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Candidatus Carsonella ruddii

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Title: Candidatus Carsonella ruddii  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Smallest organisms, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chromosome, Proteobacteria, Bacteria
Collection: Bacteria with Sequenced Genomes, Proteobacteria
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: unclassified
Genus: Candidatus Carsonella
Species: Ca. C. ruddii
Binomial name
Candidatus Carsonella ruddii
Thao et al. 2000

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an obligate endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacterium[1] with one of the smallest genomes of any characterised bacteria.[2]


  • Endosymbiosis 1
  • Genome 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The species is an endosymbiont that is present in all species of phloem sap-feeding insects known as psyllids.[3][4] The endosymbionts occurs in a specialised structure known as the bacteriome.


In 2006 the genome of Ca. C. ruddii strain

  • Scientific American – Tiny Genome May Reflect Organelle in the Making

External links

  1. ^ Spaulding, A. W. and C. D. von Dohlen. 1998. Phylogenetic Characterization and Molecular Evolution of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Psyllids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha). Molecular Biology and Evolution 15(11):1506-1513
  2. ^ a b Nakabachi A, Yamashita A, Toh H, Ishikawa H, Dunbar H, Moran N, Hattori M (2006). "The 160-kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella.". Science 314 (5797): 267.  
  3. ^ Thao, M.L. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and Their Primary Prokaryotic Endosymbionts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2898-2905
  4. ^ Thao, M.L. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of vertically transmitted psyllid endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii) based on atpAGD and rpoC: comparisons with 16S-23S rDNA-derived phylogeny. Current Microbiology 42:419-21 PMID 11381334
  5. ^ Moran, Nancy A.; Bennett, Gordon M. (8 September 2014). "The Tiniest Tiny Genomes". Annual Review of Microbiology 68 (1): 195–215.  
  6. ^ Bennett, G. M.; Moran, N. A. (5 August 2013). "Small, Smaller, Smallest: The Origins and Evolution of Ancient Dual Symbioses in a Phloem-Feeding Insect". Genome Biology and Evolution 5 (9): 1675–1688.  
  7. ^ Sloan, D. B.; Moran, N. A. (19 July 2012). "Genome Reduction and Co-evolution between the Primary and Secondary Bacterial Symbionts of Psyllids". Molecular Biology and Evolution 29 (12): 3781–3792.  


C. ruddii and related species appear to be actively undergoing gene loss.[7]

At the time of its sequencing, C. ruddii was thought to have the smallest genome of any characterized bacterial species.[5] Nasuia deltocephalinicola is now considered to have the known smallest bacterial genome (112kb).[6]


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