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Bulgaria (theme)

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Title: Bulgaria (theme)  
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Subject: Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder, LGBT history in the Republic of Macedonia, History of Bulgaria, Education in the Republic of Macedonia, Macedonia (region)
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Bulgaria (theme)

1045, the thema of Bulgaria.

The Theme of Bulgaria was a province of the Byzantine Empire established by Emperor Basil II after the conquest of Bulgaria in 1018.[1] Its capital was Skopje and it was governed by a strategos.

Initially the Byzantine emperor Normans invaded from the south and the knights of the First (1096–97) and then the Second Crusade (1146–47) advanced from west. Most frightful were the renewed raids of the Turkic barbarians from the steppes, the Uzes, the Pechenegs and the Cumans. At the end of the 12th century, formally Byzantium was the sovereign, but in many Balkan areas the Byzantine power was nominal. In 1185, the Normans landed in Dyrrachium again, moved east and looted Salonika. The chaos in the imperial domains encouraged the Bulgarians to restore their state with the rebellion of the brothers Peter and Asen, and Bulgaria sought again to dominate the Balkans. The disintegration of Byzantium was complete when in 1204 the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople. The Latins abolished the Byzantine Empire and set up their own feudal states in the southern Balkans.


  1. ^ Byzantine Military Organization on the Danube, 10th-12th Centuries, Alexandru Madgearu, BRILL, 2013, ISBN 9004252495 p. 63.

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