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Proposed tall buildings and structures

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Proposed tall buildings and structures

If built, the X-Seed 4000 would be far larger and taller than any building previously constructed or planned. Shown in this image is the Burj Khalifa (829.8 m (2,722 ft)), tallest structure in the world at the time of completion in 2010, and the X-Seed 4000 project (4,000 m (13,000 ft))

Some proposed tall structures and skyscrapers have not yet been built and may never be. Some plans never began or were left incomplete.

Proposed structures

All the structures mentioned here would be among the tallest structures in the world if built.


Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country Town Year of projected completion Description
The Space Elevator 100,000,000 m (62,000 mi) 1895 (science fiction) 1959 Massive space tether Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization Several undetermined undetermined The Space Elevator is a proposed structure that would consist of a long cable, anchored on or near the equator, connecting to a large counterweight about 100,000 km (62,000 mi) above. The cable would be held up by the counterweight, which produces a net upward centrifugal force because it is well above the 36,000 km (22,000 mi) geostationary orbit.
The Launch loop 80,000 m (50 mi) 1981 Suspended Maglev Track Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization U.S. undetermined undetermined The Launch loop is a concept that has been proposed for the purposes of orbital launch.[1]
Scaled-down Space Elevator 20,000 m (12 mi) 2009 Pneumatic tower Tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced cost space launch.[2] Canada undetermined undetermined A sub-orbital or mini version[3] of the Space Elevator to access near-space altitudes of 20 km (12 mi) has been proposed by Canadian researchers. The structure would be free standing and actively guyed over its base. The tower would be utilized for tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced-cost space launch.[2]
StarTram Generation 2 20,000 m (12 mi) 2001 Suspended Maglev Track Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization U.S. undetermined undetermined The StarTram is a proposed concept for orbital launches. It has a long (1000–1500 km) vacuum tube, levitated via strong currents in superconducting cables.
Tokyo Tower of Babel 10,000 m (33,000 ft) 2010 Skyscraper Multi Purpose Japan Tokyo undetermined The Tokyo Tower of Babel Is the tallest building ever envisioned and if ever built would house roughly 30 million people within and take 100-150 years to build. The cost would be around 3000 Trillion Yen.
X-Seed 4000 4,000 m (13,000 ft) 1995 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail real-estate, as well as heavy industry Japan Tokyo undetermined The X-Seed 4000 is the second tallest building ever fully envisioned. Its proposed 4,000 m (13,000 ft) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants.
Ultima Tower 3,217 m (10,554 ft) 1991 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate U.S. San Francisco undetermined The Ultima Tower is a hypothetical super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architect Eugene Tsui in 1991. With a total height of 3,217 metres (10,554 ft), the tower would be 2 miles tall, and comprise 500 stories if built.
Dubai City Tower 2,400 m (7,900 ft) 2008 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate United Arab Emirates Dubai 2025 The Dubai City Tower is a proposed 400-floor, 2,400 m (7,900 ft) tall building to be built in Dubai, consisting of six outer buildings entwining a central core.
Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid 2,004 m (6,575 ft) 1996 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real-estate Japan Tokyo undetermined The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be approximately 14 times higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would house 750,000 people. If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth. The structure would be 2,004 m (6,575 ft) high and would answer Tokyo's increasing lack of space.
Millennium Challenge Tower 1,852 m (6,076 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate Kuwait (Possible location) undetermined undetermined "The Millennium Challenge" tower (sometimes referred to as the "Al Jaber Tower" by those anticipating its construction in Kuwait City) is a super-tall skyscraper designed by architect Omero Marchetti as part of his proposed "ethic city" concept. The aims of the project are to reach a nautical mile in height while "not using concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes." The building would dispense with right angles and perpendicular planes as those structural engineering norms make large quantities of cast iron and concrete "follow an unnatural and twisted geometry,". Instead, the project uses the hexagonal matrices of snowflakes, which as structurally supported objects combine high volume with low weight, as the basis of its structural design principles. According to Marchetti, there are currently three groups of investors in different parts of the world interested in pursuing his project.[4] If built, the tower would reach 1,852 metres (6,076 ft).
Bionic Tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) 1997 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real-estate China Hong Kong Shanghai and Hong Kong have both expressed serious interest undetermined The Bionic Tower is a proposed vertical city, an extremely large building designed for human habitation, designed by architects Eloy Celaya, and Mª Rosa Cervera and Javier Gómez Pioz. It would have a main tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) high, with 300 stories that would house about 100,000 people.
Orbita Residence 1,111 m (3,645 ft) 2004 Brazil São Paulo 2026 A supertall building planned to be built around 2026
Azerbaijan Tower 1,050 m (3,440 ft) 2012 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Azerbaijan Baku 2019 Azerbaijan Tower, 1,050 m (3,440 ft) tall, is a building in Baku, Azerbaijan that has been announced, as part of the planned Khazar Islands project.[5]
Murjan Tower 1,022 m (3,353 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate Bahrain Manama undetermined Murjan Tower, 1,022 m (3,353 ft) tall, is a Swedish company's proposal for a super-tall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to comprise 200 floors.[6]
Mubarak al-Kabir Tower 1,001 m (3,284 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate Kuwait Madinat al-Hareer 2016 The Mubarak al-Kabir Tower, 1,001 m (3,284 ft) tall, in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk), (Kuwait) by Eric Kuhne and Associates.
Sky City 1000 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 1989 Arcology Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Japan Tokyo undetermined The Sky City 1000, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is an arcology project proposal aimed at helping put an end to major congestion and lack of greenspace in the Tokyo, Japan metropolitan area. The plan consists of a building 1,000 m (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km² (3.1 sq mi). Drawn up by construction firm Takenaka for the city of Tokyo in 1989, its design was the first of the modern super-tall mega-structures to gain serious attention and consideration by any government.
Buenos Aires Forum 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate Argentina Buenos Aires 2016 The Buenos Aires Forum, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is a proposed super-tall skyscraper that is planned to be built in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Miapolis 975 m (3,199 ft) 2002 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate U.S. Miami 2017 Miapolis, 3,200 ft (980 m) tall, is a proposed supertall skyscraper planned for construction on Watson Island in Miami, Florida with 160 floors.
DIB-200 800 m (2,600 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate Japan Tokyo undetermined DIB-200, 800 m (2,600 ft) tall, is a possible mixed use supertall skyscraper project proposed by Kajima Construction, and designed by Sadaaki Masuda and Scott Howe.
Century Plaza South Tower 729 m (2,392 ft) 2012 Skyscraper Residential. Hotel, and Office China Suzhou undetermined [7]
Noida Tower 710 m (2,330 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate India Noida undetermined Noida Tower, 710 m (2,330 ft) tall, is proposed for a small metro city in Delhi's NCR region.[8]
India Tower 700 m (2,300 ft) 2008 Skyscraper Retail, Residential, and Leisure real-estate India Mumbai 2016 (construction halted in 2011 for financial reasons) India Tower, 700 m (2,300 ft) tall, has its construction currently on hold. Estimated completion date is 2016.
Dream Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2009 Skyscraper Commercial and retail real-estate South Korea Seoul 2016 Dream Tower, 665 m (2,182 ft) tall, is a proposed tower to be built in Seoul, South Korea; it will have 150 floors and is planned to be completed in 2016.[9]
Digital Media City Landmark Building 640 m (2,100 ft) 2000 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real-estate South Korea Seoul CANCELLED The Digital Media City Landmark Building, 640 m (2,100 ft) tall, proposed for construction in Digital Media City, Seoul, South Korea, is expected to be have 130 floors. When completed, it would be the second tallest building in the world with the tallest observatory and hotels in the world. Construction is expected to start in 2010, and will be completed in April 2015.
Signature Tower Jakarta 638 m (2,093 ft) 2013 Skyscraper Hotel, and Office Indonesia Jakarta 2020 [10]
Philippine Diamond Tower 612 m (2,008 ft) 2012 Observation Tower Leisure, Observation, Broadcast Philippines Quezon City 2016
Russia Tower 612 m (2,008 ft) 1994 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Russia Moscow 2016 (tentative) Russia Tower, 612 m (2,008 ft) tall. Expected completion by 2016.
Lanco Hills Signature Tower 604 m (1,982 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential, and Leisure real-estate India Hyderabad, India unknown The Lanco Hills Signature Tower is a 604 m (1,312 ft) skyscraper proposed for construction in Hyderabad, India.[11]
Port Tower 593.5 m (1,947 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Pakistan Karachi 2018 The Port Tower is a project approved for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. If completed, it would reach a height of 593 m (1,947 ft), representing the independence year of Pakistan (1947).
Untitled Phnom Penh Skyscraper 555 m (1,821 ft) N/A N/A N/A Cambodia Phnom Penh undetermined An as yet unnamed 555 metres (1,821 ft) skyscraper has been approved by the Prime Minister of Cambodia to be built in the capital, Phnom Penh.
Citygate Ecotower 485 m (1,591 ft) 2007 Skyscraper Commercial and retail real-estate UK London 2017 The Citygate Ecotower is a proposed building in London, consisting of 108 stories.
GIFT Diamond Tower 410 m (1,350 ft) 2002 Skyscraper Commercial India Gandhinagar 2017 GIFT Diamond Tower is a skyscraper proposed for Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. The proposed height is 410 metres (1,345 ft) in height.[11] Diamond Tower and the core CBD of GIFT will comprise a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2).
555 Collins Street 404 m (1,325 ft) 2013 skyscraper Office Australia Melbourne 2017 555 Collins Street will be tallest building in Melbourne if built, therefore making it the tallest building in Southern Hemisphere, surpassing recently approved Australia 108.
Solar updraft tower 400–1,000 m (1,300–3,300 ft) 2001 Power-Plant Power generation Australia Buronga, New South Wales activity halted, fate unclear Solar updraft tower, Buronga, Australia, planned height between 400 m (1,300 ft) and 1,000 m (3,300 ft), state uncertain.

US planned broadcasting towers

  • In the U.S., at several sites, broadcasting towers with heights between 600 and 610 metres are planned according to the FCC database. Some of them will be built close to existing towers of similar height, making them the tallest twin-towers in the world.
Name Town Meters Feet Coordinates FCC entry
Central Missouri State Broadcasting Tower Syracuse, Missouri 609.6 m 2,000 ft. 1040329[12]
Hitchcock Univision Radio Tower Hitchcock, Texas 609.6 m 2,000 ft. 1254220[13]
Agate American Media Tower Agate, Colorado 609.5 m 2,000 ft. 1240243[14]
Busterville Vertical Properties Broadcasting Tower Busterville, Texas 609.5 m 2,000 ft. 1223883[15]
Metcalf Pegasus Broadcasting Tower Metcalf, Georgia 609 m 1,998 ft. 1054890[16]
Beasley Broadcasting Tower Immokalee, Florida 608.7 m 1,997 ft. 1235389[17]
Hoyt KKDD-FM Tower Hoyt, Colorado 608.1 m 1,995 ft. 1235187[18]
Wiliam Smith Broadcasting Tower Walker, Iowa 607 m 1,991 ft. 1223188[19]
Plymouth Pappas Telecasting Tower 2 Plymouth County, Iowa 603.5 m 1,980 ft. 1058291[20]

Abandoned proposals

Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country Town Year of Projected Completion Description
Houston Tower 2,092 m (6,864 ft) 1979 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial U.S. Houston Never begun The Houston Tower was an envisioned skyscraper that would have been nearly 1.3 miles (2.1 km) tall (6864 ft/2092 m) and taken up nine city blocks in Houston.
Aeropolis 2001 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 1989 Arcology Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Japan Tokyo Never begun The Aeropolis 2001 was a proposed project for construction of a massive 500-story high-rise building over Tokyo Bay in Japan. It was proposed to be a 2,000 m (6,562 ft) high building.
The Illinois 1,609 m (5,279 ft) 1956 Skyscraper Commercial, Residential, and Leisure real-estate U.S. Chicago Never begun The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.
Nakheel Tower 1,400 m (4,600 ft) 2003 Skyscraper Residential, Retail, and Leisure real-estate United Arab Emirates Dubai 2019 (cancelled 2009) Nakheel Tower (previously Al Burj) was a proposed skyscraper, planned for Dubai, UAE. It was expected to be approximately 1,400 m (4,600 ft) tall[21] but the project was cancelled in November 2009 as a result of the 2009 financial crisis in Dubai.
PAGCOR Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2008 Observation tower Leisure and Observation facilities Philippines Manila Cancelled in 2010 Originally part of the plans for the PAGCOR Entertainment City, the project was scrapped due to various reasons including air traffic regulations (due to close proximity to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Warsaw Radio Mast 646 m (2,119 ft) Original in 1968, Replacement in 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission Poland Warsaw 1997 (cancelled 1995) Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2,119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998-99 at Solec Kujawski.
Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle 610 m (2,000 ft) 1988 Skyscraper Commercial, and Residential real-estate U.S. Chicago 1994 (cancelled 1992) The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2,001 ft)[22] tall in 1988.
Eaton's / John Maryon Tower 503 m (1,650 ft) 1971 Skyscraper Commercial, and Leisure real-estate Canada Toronto 1976 (cancelled 1972) Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1,650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.
Kaisa Feng Long Center (Removed) 500 m (1,600 ft) 2011 Skyscraper Hotel / Office China Shenzhen 2012 (cancelled 2011)
Grant USA Tower 533.4 m (1,750 ft) 1970 Skyscraper Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate U.S. Newark, New Jersey 1986 (cancelled 1986) The Grant USA Tower was planned by developer Harry Grant, who started New York Apple Tours. The building was to be completed in 1986 in Newark, New Jersey and to be the tallest hotel, tallest building and tallest structure. Harry Grant went bankrupt and the building never broke ground.[23]
Palace of Soviets 415 m (1,362 ft) 1932 Skyscraper Bureaucratic administrative center and conference hall U.S.S.R. Moscow 1947 (cancelled 1942) The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before being razed in 1995.
The Monument to the Third International 400 m (1,300 ft) 1919 Grand Monument Conference Hall, Bureaucratic administrative center, Information administrative center U.S.S.R. Moscow None given During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1,312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but time & resource shortages as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the Russian Civil War, economic mismanagement, and political repressions halted the project.
Watkin's Tower 358 m (1,175 ft) 1890 Iron latticed observation tower Leisure and Retail real-estate U.K. Wembley 1894 (construction halted 1896) Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land and insufficient funds. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.
Phare du Monde 701 m (2,300 ft) 1934 Concrete observation tower Leisure and Retail real-estate France Paris 1937 (construction never begun) Phare du Monde, was a project for a 701 metre tall observation tower for the world exhibition in Paris, 1937. It was planned as a concrete tower similar to a modern TV tower, but also with a ramp for drive up access.
7 South Dearborn 610 m (2,000 ft) 1999 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate as well as communications facilities U.S. Chicago 2004 (cancelled in 2000 due to lack of funding) 7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2,001 ft).
Grollo Tower 678 m (2,224 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, and Leisure real-estate Australia Melbourne 2004 (cancelled 2001) Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct due to disagreements over who would pay for infrastructure improvements. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560 m (1837 ft) tall, down from the originally planned 678 m (2,224 ft) height.
Australian towers series various; (Grollo) 678 m (2,224 ft), (Brisbane Central) 450 m (1,480 ft), (Minuzzo) 450 m (1,480 ft), (CBD-1) 445 m (1,460 ft), (Melbourne Plaza) 338 m (1,109 ft), (City Tower) 305 m (1,001 ft), (Westralia) 287 m (942 ft) 1996 Skyscrapers Residential, Commercial, and Leisure real-estate Australia Melbourne, Brisbane Sydney, Perth 2004 (cancelled 1997) A series of super-tall sky-scrapers were planned for the major Australian cities of Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney and Perth from 1985-95 but were all cancelled. The plans included (in order of height) the Grollo Tower (mentioned above), Brisbane Central Tower (450m/1476 ft, Brisbane), Minuzzo Tower (450m/1476 ft, Brisbane), CBD-1 (445m/1459 ft, Sydney), Melbourne Plaza (338m/1109 ft, Melbourne), City Tower (305m/1000 ft, Sydney) and the Westralia Tower (287m/941 ft, Perth). The buildings would have been some of the tallest buildings in the world at the time, but were cancelled mainly due to their great heights which would have dwarfed all surrounding buildings.
Millennium Freedom Tower 376.8 m (1,236 ft) 1998 Observation Tower Leisure and Observation facilities U.S. Newport, Kentucky 2000 (above ground construction never begun) The Millennium Freedom Tower was a project to be located in Newport, Kentucky, United States was originally proposed in 1998 to be dedicated on Dec 31, 1999. The original height was a proposed 1,234 feet (376 m) and was later lowered to 1,103 ft (306 m). Pilings were driven in 1998, but construction never continued above ground.[24]
World Science Tower N/A 1964 Guyed mast Leisure facilities U.S. Larkspur, Colorado N/A The World Science Tower was to be one of the world's tallest buildings, proposed in 1964. It was to be located near Larkspur, Colorado, U.S.A. Its design would have had an amusement park at the base.
Dragon Tower 500 m (1,600 ft) 1996 Skyscraper Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate Indonesia Jakarta 2002 (cancelled 1998) The 500 m tall, 101 story, Dragon Tower in Jakarta, Indonesia was cancelled in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.
International Business Center 580 m (1,900 ft) 2007 Skyscraper Commercial real-estate South Korea Seoul 2013 (cancelled 2008) International Business Center was a proposed skyscraper to be constructed in Seoul, South Korea for a height of 580 m (1,900 ft),it was to have 130 floors planned to be completed in 2013.
Psary, Poland broadcast tower 440 m (1,440 ft) 2009 Reinforced concrete and steal television tower DVB-T signal transmission Poland Psary, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship undetermined At Bodzentyn, Poland a 440 metres tall tower is proposed for distributing DVB-T signals from the satellite station to TV broadcasting sites.[25] It will be, if built, the tallest man-made structure in Europe outside Russia.
Scandinavian Tower 325 m (1,066 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential Sweden Malmö 2004 The Scandinavian Tower was intended to be been the tallest skyscraper in Europe.[26] It was abandoned in 2004 in favor of Malmö Tower.
Chicago Spire 610 m (2,000 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential real-estate U.S. Chicago 2010 (cancelled 2008) The Chicago Spire designed by Santiago Calatrava was intended to be the tallest building in the western hemisphere as well as the tallest residential building in the world. It was abandoned in 2008 due to financial problems. As of March 11, 2014, as long as the project is funded, it assumed to resume construction.

See also


  1. ^ PDF version of Lofstrom's 1985 launch loop publication (AIAA 1985)
  2. ^ a b "A free-standing space elevator structure: a practical alternative to the space tether". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "Canadian Mini Space Elevator Paper Available - The Space Elevator Reference". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Top 8 Skyscrapers That Will Push the Limits of Design". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "World's Tallest Building May Be In Azerbaijan". Huffington Post, Feb.3rd, 2012.  [1]
  6. ^ "Murjan Tower 1, Manama". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "Suzhou Zhongnan Center - The Skyscraper Center". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "Noida Tower, Noida, India |". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "KORAIL Tower, Seoul, South Korea |". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  10. ^ "Signature Tower Jakarta - The Skyscraper Center". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Sky-high plans - Money Matters -". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "ASR Registration 1040329". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "ASR Registration 1254220". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "ASR Registration 1240243". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "ASR Registration 1223883". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "ASR Registration 1054890". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "ASR Registration 1235389". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "ASR Registration 1235187". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "ASR Registration 1223188". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "ASR Registration 1058291". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  21. ^ "Nakheel designs 1km-high tower". Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
  22. ^ "Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle, Chicago". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  23. ^ "Grant USA Tower, Newark /". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  24. ^ "Emporis Buildings accessed February 21, 2008". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "Kielce: Najwyższa w Polsce budowla powstanie w Górach Świętokrzyskich! Wieża będzie miała 440 metrów wysokości i na stałe zmieni krajobraz - 20 lipca 2010". 20 July 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  26. ^ "Scandinavian Tower". Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
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