World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Afro-Costa Rican

Article Id: WHEBN0018520388
Reproduction Date:

Title: Afro-Costa Rican  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Demographics of Costa Rica, Afro-Latin American, Ethnic groups in Central America, Afro-Haitian, Afro-Costa Rican
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Afro-Costa Rican

Afro-Costa Ricans
Afro-costariccenses
Paulo WanchopeJervis DrummondHanna GabrielJoel CampbellNery Brenesl
Notable Afro-Costa Ricans:
Paulo Wanchope • Jervis Drummond • Hanna Gabriel • Joel Campbell • Nery Brenes
Total population
384.000
Regions with significant populations
Puerto Limon · San Jose · Alajuela · Heredia
Languages
Spanish language  · English Creole  · Patois
Religion
Roman Catholicism  · Baptists  · Agnosticism  · Christianism
Related ethnic groups
Afro-Caribbean, particularly Jamaicans; other Black Latin Americans

Afro-Costa Ricans are Costa Ricans of African ancestry.

Costa Rica has four small minority groups: Mulattoes, Blacks, Amerindians and Asians. About 8% of the population is of Black African descent or Mulatto (mix of European and black) who are called Afro-Costa Ricans. Most of them are English-speaking descendants of 19th-century black Jamaican immigrant workers.

History

The first black people who arrived in Costa Rica came with the Spanish conquistadors. Slave trade was common in all the countries conquered by Spain, and in Costa Rica the first blacks seem to have come from specific sources in Africa- Equatorial and Western regions. The people from these areas were thought of as ideal slaves because they had a reputation for being more robust, affable and hard-working than other Africans. The slaves were from what is now the Gambia (Mandingas), Guinea (specifically Wolofe), Ghanaian (Ashanti), Benin (specifically Ije / Ararás) and Sudan (Puras).[1] Many of the slaves were also Minas (i.e. slaves from parts of the region extending from Ivory Coast to the Slave Coast), Popo (be imported tribes as Ana and Baribas), Yorubas and Congas (perhaps from Kongasso, Ivory Coast).[2] Slaves also came from other places, such as neighboring Panama.

However, the following century witnessed a gradual lessening of the differences between blacks and their white owners. As whites took black women as their concubines, they freed the children that were born from this union. The same thing started to happen with the "zambos", born of Amerindians and blacks. During the time of slavery, the slaves worked on cattle ranches of Guanacaste and the Central Valley plantations and cacao plantations in Matina, whose situation was more difficult. Over time, many whites freed their slaves and slavery was abolished in 1823, along with the other Central American countries.[1]

The largest Costa Rican black community is from the Caribbean, which today constitutes the majority of the Costa Rican black population. Costa Rica has the largest Jamaican diaspora after Cuba and Panama and its development as a nation is witness to his contribution.[3]

Since 1850, fishermen of Afro-Caribbean origin began to settle in the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, especially from Panama and the West Indies. They stayed in temporary camps during fishing seasons, from March to September, to plant coconuts, cassava, and yams, which were then harvested the following season. Since 1828, some of these fishermen began to settle in Costa Rica permanently with their families.[1]

Towards the second half of the 19th century, coffee became the main export of Costa Rica. The crops were transported from the Pacific Coast, by an inaccessible jungle terrain of the Atlantic Coast. To be taken to Europe, they had to turn back to South America, which increased the cost and removed competitiveness . To remedy this situation, in 1871 a railway and a port on the Atlantic Coast were constructed. Because of the scarcity of local labor, workers were imported from Italy, China, and the Caribbean and Central America. This coincided with an employment crisis in Jamaica that caused an exodus to neighboring countries.[3] So on December 20, 1872 the Lizzie, the first boat from Jamaica, arrived at the port of Limón with 123 workers to work on the railroad. From this moment, the number of Jamaican workers in Limon increased rapidly and the next year already saw over 1,000 Jamaican workers in the port, mostly of Ashanti origin.[1]

Many Jamaicans intended to return home, but most remained in the province of Limón on the Caribbean Coast. In 1890 the railways suffered a financial crisis, forcing many workers to sustain themselves by working in agriculture. This in turn saw the laborers establishing relationships and cultural exchanges with native populations of these areas.[1] Later, the Jamaican workers began working for the banana industry, whose production grew to its peak in 1907.

Usually these workers lived on the plantations and had little knowledge of Costa Rica beyond their immediate environment. The contact was minimal because the Costa Rican banana plantations were in foreign hands. They did not speak Spanish and retained Jamaican customs. They had their own schools with teachers brought from Jamaica. Until 1949 Costa Rica had segregation laws similar to the South African Apartheid, where Blacks lived exclusively in the Caribbean Province of Puerto Limón. By 2011 Afro-Costa Ricans were spread in all 7 Costa Rican provinces: 32% of them in San José, 16% in Alajuela, 15% in Limón, 10% in Heredia and 8% in Cartago and Guanacaste. Today, Afro-Costa Ricans are part of different disciplines and fields in Costa Rica. [3]

Demographics

Eight per cent of the population are Afro-Costa Rican (black or mulatto), compared to 2.4% who are Amerindian. And 83% white (includes castizo or mestizo) heritage. In the Guanacaste Province, a significant portion of the population is afro-mestizo, descend from a mix of local Amerindians, Africans and Spaniards. Most Afro-Costa Ricans used to be found in the Limón Province until 1949.

Today Afro-Costa Ricans are spread all over the country: 32% in San José, 16% in Alajuela, 15% in Limón, 10% in Heredia and 8% in Cartago and Guanacaste. [3]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Costa Rica way
  2. ^ MUJERES ESCLAVAS EN LA COSTA RICA DEL SIGLO XVIII: ESTRATEGIAS FRENTE A LA ESCLAVITUD (Spanish) (Slave women in Costa Rica of the 18th century: Strategies against slavery)
  3. ^ a b c d América latina en movimiento. La comunidad negra en Costa Rica (Spanish) (Latin America in Movement. The black community in Costa Rica), by Francis Hutchinson.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.