacific black duck, little pied cormorant, moorhen, and long-billed corella. There are various native frogs and native fish species include the short-finned eel, tupong, short-headed lamprey, Australian grayling, southern black bream, common galaxias, broad-finned galaxias and spotted galaxias. Starfish may also be found in the river.

Introduced species

Introduced species include the red fox, European rabbit, and feral cat. While introduced birds include the song thrush, common blackbird, common myna, common starling, house sparrow, spotted turtle dove, rock pigeon, and mallard. Common carp have also been introduced to the river.

Environmental issues

The Maribyrnong River faces various environmental issues, apart from introduced pest species, also pollution and contamination – arsenic and heavy metals from industry and litter including one trap to mitigate litter entering the river from stormwater[13][14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Maribyrnong River: 20419: Traditional Name: Mareingalk". Vicnames.  
  2. ^ "Maribyrnong River: 20419: Traditional Name: Mirrangbamurn". Vicnames.  
  3. ^ a b c d "Maribyrnong River: 20419". Vicnames.  
  4. ^ "Maribyrnong River Basin 30". Department of Primary Industries. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Map of Maribyrnong River, VIC". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  6. ^ Melway, Edition 35, 2008
  7. ^ a b "Maribyrnong River Visitors Guide" (PDF).  
  8. ^ a b "Australian Places: Maribyrnong, Victoria".  
  9. ^ "About the Wurundjeri People". Yarra Healing. 17 March 2006. 
  10. ^ Melway, Edition 36, 2009
  11. ^ Australian Heritage Database, Trestle Bridge, Arundel Rd, Keilor, VIC, Australia, retrieved 16 November 2010 
  12. ^ "Maribyrnong Valley Parklands".  
  13. ^ "Tracing a toxic river to its source". The Age (Melbourne). 24 August 2005. 
  14. ^ "Arsenic leaked into river". The Age (Melbourne). 22 August 2005. 

External links

  • Friends of the Maribyrnong Valley
  • [1] Parks Victoria Brimbank Park page Sept 2007
  • [2] Maribyrnong River Parks Victoria page Sept 2007
  • [3] Maribyrnong Valley Parklands – See Parknotes
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