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Catalan verbs

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Catalan verbs

This article discusses the conjugation of verbs in a number of varieties of the Catalan language, including Old Catalan. Each verbal form is accompanied by its phonetic transcription. Widely used dialectal forms are included here, even if they are not considered standard in either of the norms for written Catalan language, the one by Institut d'Estudis Catalans, mostly based on central Catalan, and the one by Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, mostly based on common Valencian. (Other dialectal forms do exist, among them characteristic forms of minor extreme dialects like Ribagorçan or Algherese, or transitional forms between major dialects, like the ones used in the lower Ebre basin area around Tortosa or in the Empordà).

The Catalan verbal system in context

The Catalan verbal system has grammatical categories quite alike its neighbouring Romance languages (Spanish, Occitan, French, Italian).

The formal similarities with Occitan are most noticeable. There is a visible divergence between Catalan and Occitan in the Catalan endings for all second person plural, in -au, -eu, -iu, instead of Occitan ones: -atz, -etz, -itz. There are remarkable coincidences with Occitan in the evolution of new paradigms formed on the inchoative augment for the verbs with infinitives in -ir, or on the velar augment in the verbs with infinitives in -er or -re.

The most particular feature of Catalan is the so-called periphrastic preterite for remote past, which is constructed with characteristic forms of present of the verb anar (to go) and the infinitive of the conjugated verb (e.g. vaig parlar, vas parlar, va parlar, vam parlar, vau parlar, van parlar). This tense is quite unique among Romance languages, only shared with some Gascon and Aragonese (Benasque, Gistaín) dialects, and it seems to have existed in Catalan at least since the 13th century.

In contemporary Catalan simple preterite indicative (the synthetic one descending from the Latin perfect tense) is used mostly in written form and it has been almost replaced by the periphrastic preterite in regular speech, although simple preterite indicative is still used in some dialects, as central Valencian and Catalan of Ibiza.

Another difference between contemporary Catalan and Medieval Catalan is the revamping of simple preterite indicative desinences from the etymological ones, to a new pattern based by analogy on the 3rd person plural, that is: from medieval desinences as -é,-ast,-à,-am,-às,-aren to modern ones as -í,-ares,-à,-àrem,-àreu,-aren. This change took place some time between 13th and 15th centuries.

Modern Valencian has subjunctive simple preterite desinences -ara,-ares,-ara,-àrem,-àreu,-aren (from the Latin subjunctive imperfect preterite) instead of the Medieval ones -às,-asses,-às,-àssem,-àsseu,-assen (from the Latin subjunctive perfect preterite), that have originated for example -és,-essis,-és,-éssim,-éssiu,-essin in modern central Catalan.

A synopsis of contemporary Catalan verbal system

Finite forms

These tables below summarise part of the inflected forms:

Finite Catalan verb forms for cantar ("to sing")
only 2nd person singular
mood time simple composite
indicative present cantes has cantat
past imperfect cantaves havies cantat
perfect cantares hagueres cantat
periphrastic perfect vas cantar vas haver cantat
future cantaràs hauràs cantat
conditional cantaries hauries cantat
subjunctive present cantis hagis cantat
past cantéssis haguéssis cantat
imperative canta -

Finite forms of Catalan verbs are divided among imperfective and perfective tenses.

Regular Catalan verbs have these range of simple imperfective tenses:

  • Simple present (present d'indicatiu), e.g. parlo ("I speak, I'm speaking")
  • Imperfect preterite (pretèrit imperfet d'indicatiu), e.g. parlava ("I spoke, I was speaking")
  • Simple future (futur simple), e.g. parlaré ("I will speak, I will be speaking")
  • Simple conditional ('condicional simple), e.g. parlaria ("I would speak, I would be speaking")
  • Subjunctive simple present (present de subjuntiu), e.g. parli ("that I speak, me to speak")
  • Subjunctive simple preterite (pretèrit imperfet de subjuntiu), e.g. parlés ("that I spoke")

Subjunctive tenses usually imply syntactic dependence of a subordinate clause, and might mean diverse degrees on uncertainty or supposition by the speaker.

Regular Catalan verbs have this range of compound perfective tenses (formed with the auxiliary verb haver and the past participle of the conjugated verb) to be paired with the ones above:

  • Indefinite preterite (pretèrit indefinit) (recent past, analogous to English present perfect), e.g. he parlat ("I have spoken")
  • Plusquamperfect (pretèrit plusquamperfet d'indicatiu) (analogous to English past perfect), e.g. havia parlat ("I had spoken")
  • Future perfect (futur compost), e.g. hauré parlat ("I will have spoken")
  • Past conditional (condicional compost), e.g. hauria parlat ("I would have spoken")
  • Subjunctive preterite perfect (pretèrit perfet de subjuntiu), e.g. hagi parlat ("that I have spoken, me to have spoken")
  • Subjunctive plusquamperfect (pretèrit plusquamperfet de subjuntiu), e.g. hagués parlat ("that I had spoken, me to had spoken")

Moreover, among perfective tenses, there are the two different forms of remote past (analogous to English simple past). The most used one is the periphrastic preterite (pretèrit perfet perifràstic), which is a compound form made with special forms of anar ("go") and the infinitive of the conjugated verb, e.g. vaig parlar ("I spoke"). The other one is the simple preterite (pretèrit perfet simple), nowadays almost only in written usage, e.g. parlí ("I spoke").

Besides all of those tenses, and outside of the imperfective/perfective contrast, there is the imperative present (present d'imperatiu) that has only two forms: one for second person singular and one for second person plural, e.g. parla! ("(you singular) speak!"), parleu! ("(you plural) speak!"). For other persons of imperative the forms of subjunctive present are used, e.g. parli! ("let him/her speak!"), parlem! ("let us speak!"), parlin! ("let them speak!"). Imperative is only used for positive commands; negative commands use the forms of subjunctive present as well, e.g. no parlis! ("don't (you singular) speak!"), no parlem! ("let us not speak!"), no parleu! ("don't (you plural) speak!"), etc.

Some notes on usage of tenses:

The differences in meaning and usage distribution of Catalan recent past (indefinite preterite or present perfect) and remote past (periphrastic preterite) are similar to the ones of British English present perfect and simple past. Using the recent past implies action was performed some time in the past, completed during the period of the enunciation and its effects are still present; while using remote past implies action was performed in some past period and its effects are not present anymore.

So recent past can be used either to refer an action performed today or the current period referred (e.g. this week, this year, etc.) or sometime with effect in the present. While remote past may be used to refer an action not performed today or during a specific current period (e.g. this week, this year etc.) or sometime else long ago. E.g. one might say aquest matí he parlat amb el metge ("this morning I have spoken with the doctor") or he parlat amb un metge de la vista ("I have spoken with an ophthalmologist", may be today or not, and what the ophthalmologist said in still in effect). But one must say ahir vaig parlar amb el metge ("yesterday I spoke with the doctor") or vaig parlar amb un metge de la vista ("I spoke with an ophthalmologist", certainly not today, and presumably what the ophthalmologist said is not rellevant anymore now).

In conditional clauses verb tenses are used normally in these pairs:

  • Subordinate clause with subjunctive perfect preterite and main clause with perfect conditional to express an already past condition that did not become true, e.g. si hagués arribat abans, l'hauria trobat a casa ("if I had arrived earlier, I would have met him at home")
  • Subordinate clause with subjunctive imperfect preterite and main clause with simple conditional to express an irreal or imagined condition in either the present or the future, e.g. si l'estimés no se n'aniria ("if he loved her, he would not leave")
  • Subordinate clause with indicative present and main clause with simple future to express a possible condition in either the present or the future, e.g. si fas bondat, anirem al parc ("if you behave, we will go to the park")

Although other tense combination are possible as well, e.g. si heu vist el que ha passat, ens ho heu d'explicar ("if you have seen what has happened, you must tell us").

Temporary and relative subordinate clauses are formed genuinely in the future tense e.g. quan vindràs, en parlarem ("when you will come, we will speak about it"), els qui vindran d'hora podran seure ("those arriving early will be able to sit"), although in current language the subjunctive is being used as well, quan vinguis..., els qui vinguin....

Non-finite forms

Catalan verbs have three non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.

These tables below summarise part of the inflected forms:

Non-finite Catalan verb forms for cantar ("to sing")
simple composite
infinitive cantar haver cantat
gerund cantant havent cantat
participle cantat -

Infinitive is a verbal noun and always invariable. Infinitive is used with characteristic forms of present of verb anar (to go) to form the periphrastic preterite, e.g. vaig parlar ("I spoke").

Gerund is a verbal adverb and always invariable. Gerund is used to form non-finite adjunct adverbial clauses of time or manner, roughly corresponding to an -ing participle in English.

Past participle is a verbal adjective and may change for gender and number in certain constructions. Past participle is used with the auxiliary haver ("to have") to form the perfect tenses of the simple tenses, e.g. simple present parlo ("I speak, I'm speaking") in relation to present perfect he parlat ("I've spoken"), etc.

In compound perfect tenses of transitive verbs (those having a direct object) a past participle may change to match gender and number of the object if it is substituted by a weak object pronoun e.g. he vist les vaques ("I have seen the cows"), but les he vistes ("I have seen them") switching to feminine plural.

In ancient Catalan compound perfect tenses of intransitive verbs (those not having a direct object) could be formed as well with the auxiliary ser ("to be") and the past participle matching gender and number of the subject, e.g som arribats ("we have arrived"), switching to masculine plural, where normal contemporary construction is hem arribat, with invariable participle. This construction is not used anymore and nowadays it only remains in a few fosilized forms, e.g. és mort/és morta ("he's dead/she's dead").

Other periphrastic finite forms

Infinitive can be used to make the periphrastic near future with the present of verb anar (to go) plus the preposition a ("to"), analogous to the English near future with "be going to +ING", e.g. vaig a parlar ("I am going to speak"). This near future is not listed in traditional paradigms. Also, notice that this near future construction is not used as much as it is in Spanish or French, because in Catalan it is more likely to be confused with the Catalan periphrastic remote past.

Infinitives can also be used to make periphrastic forms with a range of modal verbs e.g. puc parlar ("I can speak"), he/haig de parlar ("I must/have to speak"), necessito parlar ("I need to speak"), vull parlar ("I want to speak"), solia parlar ("I used to speak"), etc. Those forms are not listed in traditional paradigms either.

Gerunds can be used to make periphrastic forms that are analogous to continuous tenses in English, e.g. estic parlant ("I'm speaking"), estava parlant ("I was speaking"), estaré parlant ("I will be speaking"), etc. Those forms are not listed in traditional paradigms either.

Past participles are also used with the auxiliary ser ("to be") to form the passive forms for all active tenses of transitive verbs, e.g. active present veig ("I see, I'm seeing") in relation to passive present sóc vist ("I'm seen, I'm being seen"), recent past he vist ("I've seen") in relation to passive recent past he estat vist ("I've been seen"), etc.

Catalan uses passive tenses much more scarcely than English, because it has other preferred syntactic alternatives, so e.g. instead of la vaca ha estat vista ("the cow has been seen"), other constructions could be used, like changing word order and using a redundant weak pronoun to mark object case, e.g. la vaca, l'han vista ("the cow, (they) have seen it"), or else using the impersonal pronoun es ("one, somebody") as subject, e.g. s'ha vist la vaca ("somebody has seen the cow").

Verbs in -ar, so called 1st conjugation

This is the group most Catalan verbs belong to (approximately 86% of verbs in the dictionary). Examples include estimar ("to love"), esperar ("to wait" and "to hope"), menjar ("to eat") and pensar ("to think"). This is the only open verb class, that is, new verbs incorporated into the language are likely to follow this regular conjugation model. The only irregular verbs in this class are the idiosyncratic anar ("to go", listed below) and estar ("to be, to stay"), which often act as auxiliary verbs.

Parlar ("to speak")

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
parlar [pəɾˈɫə] parlar [pəɾˈɫə] parlar [pəɾˈɫa] parlar [paɾˈɫa] parlar [paɾˈlar] parlar [paɾˈɫar]
Past participle
parlat [pəɾˈɫat]
parlada [pəɾˈɫaðə]
parlat [pəɾˈɫat]
parlada [pəɾˈɫaðə]
parlat [pəɾˈɫat]
parlada [pəɾˈɫaðə]
parlat [paɾˈɫat]
parlada [paɾˈɫaðɛ][1]
parlat [paɾˈlat]
parlada [paɾˈlaɛ][1][2]
parlat [paɾˈɫat]
parlada [paɾˈɫaða]
Gerund
parlant [pəɾˈɫan] parlant [pəɾˈɫant] parlant [pəɾˈɫan] parlant [paɾˈɫan] parlant [paɾˈlant] parlant [paɾˈɫant]
Imperative
tu[3]
nosaltres
vosaltres
parla! [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlem! [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu! [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parla! [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlem! [pəɾˈɫəm]
parlau! [pəɾˈɫaw][4]
parla! [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlem! [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu! [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parla! [ˈpaɾɫa]
parlem! [paɾˈɫɛm]
parleu! [paɾˈɫɛw]
parla! [ˈpaɾla]
parlem! [paɾˈlɛm]
parleu! [paɾˈlɛw]
parla! [ˈpaɾɫa]
parlem! [paɾˈɫɛm]
parlau! [paɾˈɫaw][4]
Present indicative
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parli [ˈpaɾɫi][5]
parles [ˈpaɾɫəs]
parla [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾɫən]
parl [ˈpaɾɫ][6]
parles [ˈpaɾɫəs]
parla [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlam [pəɾˈɫam][4]
parlau [pəɾˈɫaw][4]
parlen [ˈpaɾɫən]
parlo [ˈpaɾɫu]
parles [ˈpaɾɫəs]
parla [ˈpaɾɫə]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾɫən]
parlo [ˈpaɾɫo]
parles [ˈpaɾɫes]
parla [ˈpaɾɫɛ][7]
parlem [paɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [paɾˈɫɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾɫen]
parle [ˈpaɾle][8]
parles [ˈpaɾles]
parla [ˈpaɾla]
parlem [paɾˈlɛm]
parleu [paɾˈlɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾlen]
parl [ˈpaɾɫ] / parle [ˈpaɾɫe][6]
parles [ˈpaɾɫes]
parla [ˈpaɾɫa]
parlam [paɾˈɫam][4]
parlau [paɾˈɫaw][4]
parlen [ˈpaɾɫen]
Imperfect indicative
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parlavi [pəɾˈɫaβi][5]
parlaves [pəɾˈɫaβəs]
parlava [pəɾˈɫaβə]
parlàvem [pəɾˈɫaβəm]
parlàveu [pəɾˈɫaβəw]
parlaven [pəɾˈɫaβən]
parlava [pəɾˈɫavə]
parlaves [pəɾˈɫavəs]
parlava [pəɾˈɫavə]
parlàvem [pəɾˈɫavəm]
parlàveu [pəɾˈɫavəw]
parlaven [pəɾˈɫavən]
parlava [pəɾˈɫaβə]
parlaves [pəɾˈɫaβəs]
parlava [pəɾˈɫaβə]
parlàvem [pəɾˈɫaβəm]
parlàveu [pəɾˈɫaβəw]
parlaven [pəɾˈɫaβən]
parlava [paɾˈɫaβa]
parlaves [paɾˈɫaβes]
parlava [paɾˈɫaβɛ][7]
parlàvem [paɾˈɫaβem]
parlàveu [paɾˈɫaβew]
parlaven [paɾˈɫaβen]
parlava [paɾˈlava]
parlaves [paɾˈlaves]
parlava [paɾˈlava]
parlàvem [paɾˈlavem]
parlàveu [paɾˈlavew]
parlaven [paɾˈlaven]
parlava [paɾˈɫava]
parlaves [paɾˈɫaves]
parlava [paɾˈɫava]
parlàvem [paɾˈɫavɛm]
parlàveu [paɾˈɫavɛw]
parlaven [paɾˈɫaven]
Preterite indicative[9]
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
vai parlar [ˌbaj pəɾˈɫa]
vas parlar [ˌbas pəɾˈɫa]
va parlar [ˌba pəɾˈɫa]
vem parlar [ˌbɛm pəɾˈɫa]
veu parlar [ˌbɛw pəɾˈɫa]
van parlar [ˌbam pəɾˈɫa]
vaig parlar [ˌvatʃ pəɾˈɫa]
vas parlar [ˌvas pəɾˈɫa]
va parlar [ˌva pəɾˈɫa]
vam parlar [ˌvam pəɾˈɫa]
vau parlar [ˌvaw pəɾˈɫa]
van parlar [ˌvam pəɾˈɫa]
vaig parlar [ˌbatʃ pəɾˈɫa]
vas parlar [ˌbas pəɾˈɫa]
va parlar [ˌba pəɾˈɫa]
vem parlar [ˌbɛm pəɾˈɫa]
veu parlar [ˌbɛw pəɾˈɫa]
van parlar [ˌbam pəɾˈɫa]
vai parlar [ˌbaj paɾˈɫa]
vas parlar [ˌbas paɾˈɫa]
va parlar [ˌba paɾˈɫa]
vam parlar [ˌbam paɾˈɫa]
vau parlar [ˌbaw paɾˈɫa]
van parlar [ˌbam paɾˈɫa]
vaig parlar [ˌvatʃ paɾˈla] / parlí [paɾˈli]
vas parlar [ˌvas paɾˈla] / parlares [paɾˈlaɾes]
va parlar [ˌva paɾˈla] / parlà [paɾˈla]
vam parlar [ˌvam paɾˈla] / parlàrem [paɾˈlaɾem]
vau parlar [ˌvaw paɾˈla] / parlàreu [paɾˈlaɾew]
van parlar [ˌvam paɾˈla] / parlaren [paɾˈlaɾen]
parlé [paɾˈɫe] / parlai [paɾˈɫaj]
parlast [paɾˈɫast]
parlà [paɾˈɫə]
parlam [paɾˈɫam]
parlàs [paɾˈɫas]
parlaren [paɾˈɫaɾen]
Future indicative
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parlaré [pəɾɫəˈɾe]
parlaràs [pəɾɫəˈɾas]
parlarà [pəɾɫəˈɾa]
parlarem [pəɾɫəˈɾɛm]
parlareu [pəɾɫəˈɾɛw]
parlaran [pəɾɫəˈɾan]
parlaré [pəɾɫəˈɾe]
parlaràs [pəɾɫəˈɾas]
parlarà [pəɾɫəˈɾa]
parlarem [pəɾɫəˈɾəm]
parlareu [pəɾɫəˈɾəw]
parlaran [pəɾɫəˈɾan]
parlaré [pəɾɫəˈɾe]
parlaràs [pəɾɫəˈɾas]
parlarà [pəɾɫəˈɾa]
parlarem [pəɾɫəˈɾɛm]
parlareu [pəɾɫəˈɾɛw]
parlaran [pəɾɫəˈɾan]
parlaré [paɾɫaˈɾe]
parlaràs [paɾɫaˈɾas]
parlarà [paɾɫaˈɾa]
parlarem [paɾɫaˈɾɛm]
parlareu [paɾɫaˈɾɛw]
parlaran [paɾɫaˈɾan]
parlaré [paɾlaˈɾe]
parlaràs [paɾlaˈɾas]
parlarà [paɾlaˈɾa]
parlarem [paɾlaˈɾɛm]
parlareu [paɾlaˈɾɛw]
parlaran [paɾlaˈɾan]
parlaré [paɾɫaˈɾe]
parlaràs [paɾɫaˈɾas]
parlarà [paɾɫaˈɾa]
parlarem [paɾɫaˈɾɛm]
parlareu [paɾɫaˈɾɛw]
parlaran [paɾɫaˈɾan]
Conditional
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parlariï [pəɾɫəˈɾii][5]
parlaries [pəɾɫəˈɾiəs]
parlaria [pəɾɫəˈɾiə]
parlaríem [pəɾɫəˈɾiəm]
parlaríeu [pəɾɫəˈɾiəw]
parlarien [pəɾɫəˈɾiən]
parlaria [pəɾɫəˈɾiə]
parlaries [pəɾɫəˈɾiəs]
parlaria [pəɾɫəˈɾiə]
parlaríem [pəɾɫəˈɾiəm]
parlaríeu [pəɾɫəˈɾiəw]
parlarien [pəɾɫəˈɾiən]
parlaria [pəɾɫəˈɾiə]
parlaries [pəɾɫəˈɾiəs]
parlaria [pəɾɫəˈɾiə]
parlaríem [pəɾɫəˈɾiəm]
parlaríeu [pəɾɫəˈɾiəw]
parlarien [pəɾɫəˈɾiən]
parlaria [paɾɫaˈɾia]
parlaries [paɾɫaˈɾies]
parlaria [paɾɫaˈɾiɛ][7]
parlaríem [paɾɫaˈɾiem]
parlaríeu [paɾɫaˈɾiew]
parlarien [paɾɫaˈɾien]
parlaria [paɾlaˈɾia]
parlaries [paɾlaˈɾies]
parlaria [paɾlaˈɾia]
parlaríem [paɾlaˈɾiem]
parlaríeu [paɾlaˈɾiew]
parlarien [paɾlaˈɾien]
parlaria [paɾɫaˈɾia]
parlaries [paɾɫaˈɾies]
parlaria [paɾɫaˈɾia]
parlaríem [paɾɫaˈɾiɛm]
parlaríeu [paɾɫaˈɾiɛw]
parlarien [paɾɫaˈɾien]
Present subjunctive
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parli [ˈpaɾɫi][10]
parlis [ˈpaɾɫis]
parli [ˈpaɾɫi]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlin [ˈpaɾɫin]
parli [ˈpaɾɫi][10]
parlis [ˈpaɾɫis]
parli [ˈpaɾɫi]
parlem [pəɾˈɫəm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫəw]
parlin [ˈpaɾɫin]
parli [ˈpaɾɫi][10]
parlis [ˈpaɾɫis]
parli [ˈpaɾɫi]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlin [ˈpaɾɫin]
parlo [ˈpaɾɫo][11]
parlos [ˈpaɾɫos]
parlo [ˈpaɾɫo]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlon [ˈpaɾɫon]
parle [ˈpaɾle][12]
parles [ˈpaɾles]
parle [ˈpaɾle]
parlem [pəɾˈɫɛm]
parleu [pəɾˈɫɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾlen]
parle [ˈpaɾle][12]
parles [ˈpaɾles]
parle [ˈpaɾle]
parlem [paɾˈlɛm]
parleu [paɾˈlɛw]
parlen [ˈpaɾlen]
Past subjunctive
jo[3]
tu
ell/ella
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells/elles
parlessi [pəɾˈɫesi][5]
parlessis [pəɾˈɫesis]
parlés [pəɾˈɫes]
parléssim [pəɾˈɫesim]
parléssiu [pəɾˈɫesiw]
parlessin [pəɾˈɫesin]
parlàs [pəɾˈɫas][4]
parlassis [pəɾˈɫasis]
parlàs [pəɾˈɫas]
parlàssim [pəɾˈɫasim]
parlàssiu [pəɾˈɫasiw]
parlassin [pəɾˈɫasin]
parlés [pəɾˈɫes]
parlessis [pəɾˈɫesis]
parlés [pəɾˈɫes]
parléssim [pəɾˈɫesim]
parléssiu [pəɾˈɫesiw]
parlessin [pəɾˈɫesin]
parlessa [paɾˈɫesa]
parlesses [paɾˈɫeses]
parlés [paɾˈɫes]
parléssom [paɾˈɫesom]
parléssou [paɾˈɫesow]
parlessen [paɾˈɫesen]
parlara [paɾˈlaɾa] [13]
parlares [paɾˈlaɾes]
parlara [paɾˈlaɾa]
parlàrem [paɾˈlaɾem]
parlàreu [paɾˈlaɾew]
parlaren [paɾˈlaɾen]
parlàs [paɾˈɫas][4]
parlasses [paɾˈɫases]
parlàs [paɾˈɫas]
parlàssem [paɾˈɫasɛw]
parlàsseu [paɾˈɫasɛm]
parlassen [paɾˈɫasen]

Verbs in -ir, so called 3rd conjugation

This is the second largest group of regular verbs in the Catalan language (approximately 10% of verbs in the dictionary).

Most of the regular verbs of this group (about 91%) take the so called inchoative augment, which derives from the Latin inchoative suffix -ESC-. The particular form of the suffix varies among -eix-, -ix-, -esc-, -isc- (which might be realised as [ˈɛʃ, ˈiʃ, ˈɛsk, ˈisk] etc.) depending on the tense and the dialect. That suffix, which always carries the stress accent, is added to the basic root in some forms in particular (imperative 2nd person singular, and 1st,2nd,3rd singular and 3rd plural of indicative present and subjunctive present). E.g. servir gives imperative 2nd person singular serveix!, 3rd singular indicative present serveix, 3rd singular subjunctive present serveixi, etc.

Verbs in -ir with two stems, so called inchoatives: Servir ("to serve")

These verbs have a basic stem (e.g. serv-) and an extended stem (serveix-, servix-, servesc- or servisc-) used in some particular tenses. Examples of inchoative verbs include patir ("to suffer/endure") and partir ("to divide"), which give 3rd singular indicative present as pateix and parteix, respectively.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
servir [səɾˈβi] servir [səɾˈvi] servir [səɾˈβi] servir [seɾˈβi] servir [seɾˈviɾ] servir [seɾˈviɾ]
Past Participle
servit [səɾˈβit]
servida [səɾˈβiðə]
servit [səɾˈvit]
servida [səɾˈviðə]
servit [səɾˈβit]
servida [səɾˈβiðə]
servit [seɾˈβit]
servida [seɾˈβiðɛ][1]
servit [seɾˈvit]
servida [seɾˈviɛ][1][2]
servit [seɾˈvit]
servida [seɾˈviða]
Gerund
servint [səɾˈβin] servint [səɾˈvint] servint [səɾˈβin] servint [seɾˈβin] servint [seɾˈvint] servint [seɾˈvint]
Imperative
serveix! [səɾˈβɛʃ]
servim! [səɾˈβim]
serviu! [səɾˈβiw]
serveix! [səɾˈvɛʃ]
serviguem! [səɾviˈɣəm]
serviu! [səɾˈviw]
serveix! [səɾˈβɛʃ]
servim! [səɾˈβim]
serviu! [səɾˈβiw]
servix! [seɾˈβiʃ]
servim! [seɾˈβim]
serviu! [seɾˈβiw]
servix! [seɾˈviʃ]
servim! [seɾˈvim]
serviu! [seɾˈviw]
serveix! [seɾˈvɛʃ]
servim! [seɾˈvim]
serviu! [seɾˈviw]
Present indicative
serveixi [səɾˈβɛʃi][5]
serveixes [səɾˈβɛʃəs]
serveix [səɾˈβɛʃ]
servim [səɾˈβim]
serviu [səɾˈβiw]
serveixen [səɾˈβɛʃən]
servesc [səɾˈvɛsk][6]
serveixes [səɾˈvɛʃəs]
serveix [səɾˈvɛʃ]
servim [səɾˈvim]
serviu [səɾˈviw]
serveixen [səɾˈvɛʃən]
serveixo [səɾˈβɛʃu]
serveixes [səɾˈβɛʃəs]
serveix [səɾˈβɛʃ]
servim [səɾˈβim]
serviu [səɾˈβiw]
serveixen [səɾˈβɛʃən]
servixo [seɾˈβiʃo]
servixes [seɾˈβiʃes]
servix [seɾˈβiʃ]
servim [seɾˈβim]
serviu [seɾˈβiw]
servixen [seɾˈβiʃen]
servixc [seɾˈviʃk] / servisc [seɾˈvisk][6]
servixes [seɾˈviʃes]
servix [seɾˈviʃ]
servim [seɾˈvim]
serviu [seɾˈviw]
servixen [seɾˈviʃen]
servesc [seɾˈvɛsk][6]
serveixes [seɾˈvɛʃes]
serveix [seɾˈvɛʃ]
servim [seɾˈvim]
serviu [seɾˈviw]
serveixen [seɾˈvɛʃen]
Imperfect indicative
serviï [səɾˈβii][5]
servies [səɾˈβiəs]
servia [səɾˈβiə]
servíem [səɾˈβiəm]
servíeu [səɾˈβiəw]
servien [səɾˈβiən]
servia [səɾˈviə]
servies [səɾˈviəs]
servia [səɾˈviə]
servíem [səɾˈviəm]
servíeu [səɾˈviəw]
servien [səɾˈviən]
servia [səɾˈβiə]
servies [səɾˈβiəs]
servia [səɾˈβiə]
servíem [səɾˈβiəm]
servíeu [səɾˈβiəw]
servien [səɾˈβiən]
servia [seɾˈβia]
servies [seɾˈβies]
servia [seɾˈβiɛ][7]
servíem [seɾˈβiem]
servíeu [seɾˈβiew]
servien [seɾˈβien]
servia [seɾˈvia]
servies [seɾˈvies]
servia [seɾˈvia]
servíem [seɾˈviem]
servíeu [seɾˈview]
servien [seɾˈvien]
servia [seɾˈvia]
servies [seɾˈvies]
servia [seɾˈvia]
servíem [seɾˈviem]
servíeu [seɾˈview]
servien [seɾˈvien]
Preterite indicative[9]
serví
servires
serví
servírem
servíreu
serviren
serví
servist
serví
servim
servís
serviren
Future indicative
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
serviré
serviràs
servirà
servirem
servireu
serviran
Conditional
serviriï[5]
serviries
serviria
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
serviria
serviries
serviria
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
serviria
serviries
serviria
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
serviria
serviries
serviria[7]
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
serviria
serviries
serviria
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
serviria
serviries
serviria
serviríem
serviríeu
servirien
Present subjunctive
serveixi[10]
serveixis
serveixi
servim
serviu
serveixin
servesqui[10]
servesquis
servesqui
serviguem
servigueu
servesquin
serveixi[10]
serveixis
serveixi
servim
serviu
serveixin
servixo[11]
servixos
servixo
servim
serviu
servixon
servixca/servisca
servixques/servisques
servixca/servisca
servim
serviu
servixquen/servisquen
servesca
servesques
servesca
servim
serviu
servesquen
Past subjunctive
servissi[5]
servissis
servís
servíssim
servíssiu
servissin
servís
servissis
servís
servíssim
servíssiu
servissin
servís
servissis
servís
servíssim
servíssiu
servissin
servís
servissis
servís
servíssim
servíssiu
servissin
servira[13]
servires
servira
servírem
servíreu
serviren
servís
servisses
servís
servíssem
servísseu
servissen

Verbs in -ir with only one stem: Dormir ("to sleep")

Examples of non-inchoative verbs include, fugir ("to flee") and morir ("to die"), which give 3rd singular indicative present as fuig and mor, respectively.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
dormir [dur'mi] dormir [dur'mi] dormir [dur'mi] dormir [dor'mi] dormir [dor'mir] dormir [dor'mir]
Past Participle
dormit [dur'mit]
dormida [durˈmiðə]
dormit [dur'mit]
dormida [durˈmiðə]
dormit [dur'mit]
dormida [durˈmiðə]
dormit [dor'mit]
dormida [dorˈmiðɛ][1]
dormit [dor'mit]
dormida [dorˈmiɛ][1][2]
dormit [dor'mit]
dormida [dorˈmiða]
Gerund
dormint [dur'min] dormint [dur'mint] dormint [dur'min] dormint [dor'min] dormint [dor'mint] dormint [dor'mint]
Imperative
dorm!
dormim!
dormiu!
dorm!
dormiguem!
dormiu!
dorm!
dormim!
dormiu!
dorm!
dormim!
dormiu!
dorm!
dormim!
dormiu!
dorm!
dormim!
dormiu!
Present indicative
dormi ['dormi][5]
dormes
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dorm ['dorm][6]
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dormo ['dormu]
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dormo ['dormo]
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dorm ['dorm][6]
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dorm ['dorm][6]
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen
Imperfect indicative
dormiï [dur'mii][5]
dormies
dormia
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
dormia [dorˈmiə]
dormies
dormia
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
dormia [durˈmiə]
dormies
dormia
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
dormia [dor'mia]
dormies
dormia [dorˈmiɛ][7]
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
dormia [dor'mia]
dormies
dormia
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
dormia [dor'mia]
dormies
dormia
dormíem
dormíeu
dormien
Preterite indicative[9]
dormí
dormires
dormí
dormírem
dormíreu
dormiren
dormí
dormist
dormí
dormim
dormís
dormiren
Future indicative
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
dormiré
dormiràs
dormirà
dormirem
dormireu
dormiran
Conditional
dormiriï[5]
dormiries
dormiria
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
dormiria
dormiries
dormiria
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
dormiria
dormiries
dormiria
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
dormiria
dormiries
dormiria[7]
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
dormiria
dormiries
dormiria
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
dormiria
dormiries
dormiria
dormiríem
dormiríeu
dormirien
Present subjunctive
dormi[10]
dormis
dormi
dormim
dormiu
dormin
dormi[10]
dormis
dormi
dormiguem
dormigueu
dormin
dormi[10]
dormis
dormi
dormim
dormiu
dormin
dormo[11]
dormos
dormo
dormim
dormiu
dormon
dorma
dormes
dorma
dormim
dormiu
dormen
dorma
dormes
dorma
dormim
dormiu
dormen
Past subjunctive
dormissi[5]
dormissis
dormís
dormíssim
dormíssiu
dormissin
dormís
dormissis
dormís
dormíssim
dormíssiu
dormissin
dormís
dormissis
dormís
dormíssim
dormíssiu
dormissin
dormís
dormisses
dormís
dormíssem
dormísseu
dormissen
dormira[13]
dormires
dormira
dormírem
dormíreu
dormiren
dormís
dormisses
dormís
dormíssem
dormísseu
dormissen

Verbs in -re or -er, and also dir and dur, so called 2nd conjugation

This is the remaining group of verbs in the Catalan language (approximately 4% of verbs in the dictionary). It includes most of the irregular verbs, which are the most frequently used as well, as ser ("to be", listed below), haver ("to have", listed below), fer ("to do", listed below), veure ("to see"), poder ("can"), voler ("to want"), caldre ("must"), etc., and also the two idiosyncratic and irregular verbs dir ("to say") and dur ("to take/get"), both listed below.

In verbs with infinitive ending in -re, the letter immediately before -re is always a consonant (one of b, d, p, t) or a consonantal u. Examples include rebre ("to receive"), vendre ("to sell"), valdre ("to be worth"), perdre ("to lose"), rompre ("break"), fotre ("fuck"), caure ("to fall"), deure ("to owe", also modal "might"), viure ("to live"), or coure ("to cook").

Diachronical notes:
  • The final consonantal u in infinitive roots of this verb class is a characteristic Catalan evolution of several consonantal clusters from vulgar Latin proparoxytone infinitives, e.g CÁDERE > cadre > caure, DÉBERE > devre > deure, VÍVERE > vivre > viure, CÓQUERE > cogre > coure, etc.
  • The clusters -ldr-, -ndr- in infinitive roots of this verb class have an epenthetic d as the result of the evolution of consonantal clusters from vulgar Latin proparoxytone infinitives, e.g VÁLERE > valre > valdre, VÉNDERE > venre > vendre, etc.

If the root consonant in the infinitive is a b, then the third person singular of indicative present will be spelt with a p instead, consequently, rebre will give rep.

There is a significative group of verbs in this group that present a supletive root with the so called velar augment (that is, adding -g- [ɣ] or -c [k] to the basic root) in some particular forms (most frequently, but not always: past participle, 1st person of indicative present, and all forms of indicative preterite, subjunctive present and subjunctive preterite. E.g. valdre gives valgut, valc, valguí, valgui, valgués; voler gives volgut, vull or vullc, volguí, vulgui, volgués; etc.

Batre ("to beat", "to shake")

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
batre [ˈbatɾə] batre [ˈbatɾə] batre [ˈbatɾə] batre [ˈbatɾe] batre [ˈbatɾe] batre [ˈbatɾe]
Past Participle
batut [bəˈtut]
batuda [bəˈtuðə]
batut [bəˈtut]
batuda [bəˈtuðə]
batut [bəˈtut]
batuda [bəˈtuðə]
batut [baˈtut]
batuda [baˈtuðɛ][1]
batut [baˈtut]
batuda [baˈtuɛ][1][2]
batut [baˈtut]
batuda [baˈtuða]
Gerund
batent [bəˈten] batent [bəˈtent] batent [bəˈten] batent [baˈten] batent [baˈtent] batent [baˈtent]
Imperative
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [bəˈtɛm]
bateu! [bəˈtɛw]
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [bəˈtəm]
bateu! [bəˈtəw]
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [bəˈtɛm]
bateu! [bəˈtɛw]
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [baˈtɛm]
bateu! [baˈtɛw]
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [baˈtɛm]
bateu! [baˈtɛw]
bat! [ˈbat]
batem! [baˈtɛm]
bateu! [baˈtɛw]
Present indicative
bati[5]
bates
bat
batem
bateu
baten
bat[6]
bats
bat
batem
bateu
baten
bato
bats
bat
batem
bateu
baten
bato
bats
bat
batem
bateu
baten
bat[6]
bats
bat
batem
bateu
baten
bat[6]
bats
bat
batem
bateu
baten
Imperfect indicative
batiï [bəˈtii][5]
baties [bəˈtiəs]
batia [bəˈtiə]
batíem [bəˈtiəm]
batíeu [bəˈtiəw]
batien [bəˈtiən]
batia [bəˈtiə]
baties [bəˈtiəs]
batia [bəˈtiə]
batíem [bəˈtiəm]
batíeu [bəˈtiəw]
batien [bəˈtiən]
batia [bəˈtiə]
baties [bəˈtiəs]
batia [bəˈtiə]
batíem [bəˈtiəm]
batíeu [bəˈtiəw]
batien [bəˈtiən]
batia [ba'tia]
baties [ba'ties]
batia [baˈtiɛ][7]
batíem [ba'tiem]
batíeu [ba'tiew]
batien [ba'tien]
batia [ba'tia]
baties [ba'ties]
batia [ba'tia]
batíem [ba'tiem]
batíeu [ba'tiew]
batien [ba'tien]
batia [ba'tia]
baties [ba'ties]
batia [ba'tia]
batíem [ba'tiem]
batíeu [ba'tiew]
batien [ba'tien]
Preterite indicative[9]
batí
bateres
baté
batérem
batéreu
bateren
baté
batest
baté
batem
batés
bateren
Future indicative
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
batiré
batiràs
batirà
batirem
batireu
batiran
Conditional
batiriï[5]
batiries
batiria
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
batiria
batiries
batiria
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
batiria
batiries
batiria
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
batiria
batiries
batiria[7]
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
batiria
batiries
batiria
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
batiria
batiries
batiria
batiríem
batiríeu
batirien
Present subjunctive
bati[10]
batis
bati
batem
bateu
batin
bata
bates
bata
batem
bateu
baten
bati[10]
batis
bati
batem
bateu
batin
bato[11]
batos
bato
batem
bateu
baton
bata
bates
bata
batem
bateu
baten
bata
bates
bata
batem
bateu
baten
Past subjunctive
batessi[5]
batessis
batés
batéssim
batéssiu
batessin
batés
batessis
batés
batéssim
batéssiu
batessin
batés
batessis
batés
batéssim
batéssiu
batessin
batés
batesses
batés
batéssem
batésseu
batessen
batera[13]
bateres
batera
batérem
batéreu
bateren
batés
batesses
batés
batéssem
batésseu
batessen

Irregular verbs

Ser or ésser ("to be")

This auxiliary verb presents several different roots: s-, ess-, er-, sig- (from Latin ESSE), and for-, foss, fu- (from Latin perfect forms of ESSE, which already had analogous supletive roots).

There are more dialectal forms with velar augment based on the root sig-, for example in Ribargorçan indicative present.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
ser [ˈsɛ] ser [ˈsə] / esser [əˈse] ser [ˈse] / ésser [ˈesə] ser [ˈse] ser [ˈseɾ] ésser [ˈeseɾ]
Past Participle
sigut
siguda
sigut/set/estat
siguda/seta/estada
sigut/set
siguda/seta
segut
seguda
Gerund
siguent sent/siguent/essent sent/siguent sent/siguent
Imperative
sigues
siguem
sigueu
Present indicative
sun
es/ets
és
sem
seu
sun
som
ets
és
som
sou
són
sóc/so
ets
és
som
sou
són
Imperfect indicative
eri[5]
eres/érets
era
érem
éreu
eren
era
eres
era
érem
éreu
eren
Preterite indicative[9]
fui
fores
fou
fórem
fóreu
foren
fui
fuist/fost
fo/fou/fonc
fom/fórem
fos/fórets
foren
Future indicative
seré [səˈɾe]
seràs [səˈɾas]
serà [səˈɾa]
serem [səˈɾɛm]
sereu [səˈɾɛw]
seran [səˈɾan]
seré [səˈɾe]
seràs [səˈɾas]
serà [səˈɾa]
serem [səˈɾɛm]
sereu [səˈɾɛw]
seran [səˈɾan]
seré [səˈɾe]
seràs [səˈɾas]
serà [səˈɾa]
serem [səˈɾɛm]
sereu [səˈɾɛw]
seran [səˈɾan]
siré [siˈɾe]
siràs [siˈɾas]
sirà [siˈɾa]
sirem [siˈɾɛm]
sireu [siˈɾɛw]
siran [siˈɾan]
seré [seˈɾe]
seràs [seˈɾas]
serà [seˈɾa]
serem [seˈɾɛm]
sereu [seˈɾɛw]
seran [seˈɾan]
seré [seˈɾe]
seràs [seˈɾas]
serà [seˈɾa]
serem [seˈɾɛm]
sereu [seˈɾɛw]
seran [seˈɾan]
Conditional
seriï[5]
series
seria
seríem
seríeu
serien
seria
series
seria
seríem
seríeu
serien
seria/fóra
series/fores
seria/fóra
seríem/fórem
seríeu/fóreu
serien/foren
siria
siries
siria
siríem
siríeu
sirien
seria
series
seria
seríem
seríeu
serien
fóra
fores
fóra
fórem
fóreu
foren
Present subjunctive
sigui
siguis
sigui
siguem
sigueu
siguin
sigui
siguis
sigui
siguem
sigueu
siguin
sigui
siguis
sigui
siguem
sigueu
siguin
sigo[11]
sigos
sigo
siguem
sigueu
sigon
siga
sigues
sigue
siguem
sigueu
siguen
Past subjunctive
siguessi[5]
siguessis
sigués
siguéssim
siguéssiu
siguessin
sigués
siguessis
sigués
siguéssim
siguéssiu
siguessin
fos/sigués
fossis/siguessis
fos/sigués
fóssim/siguéssim
fóssiu/siguéssiu
fossin/siguessin
fos
fosses
fos
fóssem
fósseu
fossen
fóra
fores
fóra
fórem
fóreu
foren

Haver ("to have")

This auxiliary verb presents several different roots: h-, hav- and hag- (either [aɣ] or [aʒ]) (all from Latin HABERE). There are more dialectal forms with velar augment based on the root hag-.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
haver
Past Participle
havent
Gerund
hagut
haguda
Imperative
Present indicative
he/haig
has
ha
hem
heu
han
Imperfect indicative
havia
havies
havia
havíem
havíeu
havien
Preterite indicative
Future indicative
hauré
hauràs
haurà
haurem
haureu
hauran
Conditional
hauria
hauries
hauria
hauríem
hauríeu
haurien
Present subjunctive
hagi
hagis
hagi
hàgim
hàgiu
hagin
haja
hages
haja
hàgem
hàgeu
hagen
haja
hages
haja
hàgem
hàgeu
hagen
Past subjunctive
hagués
haguessis
hagués
haguéssim
haguéssiu
haguessin
hagués
haguesses
hagués
haguéssem
haguésseu
haguessen
haguera
hagueres
haguera
haguérem
haguéreu
hagueren

Anar ("to go")

This verb presents two sets of different roots: ana-, ani- (from Latin AMBULARE, the second one a mix with Latin IRE) and va-,vag- [baʒ] (from Latin VADERE).

As you have seen, present of anar is used as an auxiliary verb to form the periphrastic preterite with the infinitive of the verb being conjugated. Notice the characteristic forms of this verb anar used as auxiliary verb are slightly different from the normal present when used as a full verb. In particular the 1st and 2nd plural forms are different: auxliary verb forms are vam and vau (or vem,veu depending on the dialect), full verb forms are anem and aneu (or anam,anau depending on the dialect).

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
anar anar anar anar anar anar
Past Participle
anat
anada
anat
anada
anat
anada
anat
anada
anat
anada
anat
anada
Gerund
anant anant anant anant anant anant
Imperative
vés! [ˈbes]
anem! [əˈnɛm]
aneu! [əˈnɛw]
vés! [ˈves]
anem! [əˈnəm]
anau! [əˈnɛw]
vés! [ˈbes]
anem! [əˈnɛm]
aneu! [əˈnɛw]
vés! [ˈbes]
anem! [aˈnɛm]
aneu! [aˈnɛw]
vés! [ˈves]
anem! [aˈnɛm]
aneu! [aˈnɛw]
Present indicative
vaig [ˈbatʃ]
vas ['bas]
va [ˈba]
anem [əˈnɛm]
aneu [əˈnɛw]
van [ˈban]
vaig [ˈvatʃ]
vas ['vas]
va [ˈva]
anam [əˈnam]
anau [əˈnaw]
van [ˈvan]
vaig [ˈbatʃ]
vas ['bas]
va [ˈba]
anem [əˈnɛm]
aneu [əˈnɛw]
van [ˈban]
vaig [ˈbatʃ]
vas ['bas]
va [ˈba]
anem [aˈnɛm]
aneu [aˈnɛw]
van [ˈban]
vaig [ˈvatʃ]
vas ['vas]
va [ˈva]
anem [aˈnɛm]
aneu [aˈnɛw]
van [ˈvan]
vaig [ˈvatʃ]
vas ['vas]
va [ˈva]
anam [aˈnɛm]
anau [aˈnɛw]
van [ˈvan]
Imperfect indicative
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
anava
anaves
anava
anàvem
anàveu
anaven
Preterite indicative
aní
anares
anà
anàrem
anàreu
anaren
ané/aní
anàs/anist
anà
anam
anats
anaren
Future indicative
iré
iràs
irà
irem
ireu
iran
aniré
aniràs
anirà
anirem
anireu
aniran
aniré
aniràs
anirà
anirem
anireu
aniran
aniré
aniràs
anirà
anirem
anireu
aniran
aniré
aniràs
anirà
anirem
anireu
aniran
Conditional
iria
iries
iria
iríem
iríeu
irien
aniria
aniries
aniria
aniríem
aniríeu
anirien
aniria
aniries
aniria
aniríem
aniríeu
anirien
aniria
aniries
aniria
aniríem
aniríeu
anirien
aniria
aniries
aniria
aniríem
aniríeu
anirien
Present subjunctive
vagi
vagis
vagi
anem
aneu
vagin
vagi
vagis
vagi
anem
aneu
vagin
vagi
vagis
vagi
anem
aneu
vagin
vaja
vages
vaja
anem
aneu
vagen
vaja
vages
vaja
anem
aneu
vagen
vaja
vages
vaja
anem
aneu
vagen
Past subjunctive
anéssi
anessis
anés
anéssim
anéssiu
anessin
anàs
anassis
anàs
anàssim
anàssiu
anassin
anés
anessis
anés
anéssim
anéssiu
anessin
anés
anessis
anés
anéssim
anéssiu
anessin
anara
anares
anara
anàrem
anàreu
anaren

Fer ("to do")

This irregular verb presents several different roots: fe-, fa-, fac- [fas] (all from Latin FACERE). There are more dialectal (and non-standard) forms based on the root fag- [faʒ], by analogy on haver, for example in central Catalan subjunctive present.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
fer
Past Participle
fet
feta
Gerund
fent
Imperative

facem!
feis!
fes
fem!
feu!
fes
fem!
feu!
fes
fem!
feu!
fes
fem!
feu!
Present indicative
faç
fas
fa
faim
fais
fan
faig
fas
fa
fem
feu
fan
faig
fas
fa
fem
feu
fan
Imperfect indicative
feia
feies
feia
feiem
feieu
feien
Preterite indicative
fiu
feres
féu
férem
féreu
feren
fiu
faist/fist
féu
faem
faés/fés
feren
Future indicative
faré
faràs
farà
farem
fareu
faran
Conditional
faria
faries
faria
faríem
faríeu
farien
Present subjunctive
faci
facis
faci
facem
faceu
facin
faci
facis
faci
fem
feu
facin
faça
faces
faça
fem
feu
facen
Past subjunctive
fes
fessis
fes
féssim
féssiu
fessin
fes
fesses
fes
féssem
fésseu
fessen
fera
feres
fera
férem
féreu
feren

Dir ("to say")

This irregular verb presents several different roots: di-, diu- [diw], dei- [dɛj], dig- [diɣ], dic- [dik] (all from Latin DICERE). There are more dialectal forms with velar augment based on the root dig-, specially in Balearic varieties.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
dir [ˈdi] dir [ˈdi] dir [ˈdi] dir [ˈdi] dir [ˈdir] dir [ˈdir]
Past Participle
dit
dita
Gerund
dient
Imperative
digues!
diguem!
digau!
digues!
diguem!
digueu!
Present indicative
dic
dius
diu
deim
deis
diuen
dic
dius
diu
diem
dieu
diuen
Imperfect indicative
deia
deies
deia
dèiem
dèieu
deien
Preterite indicative
diguí
digueres
digué
diguérem
diguéreu
digueren
dix
dixist
dix
dixem
dixest
dixeren
Future indicative
diré
diràs
dirà
direm
direu
diran
Conditional
diria
diries
diria
diríem
diríeu
dirien
Present subjunctive
digui [ˈdiɣi]
diguis [ˈdiɣis]
digui [ˈdiɣi]
diguem [diˈɣɛm]
digueu [diˈɣɛw]
diguin [ˈdiɣin]
Past subjunctive
digués
diguessis
digués
diguéssim
diguéssiu
diguessin

Dur ("to take/get")

This irregular verb presents several different roots: du-, dui- [duj], dug- [duɣ], duc- [duk] (all from Latin DUCERE). There are more dialectal forms with velar augment based on the root dug-, specially in Balearic varieties.

Northern Catalan Balearic Central Catalan North-Western Catalan Valencian Medieval Catalan
Infinitive
dur [ˈdu] dur [ˈdu] dur [ˈdu] dur [ˈdu] dur [ˈdur] dur [ˈdur]
Past Participle
duit [ˈdujt]
duita [ˈdujtə]
dut [ˈdut]
duta [ˈdutə]
Gerund
duent
Imperative
duu!
duguem!
duis!
duu!
duguem!
dueu!
dus!
duguem!
dueu!
dus!
duguem!
dueu!
Present indicative
duc [ˈduk]
duus [ˈduws] / dus [ˈdus]
duu [ˈduw] / du [ˈdu]
duim [ˈdujm]
duis [ˈdujs]
duen [ˈduən]
duc [ˈduk]
duus [ˈduws] / dus [ˈdus]
duu [ˈduw] / du [ˈdu]
duem [duˈɛm]
dueu [duˈɛw]
duen [ˈduən]
duc [ˈduk]
duus [ˈduws] / dus [ˈdus]
duu [ˈduw] / du [ˈdu]
duem [duˈɛm]
dueu [duˈɛw]
duen [ˈduen]
Imperfect indicative
duia
duies
duia
duiem
duieu
duien
Preterite indicative
duguí
dugueres
dugué
duguérem
duguéreu
dugueren
dux
duxist
dux
duxem
duxest
duxeren
Future indicative
duré
duràs
durà
durem
dureu
duran
Conditional
duria
duries
duria
duríem
duríeu
durien
Present subjunctive
dugui [ˈduɣi]
duguis [ˈduɣis]
dugui [ˈduɣi]
duguem [duˈɣɛm]
dugueu [duˈɣɛw]
duguin [ˈduɣin]
Past subjunctive
dugués
duguessis
dugués
duguéssim
duguéssiu
duguessin

Online Catalan Conjugators

  • Catalan Conjugator. CatalanDictionary.org
  • Romance languages: Catalan - verbix.com

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Occidental Catalan dialects have feminine participle ending in -[ɛ].
  2. ^ a b c d Valencian drops intervocalic -d- in feminine participle.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Personal pronouns are usually not explicited, as grammatical persona and number are deducible from verb forms.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Medieval Catalan had etymological -a- in the desinence of several forms for first conjugation verbs. Only Balearic Catalan has preserved most of them. In particular: imperative second person plural, indicative present first and 2nd persons plural, and all forms of subjunctive preterite.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Northern Catalan has -i ending in first-person singular in indicative present, indicative imperfect preterite, simple conditional, and subjunctive preterite for all conjugations. This is a notable coincidence with Gascon and Lengadocian.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Medieval Catalan had no ending in the desinence of indicative present first-person singular for all conjugations, although some verbs with roots ending in complex consonantal sequences added a final support vowel -e. Balearic Catalan and Valencian have preserved this state in diverse degrees.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i North-Western Catalan has - ] ending in third-person singular in present indicative, imperfect indicative, and simple conditional.
  8. ^ Valencian has -e ending in indicative present 1st person singular for 1st conjugation.
  9. ^ a b c d e In most Catalan dialects simple preterite indicative has been replaced by the so called periphrastic preterite, which is constructed with characteristic forms of anar (to go) and the infinitive of the conjugated verb.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Oriental Catalan dialects have changed subjunctive present mark to -i- for 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular and third plural persons.
  11. ^ a b c d e North-Western Catalan has subjunctive present mark to -o- for 1st,2nd, 3rd singular and 3rd plural persons.
  12. ^ a b Medieval Catalan had subjunctive present mark -e- in all forms for 1st conjugation, only Valencian has preserved it so.
  13. ^ a b c d Valencian has changed subjunctive preterite marks to -r- in all forms, by analogy with indicative preterite.

See also

Bibliography

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