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Aix-Marseille University


Aix-Marseille University

Aix-Marseille University
Aix-Marseille Université
Established 1409 (University of Provence)[1]
1896 (University of Aix-Marseille)
1970 (University of Provence Aix-Marseille I)
1970 (University of the Mediterranean Aix-Marseille II)
1973 (Paul Cézanne University Aix-Marseille III)
2012 (Aix-Marseille University)
Type Public
Endowment 722 million[2]
President Yvon Berland[3]
Academic staff
Administrative staff
Students 70,221
Location Aix-en-Provence and Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,  France
Affiliations Mediterranean Universities Union (UNIMED), Association of MBAs (AMBA), European University Association (EUA), European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS)

Aix-Marseille University (AMU) (French: Aix-Marseille Université) is a public research university located in Provence, southern France. It was founded in 1409 when Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, petitioned the Pisan Antipope Alexander V to create the University of Provence.[4] The university as it is today was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University.[5][6][7] The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in the French-speaking world, with about 70,000 students.[8][9] AMU has the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €722 million.[10][11]

The university is organized around five main campuses situated in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille.[12] Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Aubagne, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat, Lambesc and Salon-de-Provence. The university is headquartered at the Pharo, Marseille.[13]

AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, politics, business, economics and literature. To date, there have been four Nobel Prize Laureates amongst its alumni and faculty,[14][15][16][17] as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize,[18] three César Award winners,[19][20][21] several heads of state or government, parliamentary speakers, government ministers, ambassadors and members of the constituent academies of the Institut de France.

AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the European University Association (EUA)[23] and the Mediterranean Universities Union (UNIMED).[24]


  • History 1
    • Early history (1409–1800) 1.1
    • Modern era (1800–1968) 1.2
    • Recent history (1968–present) 1.3
  • Academic profile 2
    • Political Science 2.1
    • Law 2.2
    • Business and Management Studies 2.3
    • Economics 2.4
    • Medicine 2.5
    • Earth Sciences and Astronomy 2.6
    • Engineering 2.7
    • Rankings and reputation 2.8
  • Organization 3
  • Governance 4
  • Alumni 5
  • Notable faculty and staff 6
    • Nobel laureates 6.1
    • Politics and government 6.2
      • Foreign politicians 6.2.1
      • French politicians 6.2.2
      • Members of the National Assembly of France 6.2.3
      • Members of the Senate of France 6.2.4
    • Diplomatic service 6.3
    • Lawyers, judges, and legal academics 6.4
    • Arts, literature, humanities, and entertainment 6.5
      • Historians 6.5.1
      • Journalism 6.5.2
      • Literature 6.5.3
      • Music 6.5.4
    • Scientists and academics 6.6
    • Business and economics 6.7
    • Mathematics 6.8
    • Miscellaneous 6.9
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Early history (1409–1800)

The headquarters for AMU is located at the Pharo, Marseille
Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, the university's founder, as painted by Barthélemy d'Eyck and now on display at the National Library of France

The institution developed out of the original University of Provence, founded on 9 December 1409 as a Studium Generale by Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, and recognized by Papal Bull issued by the Pisan Antipope Alexander V.[25][26][27] However, there is evidence that teaching in Aix existed in some form from the beginning of the 12th century, since there were a doctor of theology in 1100, a doctor of law in 1200 and a professor of law in 1320 on the books.[28] The decision to establish the university was, in part, a response to the already-thriving University of Paris.[29] As a result, in order to be sure of the viability of the new institution, Louis II compelled his Provençal students to study in Aix only.[30] Thus, the letters patent for the university were granted, and the government of the university was created. The Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence Thomas de Puppio was appointed as the first chancellor of the university for the rest of his life. After his death in 1420, a new chancellor was elected by the rector, masters, and licentiates – an uncommon arrangement not repeated at any other French university. The rector had to be an “ordinary student”, who had unrestricted civil and criminal jurisdiction in all cases where one party was a doctor or scholar of the university. Those displeased with the rector’s decisions could appeal to a doctor legens. Eleven consiliarii provided assistance to the rector, being elected yearly by their predecessors. These individuals represented all faculties, but were elected from among the students. The constitution was of a student-university, and the instructors did not have great authority except in granting degrees. Mention should be made that a resident doctor or student who married was required to pay charivari to the university, the amount varying with the degree or status of the man, and being increased if the bride was a widow. Refusal to submit to this statutable extortion was punished by the assemblage of students at the summons of the rector with frying-pans, bassoons, and horns at the house of the newly married couple. Continued recusancy was followed by the piling up of dirt in front of their door upon every Feast-day. These injunctions were justified on the ground that the money extorted was devoted to divine service.[31]

In 1486 Provence passed to the French crown.[32][33] The university's continued existence was approved by Louis XII of France, and Aix-en-Provence continued to be a significant provincial centre. It was, for instance, the seat of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence from 1501 to 1789,[34][35] no doubt aided by the presence of the law faculty.

In 1603 Henry IV of France established the Collège Royal de Bourbon in Aix-en-Provence for the study of belles-lettres and philosophy,[36][37] supplementing the traditional faculties of the university, but not formally a part of it. This college de plain exercice became a significant seat of learning, under the control of the Jesuit order. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the college frequently served as a preparatory, but unaffiliated, school for the university. Only the university was entitled to award degrees in the theology, law, and medicine; but candidates for degrees had first to pass an examination in philosophy, which was only provided by the college. Universities basically accepted candidates who had studied in colleges formally affiliated with them, which in reality required both college and university to be situated in the same city. In 1762 the Jesuits were forced to leave France,[38] and in 1763 the Collège Royal de Bourbon was officially affiliated with the university as a faculty of arts.[39]

The addition of the Collège Royal de Bourbon essentially widened the scope of courses provided at the University of Provence. Formal instruction in French was initially provided at the college, with texts and a structured course of study. Subsequently physics became a part of the curriculum at the college as a part of the philosophy course in the 18th century. Equipment for carrying out experiments was obtained and the first course in experimental physics was provided at Aix-en-Provence in 1741. Classical mechanics, nevertheless, was merely taught after 1755, when the physicist Paulian offered his first class and Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica and commentaries were obtained for the library.

The French Revolution, with its focus on the individual and an end to inherited privilege, saw the suppression of the universities. To the revolutionaries, universities embodied bastions of corporatism and established interests. Moreover, lands owned by the universities and utilized for their support, represented a source of wealth to be tapped by the revolutionary government, just as property possessed by the Church had been confiscated. In 1792, the University of Provence, along with twenty-one other universities, was dissolved.[40] Specialized ecoles, with rigorous entrance examinations and open to anyone with talent, were eventually created in order to offer professional training in specialized areas. Nonetheless, the government found it necessary to allow the faculties of law and medicine to continue in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille in the early 19th century.[41]

Modern era (1800–1968)

During the 19th century, additional faculties were created in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille to serve the changing needs of French society. For instance, Hippolyte Fortoul, later Minister of National Education and Public Worship of France, was the first dean and professor of a new faculty in French literature established in Aix-en-Provence in the 1840s.[42][43] In 1896, the departmental council of the Bouches-du-Rhône founded a chair in the faculty of letters at Aix-en-Provence in the language and literature of Mediterranean Europe; their aim was to assist the commercial exploitation of the region by French business. A new science faculty was created in Marseille to support the growing industrialization of the region. At about the same time, a special training program was created in the faculty of medicine in order to train doctors in colonial medicine for France’s expanding colonial empire.

The most significant development for the university in the 19th century, nevertheless, was the recreation of French universities in 1896.[44] Facing acute competition from prestigious German universities following the Franco-Prussian War, French legislators were anxious to have their own universities. In 1896 a law was passed creating seventeen autonomous regional universities financed mainly by the state.[45] The various faculties in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille were grouped into the new University of Aix-Marseille.[46]

Through two world wars and a depression, the University of Aix-Marseille continued to develop. Increasing numbers of women and foreign students joined the student body, and an overwhelming majority of students majored in the science, medicine, and law. Individual faculties were almost autonomous from university administration and the Ministry of Education frequently intervened directly among the faculties.

Recent history (1968–present)

Following riots among university students in May 1968,[47] a reform of French education occurred. The Orientation Act (Loi d’Orientation de l’Enseignement Superieur) of 1968 divided the old faculties into smaller subject departments, decreased the power of the Ministry of Education, and created smaller universities, with strengthened administrations.[48] Subsequently, the University of Aix-Marseille was divided into two institutions. Each university had different areas of concentration of study and the faculties were divided as follows:

In 1973, conservative faculty members led by Charles Debbasch, demanded and obtained the creation of the University of Aix-Marseille III, grouping law, political science, applied economics, earth science, ecology and technological studies.

Nearly 40 years later, in June 2007, the three universities of Aix-Marseille expressed their intention to merge in order to form one university. The merger was gradually prepared, respecting a schedule which allowed for long discussions at each stage, after which it was approved by vote of the Board of Directors of each university. Thus, Aix-Marseille University was established by decree No. 2011-1010 of 24 August 2011 and officially opened its doors on 1 January 2012.[49]

Academic profile

Hôtel Maynier d'Oppède, built 1757, former home of the IEFEE

Aix-Marseille University enrolls almost 71,000 students, including more than 10,000 international students from 128 different countries. The university, with its wide range of general and vocational courses including 600 degree courses, offers teaching in fields as varied as the Arts, Social Sciences, Health, Sport and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Applied Economics and Management, and Exact Sciences such as Mathematics, Data-processing, Physical Sciences, Astrophysical Sciences, Chemistry and Biology.[50] Its 132 recognized research units and 21 faculties make it a centre of international excellence in social and natural sciences.[51] With more than 500 international agreements, the university participates in the creation of European area of education and research and in the development of mobility. A policy in the direction of Asian countries has led to increase its enrollments of excellent international students.[52] Programmes in French and/or English have been organized in order to favour the welcome and the integration of international students, in particular thanks to the presence within the university of the Institute of French Studies for Foreign Students (Institut d'Etudes Françaises Pour Etudiants Etrangers (IEFEE)). The IEFEE was founded in 1953 and is regarded as one of the best French-language teaching centres in the country.[53][54] About a thousand students from 65 countries attend the institute throughout the academic year. The institute is also a notable centre for teachers of French as a foreign language, and its function is to provide training and perfecting of linguistic abilities in French as a scientific and cultural means of communication. Furthermore, the university is "one of the most distinguished in France, second only to the University of Paris in the areas of French literature, history, and linguistics", according to Harvard University's website.[55][56][57]

The university’s library system comprises 59 libraries, with 662,000 volumes, 20,000 online periodical titles, and thousands of digital resources, making it one of the largest and most diverse academic library systems in France. The overall area occupied by the libraries is equal to 37,056 m², including 19,703 m² public access space. The libraries offer 49.2 kilometers of open-stacks shelving and 4,219 seats for student study. In addition, there are 487 computer workstations, which are available to the public for research purposes.[58]

Political Science

The main entrance to Sciences Po Aix
Sciences Po Aix is housed in the Palais de l'université, a Georges Vallon

The university's Institute of Political Studies (

  • Official website of Aix-Marseille University
  • (Faculty of Law and Political Science)
  • (Journalism and Communication School of Marseille)
  • (Faculty of Science and Technology)
  • (Institute of Business Administration – IAE Aix)
  • (Institute of French Studies for Foreign Students)
  • (Institute of Public Management and Territorial Governance)
  • (University Institute of Technology)
  • (Faculty of Medicine)
  • (Faculty of Odontology)
  • (Faculty of Pharmacy)
  • (The Mediterranean House of Human Sciences)
  • (Polytech Marseille)
  • (Midwives' University School Marseille Méditerranée)
  • (Institute of Political Studies – Sciences Po Aix)

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See also



Business and economics

David E. Bloom, Chair of Harvard University's Department of Global Health and Population

Scientists and academics





Arts, literature, humanities, and entertainment

Lawyers, judges, and legal academics

Diplomatic service

Members of the Senate of France

  • Joseph ComitiDeputy: 1968–1981
  • Paul de Fougères de Villandry – Deputy: 1837–1839
  • Jean-Pierre Giran – Deputy: 1997–2002/2002–2007/2007–2012/2012–present
  • Ambroise Mottet – Deputy: 1835–1842/1844–1848
  • Paul Patriarche – Deputy: 1997–2002
  • Camille Perreau – Deputy: 1898–1902
  • Philippe Sanmarco – Deputy: 1981–1993
  • Dominique Taddéi – Deputy: 1978–1981/1981–1986
  • Maurice Toga – Deputy: 1986–1988

Members of the National Assembly of France

French politicians

Foreign politicians

Politics and government

Nobel laureates

Notable faculty and staff

AMU has produced many alumni that have distinguished themselves in their respective fields. Notable AMU alumni include three Nobel Prize Laureates, a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, three César Award winners and numerous members of the component academies of the Institut de France. AMU has a large number of alumni who have been active in politics, including several heads of state or government, parliamentary speakers, government ministers, at least thirty-eight members of the National Assembly of France, eight members of the Senate of France and two members of the European Parliament.


This planning process is very important because the university is free to define its own strategy, to be approved by the decision makers. Each process generates an important brainstorming period at all levels of the university in order to identify and build new ideas, new needs, and opportunities, to prioritise them, after an analysis of strengths and weaknesses. Other choices can be made after each process is closed, but they are more difficult to implement because other sources of funding and other ways of authorisation must be found.[151]

The second process covers four years and has to be approved by the French Ministry of Education. In this process, the university sets its objectives at the pedagogical and research levels (new degrees, research projects).

The first process takes place every six years and involves the central government, the region as well as the university. It is devoted to major investment projects, for instance building a new school, a new campus, a new library, etc. It is a catalogue of projects and for each of them it defines the financial burden accepted by each partner in the contract.

There are two main planning processes in the definition of projects in the university that have to be followed in order to be financed or even authorised and accredited by the public (national and local) authorities.

If the president of the university is the most important actor in defining the mission and the strategies of the university, he also has the necessary power to impulse or to sustain the projects that relate to these strategies. Before implementing these projects, they have to be accepted by the university council and if necessary they have to be included in the planning processes.

Aix-Marseille University is governed by three councils: two of them (the council of studies and student life for the teaching side and the scientific council for research matters) have an advisory role, the third one (the administrative council) is the decision body under the direction of the president of the university. The president is elected for a five-year period by the assembly of the three councils. The members of the councils are representatives of the students, the administrative staff, the faculty, or external personalities. The university statutes define the division into different schools or institutes. Each one of those, headed by a dean or a director, has its administrative council that decides on policy issues.

Fort Saint-Jean & the Pharo


In addition, three University Institutes of Technology and University Institute for Teachers Training are part of the university.[150]

  • Law and Political Science
    • Faculty of Law and Political Science
    • Institute of Public Management and Territorial Governance
  • Economics and Management
  • Arts, Literature, Languages and Human Sciences
    • Faculty of Arts, Literature, Languages and Human Sciences
    • Training Centre for Musicians
    • The Mediterranean House of Human Sciences (Maison méditerranéenne des sciences de l'homme)
  • Health
    • Faculty of Medicine
    • Faculty of Odontology
    • Faculty of Pharmacy
    • Midwives' University School Marseille Méditerranée
  • Sciences and Technology
    • Faculty of Sciences
    • Faculty of Sports
    • Observatory of Universe Sciences – Pytheas Institute
    • Polytech Marseille

Aix-Marseille University is organized into five sectors:

Hôtel Boyer de Fonscolombe, a monument historique built in 1650, houses the Institute of Public Management and Territorial Governance


In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's Best Global Universities Rankings, AMU is ranked joint 185th in the world.[128] In the subject tables it is ranked 99th in the world for Biology and Biochemistry,[144] 92nd in the world for Geosciences,[145] 60th in the world for Immunology,[146] joint 77th in the world for Mathematics,[147] 35th in the world for Microbiology,[148] and 44th in the world for Space Science.[149]

In the 2015/16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, AMU is ranked joint 251st–300th in the world.[143]

In the 2014/15 QS World University Rankings, AMU is ranked joint 341st in the world.[126] In the subject tables it is ranked joint 151st–200th in the world for Accounting and Finance,[136] joint 101st–150th in the world for Earth and Marine Sciences,[137] joint 101st–150th in the world for Environmental Studies,[138] joint 101st–150th in the world for History and Archaeology,[139] joint 151st–200th in the world for Law and Legal Studies,[140] joint 151st–200th in the world for Medicine,[141] and joint 151st–200th in the world for Psychology.[142]

In the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), AMU is ranked joint 101st–150th in the world.[129] In the subject tables it is ranked joint 76th–100th in the world for Natural Sciences and Mathematics,[130] joint 151st–200th in the world for Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences,[131] joint 101st–150th in the world for Life and Agricultural Sciences,[132] joint 151st–200th in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy,[133] 25th in the world for Mathematics,[134] and joint 101st–150th in the world for Physics.[135]

University rankings
World Europe
Academic Ranking of World Universities[125] 101–150 36
QS World University Rankings[126] 341 155
Times Higher Education World University Rankings[127] 251–300 123
U.S. News & World Report[128] 185 70

Rankings and reputation

Polytech Marseille is a concours): either after the baccalauréat (national secondary school graduation examination) for admission to a five-year course or after two years of higher education for admission to a three-year course. The courses are approved by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur (CTI), the French authority that authorizes recognised engineering schools to deliver the Diplôme d'Ingénieur (a state-recognised title, recognised equivalent to a “Master in Engineering” by AACRAO)[123] and thus guarantees the quality of the courses. The courses are also accredited by EUR-ACE.[124]


The university's Observatory of Haute-Provence (OHP), along with the Département Gassendi, which is a common administrative and technical support unit. With over 50 researchers, 160 engineers, technical and administrative personnel, plus some 20 graduate students and post-docs, the OAMP is one of the most important research institutes in the region.[120][121]

Earth Sciences and Astronomy

The Faculty of Pharmacy started its independent activity after being separated from the faculty in 1970. Subsequently, the Faculty of Odontology also became independent from the Faculty of Medicine. Thus, these three faculties form the Division of Health of the university.[119]

[118] and medullary pathology.clinical neurology. He became dean of the faculty in 1937 and held this position until 1952. His main work related to pathological anatomy of professeur agrégé. After the war, he became a Gustave Roussy under the supervision of Besancon and studied in Paris. During the First World War, he worked at the neurological center in the 7th Military region of Vichy (broken faces) of the Great War. An anti-cancer center was developed by Lucien Cornill, who was originally from gueules cassées for the maxillofacial prosthetics at the Montpellier faculty. Originally a surgeon, he established one of the first centers for professeur agrégé and interne des hôpitaux in 1895. The first dean of the faculty was Leon Imbert, who arrived in Marseille in 1904 as a former Mayor of Marseille, he opened an anti-rabies clinic and became Louis Pasteur. Following his work with French Academy of Sciences at the Monthyon Prize and pneumogastric physiology, which earned him the hypophysis (associate professor) of anatomy and physiology having presented his thesis in Paris. He conducted research on professeur agrégé (deputy professor) and then professeur suppléant developed under the influence of the military department of medicine. Physiology at the faculty dates back to Charles Livon, who was named tropical diseases in 1827. This enabled Egyptian students to travel to France and encouraged exchanges between western and eastern medicine. In Marseille, medical practices adapted to Cairo, founded a school of medicine in Muhammad Ali of Egypt, known as Clot Bey, who with the help of Antoine Clot However, the town’s geographical position meant that it was able to exert a strong influence upon the Mediterranean. The most significant example of this was [117][116] The Faculty of Medicine at AMU can trace its origins to a college of medicine established in 1645 and recognized by a decree issued by the


AMSE has a triple aim in terms of research development about “Globalization and public action”, education regarding Master and PhD degrees and valorization toward local authorities, administrations and corporations, and of information aiming at all public. The AMSE Master is a two-year Master programme in Economics jointly organized with Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales and Ecole Centrale de Marseille. It aims to provide high-level courses and training in the main fields of specialization of AMSE: Development Economics, Econometrics, Public Economics, Environmental Economics, Finance/Insurance, Macroeconomics, Economic Philosophy, and Health Economics.[113] The doctoral programme of AMSE brings together more than seventy PhD students. Ten to fifteen new PhD students join the programme each year. These PhD students cover all the research topics available at AMSE. The PhD programme is a member of the European Doctoral Group in Economics (EDGE) with University of Cambridge, University of Copenhagen, University College Dublin, Bocconi University, and Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.[114][115]

Aix-Marseille School of Economics (AMSE) is a gathering of three big laboratories in economics, part of AMU: GREQAM (Groupement de Recherche en Economie Quantitative d’Aix Marseille), SESSTIM (Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l’Information Médicale), and IDEP (Institut D’Economie Publique).[109] GREQAM is a research center which specializes in all areas of economics, with strong concentrations in macroeconomics, econometrics, game theory, economic philosophy and public economics. It counts two Fellows of the Econometric Society among its members, and is consistently ranked as one of the top five research centers in economics in France.[110] SESSTIM consists of three teams in social and economic sciences, as well as social epidemiology, focusing on applications in the following fields: cancer, infectious and transmissible diseases, and aging.[111] IDEP aims at federating competences in the field of Public Economics broadly defined as the part of economics that studies the causes and the consequences of public intervention in the economic sphere.[112]


In 1990, IAE Aix and ESSEC Business School (École supérieure des sciences économiques et commerciales) signed an agreement to unite and offer a joint Doctorate Programme, allowing ESSEC professors to teach in the Research Oriented Master programme in Aix-en-Provence. Furthermore, after Research Oriented Master graduation, students can attend the ESSEC Doctorate seminars and have an ESSEC Research Advisor (Directeur de Recherche). In the same way, ESSEC students can enroll in the IAE Aix's Research Oriented Master and Doctorate programmes. In both cases, the members of the thesis juries come from both IAE Aix and ESSEC. The Doctorate title is awarded by Aix-Marseille University.[106][107][108]

The Aix-Marseille Graduate School of Management, commonly known as service management, internal and external communications management, management and information technologies, international financial management and applied marketing. In 2011, the M.Sc. in General Management was ranked 2nd in France along with the M.Sc. in Services Management and Marketing being ranked 3rd and the M.Sc. in Audit and Corporate Governance also being ranked 3rd in the country by SMBG.[105]

Business and Management Studies

The school has produced a large number of luminaries in law and politics including the 2nd President of France, Adolphe Thiers,[86] former President of the National Assembly of France, Félix Gouin,[87] former Minister of Justice of France, Adolphe Crémieux,[88] and former Prime Minister of France, Édouard Balladur.[89][90] The school has also educated two Nobel Laureates: René Cassin, winner of the 1968 Nobel Peace Prize,[91] and Frédéric Mistral, winner of the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature.[92] Alumni also include the 3rd President of Lebanon, Émile Eddé,[93][94] former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Vasil Kolarov,[95] former Prime Minister of Angola, Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem,[96] and former Prime Minister of Cambodia, Prince Norodom Ranariddh.[97] In addition, from 1858 to 1861, complying with his father's wishes, a prominent French artist and Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne attended the school, while also receiving drawing lessons.[98][99]

The law school, in conjunction with the UCL Faculty of Laws, operates a joint LLB programme. This four-year programme includes a year at AMU and leads to the award of a Bachelor of Laws degree from University College London (UCL) together with a Diploma/Certificate in French Law.[83][84][85]

The law school at AMU dates back to the university's foundation in 1409.[77] The school had far-reaching influence, since written law, which in France originated in Aix-en-Provence, spread from there, eventually replacing the International and European Law and Legal Theory.[82]

Paul Cézanne, for whom the University of Aix-Marseille III was named, attended the law school from 1858 to 1861
Faculty of Law and Political Science, built 1953, designed by Fernand Pouillon


Many of the institute's graduates have gone on to high positions within both the French government and in foreign governments. Among the best-known people who studied at Sciences Po Aix are the current Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Christine Lagarde,[68][69] the current High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the European Commission, Federica Mogherini,[70] the 5th President of Sri Lanka, Chandrika Kumaratunga,[71][72] the current Minister of Labour, Employment and Immigration of Luxembourg, Nicolas Schmit,[73] former Minister of Justice of France, Élisabeth Guigou,[74] former Presidents of the National Assembly of France, Philippe Séguin[75] and Patrick Ollier.[76]

[67] now has numerous exchange programs through partnerships with about 120 different universities in the world: the school therefore welcomes 200 foreign students a year. On top of these academic exchanges, students have the opportunity to do internships abroad in large international firms.Sciences Po Aix Thus, [66][65], signed an agreement for academic cooperation in order to promote exchanges for research and study.University of California, Los Angeles, the law school of the UCLA School of Law and the Sciences Po Aix offers a French-German bilingual degree, awarding students with a double diploma. In addition, Sciences Po Aix, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg Although the institute offers a multitude of disciplines, its main focus is on politics, including related subjects such as history, law, economics, languages, international relations, and media studies. Its admissions process is among the toughest and most selective in the country. It should be noted that by means of a partnership with the [64][63] in political science and its primary aim is to train senior executives for the public, semi-public, and private sectors.Grande école is a Sciences Po Aix [62][61].Toulouse and Strasbourg, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Rennes, Paris, Lyon, Lille, Grenoble, Bordeaux in France, including those in (Instituts d’Etudes Politiques) It is one of a network of 10 world-famous IEPs [60]

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