World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Bogotá

Bogotá
Capital city
Downtown Bogota
93rd Street Park Transmilenio Totem Colombian Flag
Gold Museum Narino Palace
Bolivar Square La Candelaria
Bogota D.C.
Flag of Bogotá
Flag
Official seal of Bogotá
Seal
Motto: "Bogotá Humana"
("Humane Bogotá ", 2011–2015)
Bogotá is located in Colombia
Bogotá
Bogotá
Colombia
Coordinates:
Country Colombia
Department Capital District
Foundation 6 August 1538 (traditional)[1]
Founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Government
 • Mayor Gustavo Petro
Area
 • Capital city 1,587 km2 (613 sq mi)
 • Urban 307.36 km2 (118.67 sq mi)
Area rank 32nd
Elevation[2] 2,640 m (8,660 ft)
Population (August 2015)[3][4][5]
 • Capital city 8,854,722
 • Rank 1st
 • Density 5,600/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 12,170,531
 • Metro 13,864,952
Demonym(s) Bogotan
bogotano, -na (es)
Postal code 11XXXX
Area code(s) +57 1
HDI (2010) 0.965[6] very high
Website City Official Site
Mayor Official Site
Bogotá Tourism

Bogotá (, ; Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital of Colombia and Cundinamarca Department, with a population of 8,854,722 in 2015.[7][8] Bogotá and its metropolitan area had a population of over 13 million in 2015.[4][5] Bogotá is the fastest growing major city in Latin America, and is expected to have around 25 million inhabitants by 2038.[9][10]

In terms of land area, Bogotá is the largest city in Colombia, and one of the biggest in Latin America. It figures among the 25 largest cities of the world and is the third-highest capital city in South America at 2,640 meters (8,660 ft) above sea level, after La Paz and Quito. With its many universities, museums, cultural festivals and libraries, Bogotá has been called "The Athens of South America".[11] The city is listed as a Beta global city by the GaWC.[12]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Pre-Columbian era 1.1
    • Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada expedition 1.2
    • Spanish colonization 1.3
    • Nineteenth century 1.4
    • Tramway 1.5
    • Regeneration 1.6
    • Twentieth century 1.7
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
    • Urban layout and nomenclature 2.2
    • Localities (districts) 2.3
    • Surrounding cities 2.4
  • Demographics 3
    • Crime 3.1
  • Government 4
  • Economy 5
    • Tourism 5.1
    • Shopping malls 5.2
  • Media 6
  • Infrastructure 7
  • Transport 8
    • Airports 8.1
    • Urban and suburban railways 8.2
    • Bicycle infrastructure 8.3
  • Colleges and universities 9
  • Culture 10
    • Cultural history 10.1
    • Architecture 10.2
    • Libraries and archives 10.3
    • Museums and galleries 10.4
    • Theatre and arts 10.5
    • Religion 10.6
    • Cuisine 10.7
    • Parks and recreation 10.8
  • Sports 11
    • Sports Teams 11.1
  • Symbols 12
  • International relations 13
    • Twin towns and sister cities 13.1
    • Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities 13.2
    • Partnerships and cooperations 13.3
  • See also 14
  • Notable people from Bogotá 15
  • References 16
    • Notes 16.1
  • External links 17

History

The area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south. Among these groups were the Muiscas, who settled mainly in the regions that we know today as the Departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá. With the arrival of the Spanish colonizers, the area became a major settlement, founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and later capital of the Spanish provinces and the seat of the Viceroyalty of New Granada.[13] With independence, Bogotá became capital of the Gran Colombia and later the capital of the Republic of Colombia.

Pre-Columbian era

The Muisca raft, a pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the Muisca's offerings of gold.

The first populations inhabiting Bogotá were the Muiscas, members of the Chibcha language family.[14] At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people. They occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2 (9,653 sq mi), comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Most fertile lands were ancient Pleistocene lake beds and regions irrigated by high Bogotá, Suárez, Chicamocha and some Meta affluent river beds.

In this area, the population was organised in two large federations, each commanded by a chief. The southwest area was dominated by the Zipa with the center located in Bacatá, currently Bogotá. He was the strongest leader, occupying two-fifths of the territory. The northeast zone was the Zaque domain and the center was Hunza region, currently Tunja. Unlike the Tayronas, the Muiscas did not develop large cities. Muisca, eminently farmers, formed a disperse population occupying numerous small villages and hut settlements. In addition, some free isolated tribes also existed: Iraca or Sugamuxi, Tundama, and Guanentá.

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada expedition

The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the city

From 1533, a belief persisted that the Río Grande de la Magdalena was the trail to the South Sea, to Peru, legendary El Dorado. Such was the target of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, the Spaniard conqueror who left Santa Marta on 6 April 1536 with 500 soldiers, heading towards the interior of current Colombia. The expedition divided into two groups, one under Quesada's command to move on land, and the other commanded by Diego de Urbino would go up river in four brigantine ships to, later on, meet Quesada troops at the site named Tora de las Barrancas Bermejas. When they arrived, they heard news about Indians inhabiting the south and making large salt cakes used to trade for wild cotton and fish. Jiménez decided to abandon the route to Peru and cross the mountain in search of salt villages. They saw crops, trails, white salt cakes and then huts where they found corn, yucca and beans. From Tora, the expedition went up the Opón River and found Indians covered with very finely painted cotton mats. When they arrived to Grita Valley, of the expedition leaving Santa Marta, only 70 men were left.[15]

Along their trip, they took a large amount of gold and emeralds. In Hunza, they captured the Zaque Quemuenchatocha and headed towards Sogamoso, where they plundered and set the Sun temple on fire and obtaining immense prize.

On 22 March 1537, they arrived from the north crossing Nemocón and Zipaquirá salt villages to a place they named Valle de los Alcázares (Valley of the Fortress). Already in Chibcha territory they found goods roads and moved southwest. In the next few days, they came across several villages, among them Lenguazaque and Suesca. They continued through Cajicá, Chía and Suba, the start of Bogotá Kingdom, where they fought Bogotá Chief Indians, who tried to prevent them from entering their town, and saw Muequetá or Bacatá fenced ranch village, built on a swampy ravine, and Tisquesusa Zipa capital on the right margin of the Tisquesusa River.

Spanish colonization

The fountain of Quevedo on the Chorro de Quevedo, one of the possible foundation sites of Bogotá

Following the conquerors motto to found and to populate, Quesada decided to build an urban settlement to live in good order and under stable government.

In 1553, the Main Plaza —now Plaza de Bolívar— was moved to its current site and the first cathedral construction on the eastern side began. On the other sides, the Chapter and the Royal Audience were located. The street joining the Major Plaza and Herbs Plaza —currently Santander Park— was named Calle Real(Royal Street), now Seventh Carrera.

Formed by Whites, Mestizos, Indians, and slaves, from the second half of the 16th century, the population began rapidly growing. The 1789 census recorded 18,161 inhabitants, and by 1819, the city population amounted to 30,000 inhabitants distributed in 195 blocks. Importance grew when the diocese was created.

The city mayor and the chapter formed by two councilmen, assisted by the constable and the police chief, governed the city. For better administering these domains, in April 1550, the Audience of Santafé de Bogotá was organized. At that time, the city became the capital and the home of New Kingdom of Granada government. Fourteen years later in 1564, the Spanish Crown designated the first Royal Audience chairman, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leyva. The New Granada became a viceroyship in 1739 and kept that condition until Liberator Simón Bolívar achieved independence in 1819.

Nineteenth century

Political uneasiness felt all over Spanish colonies in America was expressed in New Granada in many different ways, accelerating the movement to independence. One of the most transcendent was the Revolution of Comuneros, a riot of the inhabitants started in Villa del Socorro —current Department of Santander—in March 1781. Spanish authorities suppressed the riot, and José Antonio Galán, the leader was executed. He left an imprint, though. He was followed in 1794 by Antonio Nariño, precursor of independence by translating and publishing in Santa Fe, the Rights of Men and the Citizen, and by 20 July movement leaders in 1810.

The Royal Street, today known as the Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)

Between 1819 and 1849, there were no fundamental structural changes from the colonial period. By the mid-19th century, a series of fundamental reforms were enacted, some of the most important being slavery abolition and religious, teaching, print and speech industry and trade freedom, among others. During the decade of the 70s, radicalism accelerated reforms and state and social institutions were substantially modified. However, during the second half of the century, the country faced permanent pronouncements, declarations of rebellions between states, and factions which resulted in civil wars: the last and bloodiest was the Thousand Days' War from 1899 to 1902.

In 1823, a few years after the formation of Gran Colombia, the Public Library, now the National Library, was enlarged and modernized with new volumes and better facilities. The National Museum was founded. Those institutions were of great importance to the new republic's cultural development. The Central University was the first State school, precursor of the current National University, founded in 1867 and domiciled in Bogotá.

Bogotá's Railroad Central Station

Tramway

On 25 December 1884, the first tramway pulled by mules was inaugurated, and covered the route from Plaza de Bolívar to Chapinero,[16] and in 1892, the line linking Plaza de Bolívar and La Sabana Station started operating. The tramway ran over wood rails and would easily derailed, so steel rails imported from England were eventually installed. In 1894, a tramway car ran the Bogotá-Chapinero line every 20 minutes. The tramway provided services until 1948, and was then replaced by buses.

Regeneration

President Rafael Núñez declared the end of Federalism, and in 1886 the country became a centralist republic ruled by the constitution in force – save some amendments – up to 1981. In the middle of political and administration avatars, Bogotá continued as the capital and principal political center of the country.

From a base of only 20,000 people in 1793, the city grew to 117,000 in 1912. Population growth was rapid after 1870, largely because of immigration from the eastern highlands.[17]

Twentieth century

Early in the 20th century, Colombia had to face devastating consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, and the loss of Plaza de Bolívar and surroundings lodged hat stores, at Calle del Comercio –current Carrera Seventh– and Calle Florián –now Carrera Eight– luxurious stores selling imported products opened their doors; at Pasaje Hernández, tailor's shops provided their services, and between 1870 and 1883, four main banks opened their doors: Bogotá, Colombia, Popular and Mortgage Credit banks.

Bogotazo

Following the banana zone killings and conservative party division, Enrique Olaya Herrera took office in 1930. The liberal party reformed during 16 years of the so-called Liberal Republic, agricultural, social, political, labor, educational, economic and administrative sectors. Unionism strengthened and education coverage expanded.

The celebration produced a large number of infrastructure works, new construction and work sources. Following the 1946 liberal party division, a conservative candidate took presidential office again in 1948, after the killing of liberal leader

In 2015, BD Bacatá will be inaugurated, taking the place from Colpatria tower to become the tallest building of the city and of Colombia.[58] The building its expected to be the beginning of the city's downtown renovation.

Although renowned for its beautiful preservation of colonial architecture, there are also significant contemporary architecture examples found in the downtown and at the north of the city.

"Republican Architecture" was the style that prevailed between 1830 and 1930. Although there were attempts to consolidate a modern architectural language, the only examples seen are University City and White City at the National University of Colombia (constructed 1936 to 1939). This work was developed by German architect Rogelio Salmona.

The urban morphology and typology of colonial buildings in Bogotá have been maintained since the late nineteenth century, long after the independence of Colombia (1810). This persistence of the colonial setting is still visible, particularly in La Candelaria, the historical center of Bogotá. Also kept up are the colonial houses of two stories, with courtyards, gabled roofs, ceramic tiles and balconies. In some cases, these balconies were filled with glass during the Republican period, a distinguishing feature of the architecture of the sector (for example, the House of Rafael Pombo).

BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building,
Colpatria Tower, the city's tallest building.

Architecture

Bogotá gave the Spanish-speaking world José Asunción Silva (1865–1896), Modernism pioneer. His poetic work in the novel De sobremesa position him in an outstanding American literature place. Rafael Pombo (1833–1912) was an American romanticism poet who left a collection of fables essential part of children imagination and Colombian tradition.

Cultural history

Bogotá has worked heavily in recent years to position itself as leader in cultural offerings in South America, and it is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a hub in the region for the development of the arts.[53][54][55][56] In 2007, Bogotá was awarded the title of Cultural Capital of Ibero-America by the UCCI (Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities), and it became the only city to have received the recognition twice, after being awarded for the first time in 1991.[57]

Kids' Choice Awards Colombia, are the most important awards given in the city by Nickelodeon and the first ceremony was given in 2014 by the singer Maluma and in Corferias the ceremony has been the home of shows given by artists like Austin Mahone, Carlos Pena, Don Tetto, Riva among others.

Rock al Parque or Rock at the Park, is an open air rock music festival. Recurring annually, it gathers over 320,000 music fans who can enjoy over 60 band performances for free during three days a year.[52] The series have been so successful during its 15 years of operation that the city has replicated the initiative for other music genres, resulting in other recent festivals like Salsa at the Park, Hip Hop at the Park, Ballet at the Park, Opera at the Park, and Jazz at the Park.

The Cristobal Colon Theater, the Country's oldest Opera House, opened in 1892, is home to the National Symphony Association's major act, the National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia;[51]

Bogotá has many cultural venues including 58 museums, 62 art galleries, 33 library networks, 45 stage theatres, 75 sports and attraction parks, and over 150 national monuments.[46] Many of these are renowned globally such as: The Luis Angel Arango Library, the most important in the region which receives well over 6 million visitors a year;[47] The Colombian National Museum, one of the oldest in the Americas, dating back to 1823;[48] The Ibero-American Theater Festival, largest of its kind in the world, receives 2 million attendees enjoying over 450 performances across theaters and off the street;[49] The Bogotá Philharmonic is the most important symphony orchestra in Colombia, with over 100 musicians and 140 performances a year;[50]

Ciclovia in Bogotá.

Culture

The city has a University City at the National University of Colombia campus located in the traditional sector Teusaquillo. It is the largest campus in Colombia and one of the largest in Latin America.

There are a number of universities, both public and private. In 2002, there were a total of 106 higher education institutions; in Bogotá there are several universities, most partially or fully accredited by the NAC (National Accreditation Council): Pilot University of Colombia), Catholic University of Colombia and Saint Thomas Aquinas University.

Often known as the Athens of South America,[45] Bogotá has an extensive educational system of both primary and secondary schools and colleges. Due to the constant migration of people into the nation's capital, the availability of quotas for access to education offered by the State free of charge is often insufficient. The city also has a diverse system of colleges and private schools.

Mario Laserna building in the University of the Andes.
León de Greiff Hall at National University of Colombia

Colleges and universities

The network is integrated with the TransMilenio bus system which has bicycle parking facilities.

Bogotá is the Colombian city with the most extensive and comprehensive network of bike paths. Bogotá’s bike paths network or Ciclorutas de Bogotá in Spanish, designed and built during the administration of Mayors Antanas Mockus, Enrique Peñalosa and Samuel Moreno, is also one of the most extensive in the world.[44]

Bicycle infrastructure

Urban and suburban railways

Guaymaral Airport is another small airport located in the northern boundaries of Bogota. It is used mainly for private aviation activities.

A secondary airport, CATAM, serves as a base for Military and Police Aviation. This airport, which uses the runways of El Dorado will eventually move to Madrid, a nearby town in the region of Cundinamarca, leaving further space to expand El Dorado.[43]

Bogotá's principal airport is El Dorado International Airport, west of the city's downtown. Due to its central location in Colombia and in Latin America, it is a hub for Colombia's Flagship Carrier Avianca, Copa Airlines Colombia and LAN Colombia. It is also serviced by a number of international airlines including American, Delta, United, Jet Blue and Lufthansa. Currently the national airport has begun to take more responsibility due to the congestion at the international airport. In response to the high demand of approximately 27 Million passengers per year,[41] a new airport, El Dorado II, is planned to be built by 2021, to help alleviate traffic at the main airport.[42]

Airports

Despite the city's chronic congestion, many of the ideas enacted during the Peñalosa years are regarded worldwide to be cost-effective, efficient and unique solutions. In addition to TransMilenio, the Peñalosa administration and voter-approved referenda helped to establish travel restrictions on cars with certain license plate numbers during peak hours called Pico y placa; 121 kilometres (75 miles) of Ciclovía on Sundays; a massive system (376 km (234 mi) as of 2013) of bicycle paths and segregated lanes called ciclorrutas; and the removal of thousands of parking spots in an attempt to make roads more pedestrian-friendly and discourage car use. Ciclorrutas is one of the most extensive dedicated bike path networks of any city in the world, with a total extension of 376 kilometres (234 miles). It extends from the north of the city, 170th Street, to the south, 27th Street, and from Monserrate on the east to the Bogotá River on the west. The ciclorruta was started by the 1995–1998 Antanas Mockus administration with a few kilometers, and considerably extended during the administration of Mayor Peñalosa with the development of a Bicycle Master Plan and the addition of paths hundreds of kilometers in extent.[39] Since the construction of the ciclorruta bicycle use in the city has increased, and a car free week was introduced in 2014.[40]

Ciclorruta near the Fucha River.

The off-peak fare is C$1600 during daylight and 1700 at night; a single ticket however allows unlimited transfers until the passenger leaves the system, and passengers can travel on feeder routes for free. Transmilenio does not yet cover some of the main routes, and buses are constantly overcrowded.

The TransMilenio 'rapid transit system' was created during Enrique Peñalosa's mayoral term,[38] and is a form of bus rapid transit that has been deployed as a measure to compensate for the lack of a subway or rail system. TransMilenio combines articulated buses that operate on dedicated bus roads (busways) and smaller buses (feeders) that operate in residential areas, bringing passengers to the main grid. TransMilenio's main routes are: Caracas Avenue, Northern Highway (Autopista Norte), 80th Street, Americas Avenue, Jiménez Avenue, and 30th Avenue (also referred to as Norte Quito Sur or N.Q.S. for short). Routes for Suba Avenue and Southern Highway (Autopista Sur), the southern leg of the 30th Avenue, were opened in April 2006. The third phase of the system will cover 7th Avenue, 10th Avenue, and 26th Street (or Avenida El Dorado). The system is planned to cover the entire city by 2030. Although the Transmilenio carries commuters to numerous corners of the city, it is more expensive than any public transport except taxis.

The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues: Bus (large buses), Buseta (medium size buses) and Colectivo (vans or minivans). The bigger buses were divided into two categories: Ejecutivo, which was originally to be a deluxe service and was not to carry standing passengers, and corriente or normal service. Since May 2008, all buses run as corriente services. Bogotá is a hub for domestic and international bus routes. The Bogotá terminal serves routes to most cities and towns in Colombia[37] and is the largest in the country. There is international service to Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela.

Northern Highway at 100th Street
Urban Bus from the integrated public transport system

Bogotá's growth has placed a strain on its roads and highways, but since 1998 significant efforts to upgrade the infrastructure have been undertaken. Private car ownership forms a major part of the congestion, in addition to taxis, buses and commercial vehicles. Buses remain the main means of mass transit. There are two bus systems: the traditional system and the TransMilenio.

A biarticulated TransMilenio bus

Transport

  • Estrato 1 (lowest)
  • Estrato 2 (low)
  • Estrato 3 (mid-low)
  • Estrato 4 (mid-high)
  • Estrato 5 (high)
  • Estrato 6 (highest)

Energy and sewer bills are stratified based on the location of owner's residence and income,[36] with the intended purpose that wealthier branches of society subsidize the energy and sewer bills of the poorer. Bogotá is divided into six socio-economic "estratos" (strata):

A house in the Teusaquillo locality, near downtown Bogotá. (Estrato 4).

Infrastructure

There are several newspapers, including El Tiempo, El Espectador, El Periódico (Colombia)|El Periódico, and El Nuevo Siglo, plus economical dailies La República (Colombia)|La República and Portafolio, tabloids El Espacio, Q'Hubo, and Extra, and Communist Party's Voz Proletaria. Bogotá also offers three free newspapers, two Spanish, ADN and Publimetro, and one English, The Bogotá Post.

In the capital, all the major radio networks in the country are available, in both AM and FM; 70% of the FM stations offer RDS service.

The city has : Canal Capital and Citytv are local stations, Canal 13 is a regional station, and is home to the national channels Caracol TV, RCN TV, Canal Uno, Canal Institucional, and Señal Colombia. It has multiple satellite television services like DirecTV and Telefonica; cable TV is mostly provided by the Mexican company Claro (formerly TV Cable Bogotá, Telmex, Superview, and Cablecentro) and the Venezuelan company Super Cable, and satellite dishes which offer hundreds of international channels, plus several exclusive channels for Bogotá.

Media

Bogotá's economy has been significantly boosted due to new shopping malls built within the last few years. As of December 2011, over 160 new malls are planned in addition to the existing 100 malls.[35] Notable malls include:

Calima mall
Titan Plaza mall, in northwestern Bogota

Shopping malls

Since the 2000s, major hotel chains have established in the city.

There are also several areas of the city where fine restaurants can be found. The G Zone, the T Zone and La Macarena are well known for their gastronomic offerings.

Green areas surrounding Bogota are perfect locations for eco-tourism and hiking activities, in the eastern mountains of the city, just a few minutes walking from main roads, there are Quebrada La vieja and Chapinero Waterfalls, two of many green spots for sightseeing and tourism with clean air.[33][34]

Important landmarks and tourist stops in Bogotá include the botanical garden José Celestino Mutis, La Quinta de Bolivar, the national observatory, the planetarium, Maloka, the Colpatria observation point, the observation point of La Calera, the monument of the American flags, and La Candelaria (the historical district of the city). There is also Usaquen, a colonial landmark where brunch and flea market on Sundays is a traditional activity. The city has numerous green parks and amusement parks like Salitre Magico or Mundo Aventura.

The hotels in the historical center of La Candelaria and its surrounding areas cater to lovers of culture and the arts. This area also has the bulk of hostels in the city as well. In La Candelaria, there are many museums, including the Botero Museum and the Gold Museum. Close to La Candelaria is the Cerro Monserrate, which you can reach by cable car or funicular. The hotels located near Ciudad Salitre are intended for visitors who make short stops in Bogotá and near El Dorado International Airport.

Despite the bad reputation Colombia bore in the 1980s and early 1990s, tourism in Bogotá has increased since the 2000s due to aggressive publicity campaigns and improvements in both infrastructure and safety.

Tourism

In 2008, the World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) from the United Kingdom ranked Bogotá as a beta level city, a medium ranking. Beta level cities are important world cities that are instrumental in linking their region or state into the world economy.[32]

Bogotá is the main economic and industrial center of Colombia. The Colombian government fosters the import of capital goods, Bogotá being one of the main destinations of these imports.

Northern Financial District
Central Business District
Bogotá is the 3rd largest city of Latin America by Population.

Economy

Each of the 20 localities is governed by an administrative board elected by popular vote, made up of no fewer than seven members. The Principal Mayor designates local mayors from candidates nominated by the respective administrative board.

The city is divided into 20 localities: Usaquén, Chapinero, Santa Fe, San Cristóbal, Usme, Tunjuelito, Bosa, Kennedy, Fontibón, Engativá, Suba, Barrios Unidos, Teusaquillo, Los Mártires, Antonio Nariño, Puente Aranda, La Candelaria, Rafael Uribe Uribe, Ciudad Bolívar, Sumapaz.

The Principal Mayor and District Council – both elected by popular vote – are responsible for city administration. In 2011 Gustavo Petro was elected Mayor; his term runs from 2012 to 2015. Previous recent mayors of Bogotá include Luis Eduardo Garzón, Samuel Moreno Rojas, Antanas Mockus Sivickas and Enrique Peñalosa Londoño.

Bogotá is the capital of the Republic of Colombia, and houses the Congress, Supreme Court of Justice and the center of the executive administration as well as the residence of the President (Casa de Nariño).[31] These buildings, along with the Principal Mayor's office, the Lievano Palace (Palacio de Liévano), are located within a few meters from each other on the Bolívar Square (Plaza de Bolívar). The square is located in the city's historical center, La Candelaria, which features architecture in Spanish Colonial and Spanish Baroque styles.

Government

Bogotá has gone to great lengths to change its crime rate and its image with increasing success after being considered in the 1990s to be one of the most violent cities in the world.[26] In 1993 there were 4,352 intentional homicides at a rate of 81 per 100,000 people;[27] in 2007, Bogotá suffered 1,401 murders at a rate of 19 per 100,000 inhabitants, and had a further reduction to 16.9 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012 (the lowest since 1983)[28][29] This success was the result of a participatory and integrated security policy, "Comunidad Segura", that was first adopted in 1995 and continues to be enforced.[30]

Crime

The ethnic composition of the city’s population includes minorities of Afro-Colombian people (1.5%), and Indigenous Amerindians (0.2%); 98.27% of the population has no ethnic affiliation.[25]

Some estimates show that Bogotá's floating population may be as high as 4 million people, most of them being migrant workers from other departments and displaced people.[24] The majority of the displaced population lives in the Ciudad Bolívar, Kennedy, Usme, and Bosa sections.

In Bogotá, as in the rest of the country, urbanization has accelerated due to industrialization as well as complex political and social reasons such as poverty and violence, which led to migration from rural to urban areas throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A dramatic example of this is the number of displaced people who have arrived in Bogotá due to the internal armed conflict.

Bogotá Future Population (Medium Variant)

The largest and most populous city in Colombia, Bogotá had 6,778,691 inhabitants within the city's limits (2005 census),[5] with a population density of approximately 4,310 inhabitants per square kilometer. Only 15,810 people are located in rural areas of Capital District. 47.5% of the population are male and 52.5% women.

Demographics

Surrounding cities

Localities (districts)

  • Norte-Quito-Sur or NQS (North Quito South Avenue, from 9th road at north following railway to 30th road Avenue, or Quito City Avenue, and Southern Highway)
  • Autopista Norte-Avenida Caracas (Northern Highway, or 45th road, joined to Caracas Avenue, or 14th road)
  • Avenida Circunvalar (from downtown following hillside on eastern hills going to La Calera, mostly the 1-este (1st-east))
  • Avenida Suba (60th transversal from 100th street to the Suba Hills; 145th street from Suba Hills westward)
  • Avenida El Dorado (El Dorado Avenue, or 26th street)
  • Avenida de las Américas (Americas Avenue, from 34th street at east to 6th street at west)
  • Avenida Primero de Mayo (May First Avenue, or 22nd (partly 20th too) south street)
  • Avenida Ciudad de Cali (Cali City Avenue, or 86th road)
  • Avenida Boyacá (Boyacá Avenue, or 72nd road)
  • Autopista Sur (Southern Highway)

The urban layout in the center of the city is based on the focal point of a square or plaza, typical of Spanish-founded settlements, but the layout gradually becomes more modern in outlying neighborhoods. The current types of roads are classified as calles (streets), which run perpendicular to the Cordillera, with street numbers increasing towards the north, and also towards the south (with the suffix "Sur") from Calle 0. Carreras run parallel to the hills, with numbering increasing as one travels east or west of Carrera 1 (with the suffix "Este" for roads east of Carrera 0). At the southeast of the city, the addresses are logically sur-este. Other types of roads more common in newer parts of the city may be termed Eje (Axis), Diagonal or Transversal. The numbering system for street addresses recently changed, and numbers are assigned according to street rank from main avenues to smaller avenues and local streets. Some of Bogotá's main roads, which also go by a proper name in addition to a number, are:

Bogotá has 20 localities, or districts, forming an extensive network of neighborhoods. Areas of higher economic status tend to be located to the north and northeast, close to the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera. Poorer neighborhoods are located to the south and southeast, many of them squatter areas. The middle classes usually inhabit the central, western and northwestern sections of the city.

Street arrangement of Bogotá based on the Cartesian coordinate system: North is to the right.

Urban layout and nomenclature

Climate data for National Meteorological Observatory, Bogotá (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
25.2
(77.4)
26.6
(79.9)
24.4
(75.9)
25.0
(77)
28.6
(83.5)
25.0
(77)
23.3
(73.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.1
(77.2)
25.6
(78.1)
24.4
(75.9)
28.6
(83.5)
Average high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
20.3
(68.5)
19.4
(66.9)
20.1
(68.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.2
(66.6)
18.6
(65.5)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
19.5
(67.1)
19.6
(67.3)
19.9
(67.8)
19.6
(67.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
14.5
(58.1)
14.9
(58.8)
14.9
(58.8)
15.0
(59)
14.5
(58.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.1
(57.4)
14.3
(57.7)
14.3
(57.7)
14.4
(57.9)
14.6
(58.3)
14.4
(57.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
8.4
(47.1)
9.5
(49.1)
9.7
(49.5)
9.7
(49.5)
9.5
(49.1)
9.2
(48.6)
8.9
(48)
8.7
(47.7)
9.0
(48.2)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.2
(32.4)
0.2
(32.4)
1.1
(34)
0.4
(32.7)
0.4
(32.7)
0.3
(32.5)
1.8
(35.2)
0.5
(32.9)
−1.1
(30)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 50
(1.97)
68
(2.68)
91
(3.58)
135
(5.31)
120
(4.72)
54
(2.13)
35
(1.38)
45
(1.77)
70
(2.76)
137
(5.39)
127
(5)
81
(3.19)
1,012
(39.84)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 9 12 14 18 19 17 15 14 16 21 16 11 181
Average relative humidity (%) 75 76 75 77 77 75 74 74 75 76 77 76 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 156 128 107 88 83 94 114 117 109 96 103 138 1,328
Source: Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales (IDEAM)[22]

Hailstorms are a rare phenomenon. Between 1939 and 2008, there have been 231 events. In recent years, there has been an increase; in 2015, an accumulation of hail reaching 61 inches occurred on 22 March. Hailstorms occur in the afternoon during the rainy seasons, when the rapid development of the cells of clouds, cumulonimbus clouds that are related to the formation of tornadoes; they also cause a notable decrease in temperature in the affected areas, sometimes dramatically so, reaching an almost 20-degree drop in less than an hour.

While temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year, weather conditions can change dramatically during the course of a single day. Climatic conditions are irregular and variable due to El Niño and La Niña climatic phenomena which occur in and around the Pacific basin and are responsible for pronounced climatic changes. This makes the city's weather unpredictable; sunny mornings can turn into a severe-storm afternoon (something commonly referred as sol de lluvia (literally, "rain's sun"). Precipitation amounts possess irregular patterns throughout the year.

The rainiest months are April, May, September, October and November, in which typical days are mostly overcast, with low clouds and some winds, bringing maximum temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) and lows of 7 °C (45 °F).

The official highest temperature recorded within the city limits is 30.0 °C (86 °F),[22] and the lowest temperature recorded is −7.1 °C (19 °F).[22]

Bogotá has a [19] The average temperature is 14.5 °C (58 °F),[20] and it varies from 6 to 19 °C (43 to 66 °F) in fair skies days, to 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64 °F) in heavy rain days. Dry and rainy seasons alternate throughout the year. The driest months are December, January, July and August. The warmest month is March, bringing a maximum of 19.7 °C (67.5 °F). The coolest nights occur in January, with an average of 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in the city; fog is very usual in early morning, 220 days per year,[21] whilst sunny days are quite unusual.[21]

Hailstorm in Bogotá
Bogota on a dry day

Climate

The sabana is bordered to the east by the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes mountain range. Surrounding hills, which limit city growth, run from south to north, parallel to the Guadalupe and Monserrate mountains. The western city limit is the Bogotá River. The Sumapaz Paramo (moorland) borders the south and to the north Bogotá extends over the plateau up to the towns of Chía and Sopó.

The Bogotá River crosses the sabana, forming Tequendama Falls (Salto de Tequendama) to the south. Tributary rivers form valleys with flourishing villages, whose economy is based on agriculture, livestock raising and artisanal production.

Within Bogota's District the world's largest continuous paramo ecosystem can be found, which is located in the Sumapaz Locality.[18]

Bogotá is located on the west of the Savannah of Bogotá (Sabana de Bogotá), 2640 metres (8661 ft) above sea level.[2] Although it is located in what is popularly called "savannah" (sabana), the geographical site is actually a high plateau in the Andes mountains. The extended region is also known as "Altiplano Cundiboyacense" which literally means "high plateau of Cundinamarca and Boyacá".

Arzobispo river
Eastern hills
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.