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# Md5

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 Title: Md5 Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia Language: English Subject: Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia Publication Date:

### Md5

eg{D})

\oplus, \wedge, \vee, \neg denote the XOR, AND, OR and NOT operations respectively.

### Pseudocode

The MD5 hash is calculated according to this algorithm. All values are in little-endian.

```//Note: All variables are unsigned 32 bit and wrap modulo 2^32 when calculating
var int s, K

//s specifies the per-round shift amounts
s[ 0..15] := { 7, 12, 17, 22,  7, 12, 17, 22,  7, 12, 17, 22,  7, 12, 17, 22 }
s[16..31] := { 5,  9, 14, 20,  5,  9, 14, 20,  5,  9, 14, 20,  5,  9, 14, 20 }
s[32..47] := { 4, 11, 16, 23,  4, 11, 16, 23,  4, 11, 16, 23,  4, 11, 16, 23 }
s[48..63] := { 6, 10, 15, 21,  6, 10, 15, 21,  6, 10, 15, 21,  6, 10, 15, 21 }

//Use binary integer part of the sines of integers (Radians) as constants:
for i from 0 to 63
K[i] := floor(abs(sin(i + 1)) × (2 pow 32))
end for
//(Or just use the following table):
K[ 0.. 3] := { 0xd76aa478, 0xe8c7b756, 0x242070db, 0xc1bdceee }
K[ 4.. 7] := { 0xf57c0faf, 0x4787c62a, 0xa8304613, 0xfd469501 }
K[ 8..11] := { 0x698098d8, 0x8b44f7af, 0xffff5bb1, 0x895cd7be }
K[12..15] := { 0x6b901122, 0xfd987193, 0xa679438e, 0x49b40821 }
K[16..19] := { 0xf61e2562, 0xc040b340, 0x265e5a51, 0xe9b6c7aa }
K[20..23] := { 0xd62f105d, 0x02441453, 0xd8a1e681, 0xe7d3fbc8 }
K[24..27] := { 0x21e1cde6, 0xc33707d6, 0xf4d50d87, 0x455a14ed }
K[28..31] := { 0xa9e3e905, 0xfcefa3f8, 0x676f02d9, 0x8d2a4c8a }
K[32..35] := { 0xfffa3942, 0x8771f681, 0x6d9d6122, 0xfde5380c }
K[36..39] := { 0xa4beea44, 0x4bdecfa9, 0xf6bb4b60, 0xbebfbc70 }
K[40..43] := { 0x289b7ec6, 0xeaa127fa, 0xd4ef3085, 0x04881d05 }
K[44..47] := { 0xd9d4d039, 0xe6db99e5, 0x1fa27cf8, 0xc4ac5665 }
K[48..51] := { 0xf4292244, 0x432aff97, 0xab9423a7, 0xfc93a039 }
K[52..55] := { 0x655b59c3, 0x8f0ccc92, 0xffeff47d, 0x85845dd1 }
K[56..59] := { 0x6fa87e4f, 0xfe2ce6e0, 0xa3014314, 0x4e0811a1 }
K[60..63] := { 0xf7537e82, 0xbd3af235, 0x2ad7d2bb, 0xeb86d391 }

//Initialize variables:
var int a0 := 0x67452301   //A
var int b0 := 0xefcdab89   //B
var int c0 := 0x98badcfe   //C
var int d0 := 0x10325476   //D

//Pre-processing: adding a single 1 bit
append "1" bit to message    /* Notice: the input bytes are considered as bits strings,
where the first bit is the most significant bit of the byte.

append "0" bit until message length in bits ≡ 448 (mod 512)
append original length in bits mod (2 pow 64) to message

//Process the message in successive 512-bit chunks:
for each 512-bit chunk of message
break chunk into sixteen 32-bit words M[j], 0 ≤ j ≤ 15
//Initialize hash value for this chunk:
var int A := a0
var int B := b0
var int C := c0
var int D := d0
//Main loop:
for i from 0 to 63
if 0 ≤ i ≤ 15 then
F := (B and C) or ((not B) and D)
g := i
else if 16 ≤ i ≤ 31
F := (D and B) or ((not D) and C)
g := (5×i + 1) mod 16
else if 32 ≤ i ≤ 47
F := B xor C xor D
g := (3×i + 5) mod 16
else if 48 ≤ i ≤ 63
F := C xor (B or (not D))
g := (7×i) mod 16
dTemp := D
D := C
C := B
B := B + leftrotate((A + F + K[i] + M[g]), s[i])
A := dTemp
end for
//Add this chunk's hash to result so far:
a0 := a0 + A
b0 := b0 + B
c0 := c0 + C
d0 := d0 + D
end for

var char digest := a0 append b0 append c0 append d0 //(Output is in little-endian)

//leftrotate function definition
leftrotate (x, c)
return (x << c) binary or (x >> (32-c));
```

Note: Instead of the formulation from the original RFC 1321 shown, the following may be used for improved efficiency (useful if assembly language is being used – otherwise, the compiler will generally optimize the above code. Since each computation is dependent on another in these formulations, this is often slower than the above method where the nand/and can be parallelised):

```( 0 ≤ i ≤ 15): F := D xor (B and (C xor D))
(16 ≤ i ≤ 31): F := C xor (D and (B xor C))
```

## MD5 hashes

The 128-bit (16-byte) MD5 hashes (also termed message digests) are typically represented as a sequence of 32 hexadecimal digits. The following demonstrates a 43-byte ASCII input and the corresponding MD5 hash:

```MD5("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog") =
9e107d9d372bb6826bd81d3542a419d6
```

Even a small change in the message will (with overwhelming probability) result in a mostly different hash, due to the avalanche effect. For example, adding a period to the end of the sentence:

```MD5("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.") =
```

The hash of the zero-length string is:

```MD5("") =
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
```

The MD5 algorithm is specified for messages consisting of any number of bits; it is not limited to multiples of eight bit (octets, bytes) as shown in the examples above. Some MD5 implementations such as md5sum might be limited to octets, or they might not support streaming for messages of an initially undetermined length