World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0024827179
Reproduction Date:

Title: Boykos  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Zakarpattia Oblast, Rusyns, Hutsuls, Belz, Gammalsvenskby, Gorals, History of Maramureș, List of ethnic groups in Russia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


This article is about Ukrainian people of West Ukraine. For the surname, see Boyko (surname).

Regions with significant populations
 Ukraine 131 (2001)[1]
 Poland 258 (2011)[2]
Ukrainian language
Greek Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Ukrainians  · Lemkos  · Hutsuls

Boyko or Boiko (Cyrillic: Бойки, Polish: Bojkowie, Slovak: Pujďáci) are a distinctive group of Ukrainian highlanders or mountain-dwellers of the Carpathian highlands. Along with Lemkos and Hutsuls they are a national continuum of Carpathian nationalities also known as Gorals.

Boykos identify themselves as part of the Ukrainian ethnos which has derived from the Ukrainian. Only 131 people distinctly identified as Boyko. In the Polish census of 2011, 258 people identified their nationality as Boyko, but only for 14 of them it was the only national identification.

The Boyko language is based on the Ruthenian language, much influenced by the liturgic Old Church Slavonic language.[3]


The Boykos inhabit the central and the western half of the Carpathians in Ukraine across the such regions as the southern Lviv Oblast (Skole, Turka, Drohobych, Sambir and Stary Sambir Raions), western Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Dolyna and Rozhniativ Raions) and parts of the northeastern Zakarpattia Oblast (Mizhhiria Raion), as well as the adjacent areas of southeast Poland and northeast Slovakia.

To the west of Boykos live Lemkos, east or southeast - Hutsuls, to the south or southwest - Rusyns.


The name "Boyko" is thought by some to originate in their patterns of speech, specifically the use of the affirmative exclamation "bo-ye!", meaning the only or because it is so. Example: "Nu, bo vono tak i ye.", "This is the way it is." In this instance the word bo is unusual for the common Ukrainian language. It was first coined by the priest Joseph Levytsky in the foreword of his Hramatyka (1831).

One view proposed by Soviet scholars considers the Boykos an autochthonous population with specific language and dialectal features, of which their use of bo ye meaning "yes" is a prominent example (hypothesis of I. Verkhratsky).[4] An older view proposed by the 19th century authors I. Vahylevych, Ya. Holovatsky, and P. Šafárik links the Boyos to the Celtic Boii, a tribe unattested since the beginning of the Christian Era.

Most Boykos belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, with a minority belonging to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. The distinctive wooden church architecture of the Boyko region is a three-domed church, with the domes arranged in one line, and the middle dome slightly larger than the others.

See also


  • Anatoliy Ponomariov. "Ethnic groups of Ukrainians" (in Ukrainian). Available online.
  • "How Rusyns became Ukrainians", in Ukrainian.
  • Short photo essay about contemporary Boiko life.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.