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List of freshwater islands in Scotland

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Title: List of freshwater islands in Scotland  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Islands of Scotland, Freshwater islands of Scotland, List of places in Scotland, Vallay, Baleshare
Collection: Freshwater Islands of Scotland, Islands of Loch Lomond, Landforms of Scotland, Lists of Islands of Scotland
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List of freshwater islands in Scotland

A field of yellow flowers in the foreground, with a dark blue lake beyond. A wooded island in the lake has a white structure of two storeys at centre and there are green and brown hills beyond. There is a small cluster of houses on the distant hill slope at right.
Loch Leven Castle island, where Mary, Queen of Scots was imprisoned in 1567.[1]

A black and white map showing the sinuous shape of Loch Lomond, which contains numerous islands in the southern portion.
A map of the 1800s showing the islands of Loch Lomond

The freshwater islands in Scotland include those within freshwater lochs and rivers – including tidal areas, so the islands may not always be surrounded by freshwater. It has been estimated that there are at least 31,460 freshwater lochs in Scotland and that 1.9% of the land surface is covered by fresh waters. The distribution has a north west to south east gradient with the highest concentrations occurring in the islands of the Outer Hebrides.[2][Note 1]

The more notable freshwater islands include Lochindorb Castle Island, Loch Leven Castle Island, St Serf's Inch, and Inchmahome, each of which have had a role to play in Scottish history.[1][4][5][6] Inchmurrin, the largest freshwater island in the British Isles, is in Loch Lomond, which contains thirty or more other islands.[7][Note 2]

Various names are used repeatedly. "Inch" or Innis is a Scots word that can mean "island" (although it is also used for terra firma surrounded by marsh). Similarly, Eilean is the Gaelic for "island". "-holm" is a common suffix for offshore islands in the north of Scotland and is derived from the Old Norse holmr, meaning "a small and rounded islet".[12][13][14] This list excludes artificial crannógs and the numerous small freshwater islands with no recorded name.[Note 3][Note 4]


  • Larger islands 1
  • In mainland lochs 2
  • On offshore islands 3
  • In rivers 4
  • See also 5
  • References and footnotes 6

Larger islands

Inchmurrin in Loch Lomond, Scotland's largest freshwater island
A view from above a lake containing several wooded islands with a wilderness of hills and moor beyond.
The islands of Loch Maree

This table includes all of the freshwater islands that exceed 35 hectares (86 acres) in size and/or are populated.

Island Location Area (ha)[16] Population[17]
Dunglass Island River Conon 40 0
Eilean Mòr Loch Langavat 59 0
Eilean Ruairidh Mòr Loch Maree 38[18] 0
Eilean Sùbhainn Loch Maree 118 0
Garbh Eilean Loch Maree 39[18] 0
Inchcailloch Loch Lomond 50[18] 0
Inchconnachan Loch Lomond 35[18] 0
Inchfad Loch Lomond 35[18] 1
Inchlonaig Loch Lomond 80[18] 0
Inchmurrin Loch Lomond 120[18] 8
Inchtavannach Loch Lomond 70[18] 3
Innis Chonan Loch Awe 8 5
Moncrieffe Island River Tay 46 3
St Serf's Inch Loch Leven 31[18] 0

Inchlonaig and Inchcruin[Note 5] are classified by the National Records of Scotland as "inhabited islands but had no usual residents at the time of either the 2001 or 2011 censuses."[17] It is likely that Contin Island and Eilean Aigas are inhabited, at least from time to time as well, although they were not listed as such by the Census in 2001[19] or 2011.

In mainland lochs

A small wooded islet stands in a lake. A large ruined stone wall with a door and window sits amongst the trees. Green conifer-clad hills lie beyond the islet under leaden grey skies.
The ruins of Loch an Eilein castle with Cairn Gorm beyond

In the distance there are high snow-capped mountains, out of which a sinuous lake emerges. In the foreground lower brown hills surround the water.
The upper reaches of Loch Lomond in winter

Low trees and bushes in the foreground give way to a body of water with a large wooded isle close to the shore and smaller islets beyond. There are mountains in the distance.
Inchfad in Loch Lomond

 In the foreground are the blue waters of a lake. Beyond that is a wooded shoreline on which there are the ruins of a large walled structure. Smoke drifts across the moorland in the distance.
Lochindorb Castle Island

A lake in winter with low snow-covered hills in the background and a brushwood slope in the foreground beneath a mottled blue sky.
St Serf's Inch and Loch Leven in winter, from Vane Farm on Benarty Hill

 Green fields in the foreground with a lake beyond. There are wooded islets in the lake, which is skirted by low hills. Sunlight breaks through a clouded sky and illuminates a distant brown hillside.
Islands in Loch Morar

A gloomy, cloud-covered sky above a large lake surrounded by green hills. There is a wooded islet at left and a tall circular tower in the foreground topped by a statue.
The east end of Loch Shiel: the Glenfinnan monument and Eilean Ghleann Fhionainn

Tom Dubh in Loch Insh

Loch Awe is Scotland's longest loch and abounds with islands and crannógs. Several of the islands are, or have in the past, been inhabited; there are two castles and the remains of a chapel on the islands.[20] Inistrynich, Eilean na Maodail, Eilean Dubh and Liever Island are all promontories as opposed to islands despite their names. The loch's water levels have fluctuated so some of them may have been islands in recent history, as the promontory on which Kilchurn Castle stands once was.[21]

There may be up to sixty islands in the Loch Lomond including Inchmurrin, the largest freshwater island anywhere in the Britain and Ireland, and Inchconnachan, which has hosted a small population of Red-necked Wallaby since at least 1975.[22][23] The isolated strongholds of Lochindorb Castle and Loch an Eilein Castle were once in the hands of the 14th century nobleman Alexander Stewart, the infamous "Wolf of Badenoch".[24][25] There are numerous unnamed small islands in mainland lochs, including those where the water level has been artificially raised by the creation of dams for the production of hydro-electricity. This process has created new islands that would previously have been small eminences.[26]

Local authority[Note 6] Loch OS Grid reference Islands[Note 7]
Aberdeenshire Loch of Strathbeg Red Rock
Argyll and Bute Loch Avich Eilean Fraoch, Innis Luana
Argyll and Bute Loch Awe Badan Tomain, Black Islands, Eilean Beith, Eilean a' Chòmhraidh, Eilean a' Chrochaidh, Eilean an t-Sagairt (2), Eilean an t-Slinne, Eilean nam Meann, Eilean Seileachan, Fraoch Eilean, Innis Chonan, Innis Chonnel, Innis Errich, Innis Sèa-ràmhach, Innis Stiùire, Inishail
Argyll and Bute/Stirling/West Dunbartonshire Loch Lomond Aber Isle, Bucinch, Ceardach, Clairinsh, Creagan Dubha, Creinch, Eilean Deargannan, Eilean na h-Aon Chraoibhe, Ellanderroch, Fraoch Eilean, Inchcailloch, Inchconnachan, Inchcruin, Inchfad, Inchgalbraith, Inchlonaig, Inchmoan, Inchmurrin, Inchtavannach, Inveruglas Isle, Island I Vow, Keppinch, Stot Isle, Ross Isles, Tarbet Isle, Torrinch, Wallace's Isle
Badenoch and Strathspey Loch an Eilein Loch an Eilein Castle
Badenoch and Strathspey Loch Insh Tom Dubh
Dumfries and Galloway Loch Kindar Kirk Kindar Island
Dumfries and Galloway Loch Ken Burned Island, Corselands, Danevale Island, Green Island, Kenmure Holms, Parton Island, Parton Ward
Dumfries and Galloway Loch Moan Black Island, White Island
Dumfries and Galloway Loch Urr Rough Island
Inverness Loch Moy Eilean nan Clach, Isle of Moy
Lochaber Loch Arkaig An t-Eilean Beag, Eilean a' Ghiubhais, Eilean Loch Airceig
Lochaber Loch Bà Eilean Molach, Eilean na h-Iolaire
Lochaber Loch Eilt Eilean an Tighe, Eilean Gaineamhach, Eilean Mòr, Eilean na Moine, Eilean nan Corra-ghriodhach
Lochaber Loch Morar An t-Eilean Meadhoin, Brinacory Island, Eilean Allmha, Eilean a' Phidhir, Eilean Bàn, Eilean Ghibbi, Eilean nam Breac, Eilean nan Reithean
Lochaber Loch Quoich Rubha Dubh nam Fiad
Lochaber Loch Shiel Eilean Comlach, Eilean Drollaman, Eilean Dubh, Eilean Fhianain, Eilean Ghleann Fhionainn, Eilean Mhic Dhomhnuill Dhuibh, Seilag
Moray Lochindorb Lochindorb Castle island
Perth and Kinross Loch Earn Neish Island
Perth and Kinross Loch Leven Loch Leven Castle Island, St Serf's Inch
Perth and Kinross Loch of Clunie Clunie Castle Island
Perth and Kinross Loch Tay Isle of Spar
Perth and Kinross Loch Tummel An Dùn
Perth and Kinross/Lochaber Loch Laidon Eilean Iubhair
Ross and Cromarty Fionn Loch Eilean a' Garbh Uilt, Eilean an Eich Bhàin, Eilean Fraoich, Eilean nan Corrichean
Ross and Cromarty Loch Maree Eilean Camas a' Chonnaidh, Eilean nan Clachairean, Eilean a' Chlamhain, Eilean na Craoibhe, Eilean na Creige Giubhas, Eilean Dubh na Sròine, Eilean Eachainn, Eilean Ghrùididh, Eilean Loisgte, Eilean Mhic a' Fhùlaraich, Eilean Ruairidh Beag, Eilean Ruairidh Mòr, Eilean Sùbhainn, Garbh Eilean, Isle Maree
Ross and Cromarty Loch Monar Creag Ghrada
Ross and Cromarty Loch Sionasgaig Eilean Dubh (3), Eilean Mòr, Sgeirean Dubha
Ross and Cromarty Loch Ussie Eilean Beag, Eilean Mòr
Stirling Loch Ard Briedach, Dundochill,[27] Eilean Gorm[Note 8]
Stirling Loch Dochart Loch Dochart Castle Island
Stirling Loch Katrine Black Island, Eilean Bàn, Eilean Dharag, Eilean Molach, Lady's Isle, Otter Island
Stirling Lake of Menteith Dog Isle, Inchmahome, Inch Talla
Sutherland Loch Assynt Eilean Assynt, Eilean Dubh
Sutherland Loch Loyal Eilean Mòr, Eilean na Gaire, Eilean nan Crodh, Eilean Fraoich
Sutherland Loch nan Clàr Eilean nam Meann, Rubha Mòr

On offshore islands

A small island in a lake lies offshore from green fields. A small wooden footbridge leads to the islet which contains various stone ruins including at least two gable ends.
Ruins on Eilean Mòr (in the foreground) and Eilean na Comhairle, Loch Finlaggan, Islay

A marshy landscape of reeds, grass, water lilies and open water under blue skies with some white, fluffy clouds at left. A stone house sits on the horizon in the distance.
Loch Olabhat (south) on Benbecula

The wind creates ripples on a blue lake surrounded by a low-lying green and brown landscape under small white clouds in a blue sky. Mountains line the distant horizon.
Loch Orasaigh and Rainish Eilean Mòr with the hills of Harris beyond

There are relatively few genuine islands in the lochs of the Inner Hebrides, many of those that do exist being artificial crannógs. By contrast there are innumerable small islands in the estimated 7,500 lochs of the Eilean Siar,[2] only a small proportion of which are named by the Ordnance Survey.

The Orkney and Shetland archipelagos to the north are similarly lacking in freshwater islands. Law Ting Holm is the former location of the national þing, or Norse parliament of Shetland.[28]

Archipelago Island Loch OS Grid reference Islands
Inner Hebrides Islay Loch Finlaggan Eilean Mòr, Eilean na Comhairle[Note 9]
Inner Hebrides Islay Loch Gorm Eilean Mòr, Eilean nan Uan
Outer Hebrides Benbecula Loch Dùn Mhurchaidh Dùn Buidhe, Eilean Dubh
Outer Hebrides Benbecula Loch Eilean Iain Eilean Iain
Outer Hebrides Benbecula Loch Langabhat Eilean Ghillechriosda
Outer Hebrides Benbecula Loch Olabhat Eilean Fiadhaich
Outer Hebrides Benbecula Loch Olabhat Dùn Aonias, Dùn Ruadh
Outer Hebrides Great Bernera Loch Barabhat Dùn Barabhat[Note 10]
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Airigh Seibh Eileanan Dubh
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Fada Gobha Eilean Cro Balair
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Lagasbhat Àrd Eilean Ard, Eilean na Cachlaidh
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Lagasbhat Ìarach Eilean Cleit Surraidh, Eilean Choinoich
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Langavat Eilean a' Faof, Eilean Mhic Fail, Eilean Mòr, Tearead, Tearead Thioram, Tearead Fhliuch
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Mòr Bharabhais Eilean Àird Fhianuis
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Morsgail Eilean an Tighe
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Orasaigh Rainish Eilean Mòr[Note 11]
Outer Hebrides Lewis Loch Trealalabhal Eilean nan Cnàmh,[Note 12] Eilean nan Uan, Eilean Mòr Loch Trealaval, Eilean Dubh Mhic Leoid
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch an Eilean Dùn a' Ghaillain
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch an t-Sruith Mhòir Eilean Glas Mòr, Eilean na Caora Glaise, Eilean nam Faoileag
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Aonghais Dùn Aonghais
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Carabhat Dùn Bàn, Eilean Dubh, Eilean Glas
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Dùn an t-Siamain Dùn an t-Siamain
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Eubhal Dùn Mhic Raouill
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Fhada Adam Fraoich, Eilean Dubh Mòr, Eilean Mossam
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Hundair Dùn Bàn
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch nan Eun Eilean Buidhe
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch nan Garbh Chlachan Dùn Bàn
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch nan Geireann Aird Reamhar, Eilean Glas
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch nan Strùban Eilean Achotain
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Obasaraigh Eilean Fada, Eilean Leathann, Eilean Mòr
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Olabhat Eilean Dòmhnuill
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Sgadabhagh Eilean Dubh Mòr
Outer Hebrides North Uist Loch Sgealtair Dùn Eilean Buidhe
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch an Dùin Mhor Dùn Mòr
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch an Eilein Eilean Bheagram
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch Baghasdal[Note 13] Eilean nan Rámh
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch Bì Brostam More, Brostam Beg, Chiasmul, Eilean a Charnan, Eilean Dubh an Tairbeirt, Limalum More
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch Druidibeag Dùn Buidhe, Dùn Ragbhail, Eilean an Rana
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch Dùn na Buail'-uachdraich Dùn na Buail'-uachdraich[32]
Outer Hebrides South Uist Loch Dùn na Cille Dùn na Killie, Eilean Buidhe, Eilean Fraoich
Orkney Mainland Loch of Harray Holm of Kirkness, Ling Holm, Ling Holms, Long Holm, Sand Holm
Orkney Mainland Loch of Swannay Muckle Holm
Orkney Rousay Loch of Wasbister The Burrian
Shetland Mainland Loch of Clickimin Broch of Clickimin[Note 14]
Shetland Mainland Loch of Tingwall Holme of Setter, Law Ting Holm[Note 15]
Shetland Unst Loch of Watlee Little Holm

In rivers

An overgrown area with a circular stone structure covered in ivy in the foreground and a wall with wide embrasures beyond. Tall trees, both conifers and deciduous overlook the scene.
The MacNab burial ground on Inchbuie

A woodland track leads through tall trees, some with the grown and gold leaves of autumn. There is an orange leaf litter on the ground. A body of water is visible through the trees to the left.
Woods on the Ness Islands

A massive, roofless  four storey medieval stone tower sits amid grass and trees. On one side the stones are stained with orange lichen.
Threave Castle on Threave Island in the River Dee

A collection of ruined farm buildings and a nissen hut sit amid fields that lie beyond the grey waters of a river. Wooded slopes and higher treeless hills lie beyond.
Alloa Inch, showing the ruins

The manse on Contin Island

No part of Scotland is more than 80.4 kilometres (50 mi) from the sea[34] and as a result Scotland's rivers are neither very wide nor long (although Scotland has many substantial salt water estuaries called firths). These are islands in freshwater, or where indicated, occasionally reached by high tides and in brackish water.

Local authority River OS Grid reference Islands[Note 16]
Aberdeenshire River Deveron Scury Islands
Aberdeenshire River Deveron Logg Island
Aberdeenshire River Ythan Inch Geck (b)
Argyll and Bute River Shira Eilean an Eagail
Clackmannanshire River Forth Alloa Inch (b), Tullibody Inch (b)
Dumfries and Galloway River Annan Rabbit Island
Dumfries and Galloway River Cree Cut Island
Dumfries and Galloway River Dee Threave Island
Highland River Beauly Eilean Aigas
Highland Black Water Eilean an Daraich, Contin Island
Highland River Conon Dunglass Island (b), Moy Island
Highland River Oykel Eilean Thùrnaig
Highland River Ness Ness Islands
Highland River Snizort Island of St Columba
Highland River Spey Eilean Dubh
Highland River Spey Eilean Longart
Highland River Spey Eilean Mhic Rath
Moray River Spey Heathery Isle
Moray River Spey Island Roary
Moray River Spey Stony Island
Scottish Borders Ettrick Water The Island
Scottish Borders River Tweed Blount Island[Note 17]
Scottish Borders River Tweed Sharpitlaw Anna
Scottish Borders River Tweed St. Thomas's Island
South Lanarkshire River Clyde Clydesholm
Stirling River Dochart Inchbuie
Perth and Kinross River Tay Dowally Island, Woodinch
Perth and Kinross River Tay Moncrieffe Island (b), Insherrit Island (b), The Scone Isles, The Stanners (b)

There are several former islands in the Tay, created by natural silting and artificial reclamation including: Big Island, Bloody Inches near Murthly, North Inch and South Inch in Perth, Richards Islands, Sleepless Inch and The Inch near Inchtuthil.[Note 18]

See also

References and footnotes

General references
  • Barrow, G.W.S. (ed.), The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century (2003) Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
  • Coventry, Martin (2008) Castles of the Clans. Musselburgh. Goblinshead. ISBN 978-1-899874-36-1
  • General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  • Grant, Alexander "The Wolf of Badenoch" in W.D.H. Sellar (ed.) (1993) Moray: Province and People. Scottish Society for Northern Studies. Edinburgh; ISBN 0-9505994-7-6
  • Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate.  
  • Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2003) Ainmean-àite/Placenames. (pdf) Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  • Murray, Sir John and Pullar, Laurence (1910) Bathymetrical Survey of the Fresh-Water Lochs of Scotland, 1897-1909. London; Challenger Office.
  • Ordnance Survey (2009) "Get-a-map". Retrieved January 2010.
  1. ^ "Loch" is a Scottish Gaelic word for both a lake and a fiord that has been borrowed by Scots and Scottish English to apply to such bodies of water. The Lake of Menteith is the only natural body of water called a "lake" in Scotland.[3]
  2. ^ Some of the islets in Loch Lomond may only appear when the water levels are low[8] and although many sources provide a figure of up to sixty islands[9] this may derive from a poetic 9th century description. Other sources suggest a total of 30 or 38 islands.[10][11]
  3. ^ Crannógs are excluded as they are both artificial and very numerous. There are at least 600 of these small prehistoric structures in Scotland.[15]
  4. ^ There is a significant difference between the Ordnance Survey (OS) treatment of freshwater and offshore islands. See for example Loch Snigiscleit at grid reference . If the islands here were offshore it is virtually certain that there would be three substantial named islands and probably half a dozen named smaller ones. There are several examples – Loch Druidibeag has two named islands and about a dozen un-named. It is not clear whether this because the OS only chose to list a few larger ones and those identified by RCAHMS, or if for some reason local people did not give names to smaller islands in lochs. The latter is unlikely although these islands offer much less of threat to fishermen and thus there is less of an imperative to be aware of them.
  5. ^ Referred to by the National Records of Scotland (2013) as "Inchruin", which is presumably a typographical error.
  6. ^ As there are numerous lochs in Highland, which is large council area covering over 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi) the area committee designations of Badenoch and Strathspey, Caithness, Inverness, Lochaber, Nairn, Ross and Cromarty, Skye and Lochalsh and Sutherland are used to identify the location.
  7. ^ Numbers in brackets indicate that there are (2) or (3) islands of the same name in the body of water referred to.
  8. ^ The island of "St Mallo" is mentioned by Visit Dunkeld.
  9. ^ Eilean Mhuireill at the south end of the loch (grid reference ) is identified by the Ordnance Survey as a crannog.
  10. ^ Dun Baravat has an Iron Age roundhouse dated from between 300 and 300 BC.[29]
  11. ^ Rainish Eilean Mòr at grid reference is about 27 hectares (67 acres) in extent. This makes it one of the larger freshwater islands, but it is probably the largest relative to the size of the body of water it sits in, Loch Orasaigh being only about 125 hectares (310 acres) all told.
  12. ^ Eilean nan Cnàmh is in Loch nam Faoileag, an arm of Loch Trealalabhal separated from the main body by a causeway. The former loch is "commonly regarded" as part of the latter.[30]
  13. ^ This loch is not specifically named by the Ordnance Survey and at one time it may have been an extension of the saltwater Loch Boisdale. Its size has been enhanced artificially in that a small dam has been constructed, probably to prevent brackish water entering from Poll a' Fearchadh.[31]
  14. ^ This islet is now attached to Mainland Shetland by a stone causeway.[33]
  15. ^ This islet is now attached to Mainland Shetland by a stone causeway.[28]
  16. ^ (b) Indicates those that from time to time lie in brackish water, as indicated by the Ordnance Survey as lying below the "Mean High Water Springs".
  17. ^ Canny Island at is in the middle of the Tweed but on the English side of the border as identified by the Ordnance Survey. Likewise Dreeper Island, further upstream.
  18. ^ North and South Inch are reclaimed parks on the right bank of the Tay, now within the bounds of the town of Perth.[35] Sleepless Island is now a sewage works at [36] Bloody Inches is at and The Inch at . Big Island is a former gravel bank at and Richards Islands are further upstream on the River Tummel (a tributary of the Tay) at [37][38][39]
  1. ^ a b Coventry (2008) p. 154
  2. ^ a b "Botanical survey of Scottish freshwater lochs" SNH Information and Advisory Note Number 4. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  3. ^ "Inchmahome Priory" Mysterious Britain. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  4. ^ "Lochindorb Castle" Canmore. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  5. ^ Barrow, G.W.S. (2003) "The Judex" pp. 57–67
  6. ^ "Inchmahome Priory" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  7. ^ "Loch Lomond Islands – Inchmurrin". Loch Retrieved 23 August 2007. 
  8. ^ "Loch Lomond Islands" Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  9. ^ For example, "Loch lomond" Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  10. ^ "The Loch" Loch Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  11. ^ "The islands on Loch Lomond " Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  12. ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) various pages.
  13. ^ For example, Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 96, 104, 375.
  14. ^ Fellows-Jensen, Gillian "On dalr and holmr in the place-names of Britain" Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  15. ^ "Crannogs" BBC. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  16. ^ Estimates based on Ordnance Survey maps and General Register Office for Scotland statistics unless otherwise stated.
  17. ^ a b National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland - Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rick Livingstone’s Tables of the Islands of Scotland (pdf) Argyll Yacht Charters. Retrieved 12 Dec 2011.
  19. ^ General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  20. ^ See Ordnance Survey maps at for example and .
  21. ^ Coventry (2008) p. 78.
  22. ^ "Loch Lomond Islands: Inchconnachan". Loch Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  23. ^ Welch, D.; Carss, D.N.; Gornall, J.; Manchester, S.J.; Marquiss, M.; Preston, C. D.; Telfer, M.G.; Arnold, H.R.; Holbrook, J. (2001). "An Audit of Alien Species in Scotland. Review no 139". Perth: Scottish Natural Heritage. 
  24. ^ Grant (1993) pp. 144–45.
  25. ^ "Loch an Eilein Castle" Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  26. ^ See for example Loch Benevean in Glen Affric at .
  27. ^ "Duke Murdoch's Castle (remains of)". Wikimapia quoting census records. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  28. ^ a b "Thing" Shetlopedia. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  29. ^ "Lewis, Great Bernera, Loch Baravat, Dun Baravat" Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  30. ^ Murray and Pullar (1910) "Lochs of Lewis" Page 208, Volume II, Part II. National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
  31. ^ See this photograph: "Saltwater Dam" Geograph. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  32. ^ This dùn is probably the remains of a broch. See "South Uist, Eochar, Dun Na Buail' Uachdraich" Scotlands Places. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  33. ^ Clickimin Broch Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Snap Facts" Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  35. ^ "Perth" Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  36. ^ " Wildlife on the Tay" Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  37. ^ Gilvear D. J., Davies J. R., and Winterbottom S. J. (1994) "Mechanisms of floodbank failure during large flood events on the rivers Tay and Earn, Scotland" Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. Geological Society of London 27 issue 4. pp. 319-332. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  38. ^ Gilvear, David J. (1993) "River management and conservation issues on formerly braided river systems; the case of the River Tay, Scotland". Geological Society. London. Special Publications 75 pp. 231-240. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  39. ^ "Gravel Working in the River Tay System: A Code of Good Practice". (2007) SNH. Report No. 1736. Battleby. ISBN 978-1-85397-573-8
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