World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Marytė Melnikaitė

Article Id: WHEBN0037482395
Reproduction Date:

Title: Marytė Melnikaitė  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Soviet partisans
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Marytė Melnikaitė

Marytė Melnikaitė
Melnikaitė on 1950 Soviet postal stamp
Born March 18, 1923
Zarasai
Died July 13, 1943(1943-07-13) (aged 20)
Kaniūkai, Ignalina district
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Awards

Marytė or Marija Melnikaitė (March 18, 1923 in Zarasai – July 13, 1943 near Kaniūkai) was a Soviet partisan, the only Lithuanian woman awarded Hero of the Soviet Union.[1]

Melnikaitė was born to a family of a Russian mother and a Lithuanian father.[2] She had four other siblings and the parents took assorted jobs to provide for the large family. Melnikaitė started working at Avanti confectionery at age 14 and studied sewing. In 1940, after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union, Melnikaitė joined Komsomol and started evening classes. Reportedly her father did not approve her Konsomol activities, which included her singing in a choir.[2]

After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Melnikaitė along with other Komsomol members was evacuated to Russia where she took a job at a machine tool plant in Tyumen.[2] In July 1942, she joined the Soviet Army (16th Rifle Division) and was sent to a saboteur school in Balakhna.

In May 1943, she finished the studies and was sent to Belarus and then back to her native Zarasai where she joined the Soviet partisan group Kęstutis under the name of Ona Kuosaitė.[2]

Melnikaitė's partisan life lasted less than two months. In July 1943, she and several other partisans were sent on a mission to bring more weapons from Soviet partisans operating in Belarus. Local inhabitants spotted the group near Apvardai Lake in Ignalina district and called Lithuanian policemen. During a shootout, several partisans were killed, while Melnikaitė was captured. Her custody was transferred to the German police. After five days of torture she was shot in the cemetery of Kaniūkai village.[2]

The death of the twenty-year old was used by Soviet propaganda, which exaggerated her duties, accomplishments, and circumstances of her death. For example, in March 1944, Antanas Sniečkus wrote in Tiesa that the shootout lasted a day and that Melnikaitė personally killed seven policemen, was badly injured, attempted to commit suicide with a grenade, and even after brutal torture did not betray her fellow partisans.[3] She was awarded Hero of the Soviet Union on March 22, 1944.

Honors and memorials

References

  1. ^ Heroines of the Soviet Union 1941-45 by Henry Sakaida, page 52
  2. ^ a b c d e Balikienė, Brigita (2006-01-09). "Diversantė MM". Istorijos.  
  3. ^ K. Ėringis. Lietuvos kariuomenės tragedija. Faktai, prisiminimai, dokumentai. Vilnius, 1993, pages 145-148
  4. ^ Zarasų krašto muziejus
  5. ^ Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema by P. Rollberg, page 671
  6. ^ A Short History of Opera by Donald Jay Grout, Hermine Weigel Williams, page 672
  7. ^ Tarybinė lietuvių poezija didžiojo tėvynės karo metais by Elena Baliutytė, page 42
  8. ^ Поуличный телефонный справочник Алматы (Алма-Аты)
  9. ^ Улица Невезения в Шымкенте, там застревают даже большегрузные КАМАЗы
  10. ^ a b Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija, volume 3, page 45
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.