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Cytoplasmic streaming

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Title: Cytoplasmic streaming  
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Cytoplasmic streaming

Chloroplasts can be seen travelling around the central vacuole of a cell in Rhizomnium punctatum

Cytoplasmic streaming, also called protoplasmic streaming and cyclosis, is the directed flow of nutrients, metabolites, genetic information, and other materials to all parts of the cell. Cytoplasmic streaming occurs along actin filaments in the cytoskeleton of the cell.

Cytoplasmic streaming was first discovered in the 1830s. The scientific breakthrough assisted scientists in developing an understanding of the different roles of cells and how they function as the basic operating systems of life.

This process occurs through the operation of motor proteins called myosins.[2] These proteins use energy of conjoined proteins. If one protein remains attached to the substrate,[3] the substance acted upon by the protein, such as a microfilament, has the ability to move organelles through the cytoplasm.

The green alga genus

  • Measurement of Cyclosis in Elodea
  • Video of Cyclosis in Canadian Pondweed
  • Video of Cyclosis (Elodea).

External links

  • Riddle, Donald L; Blumenthal, Thomas; Meyer, Barbara J; et al., eds. (1997). "Section III: Establishment of Polarity in the One-Cell Embryo". C. elegans II (2nd ed.). Cold Spring Harbor (NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.  
  • Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James (2000). "Figure 18-40 Cytoplasmic streaming in cylindrical giant algae". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.  
  • Lodish 2000, Section 18.5: Actin and Myosin in Nonmuscle Cells

Sources

  1. ^ "cytoplasmic streaming". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
  2. ^ "Myosin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  3. ^ Biology Online, 2008, Substrate, viewed on the 5/11/13, available at http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Substrate
  4. ^ "The Whole Plant and Cell to Cell Transport, (chapter four)" (pdf). University of New South Wales. 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  5. ^ Woodhouse, F. G.;  
  6. ^ Shimmen, T.; Yokota, E. (2004). "Cytoplasmic streaming in plants". Current Opinion in Cell Biology 16 (1): 68–72.  

References

See also

Contents

  • See also 1
  • References 2
  • Sources 3
  • External links 4

The flow of cytoplasm may be stopped by:

In reference to pH, because actin and myosin are both proteins, strong dependence on pH is expected. The optimal pH at which cytoplasmic streaming is highest, is achieved at neutral pH and decreases at both low and high pH.

In plant cells, chloroplasts may be moved around with the stream, possibly to a position of optimum light absorption for photosynthesis. The rate of motion is usually affected by light exposure, temperature, and pH levels.

Cytoplasmic streaming is strongly dependent upon intracellular pH and temperature. It has been observed that the effect of temperature on cytoplasmic streaming created linear variance and dependence at different high temperatures in comparison to low temperatures.[6] This process is complicated, with temperature alterations in the system increasing its efficiency, with other factors such as the transport of ions across the membrane being simultaneously affected. This is due to cells homeostasis depending upon active transport which may be affected at some critical temperatures.

[5]

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