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French heraldry

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French heraldry

A fleur-de-lis, the most common symbol in French heraldry

French heraldry is the use of heraldic symbols in France. Although it had a considerable history, like England, existing from the 11th century, such formality has largely died out in France, as far as regulated personal heraldry is concerned. Civic heraldry on the other hand remains a visible part of daily life.

The role of the herald (héraut) in France declined in the 17th century. Today the law recognises both assumed and inherited arms, considering them under law to be equivalent to a visual representation of a name, and given the same protections. However, there is no central registry of arms; in case of dispute, the individual who can prove the longest right to the blazon must be decided in court.

Many of the terms in international heraldry come from French.

Characteristics

French heraldry has a set system of crown and coronets.[1] Supporters are not linked with any rank or title, unlike the coronets, and are far less common than in other forms of European heraldry, such as English heraldry.[1] Even the Royal Arms' angelic supporters are not shown in most depictions. Crests are rare in modern depictions, again in contrast to England.[1]

French crowns

Baron Vidame Vicomte (Viscount) Comte (Count) Comte et Pair de France (Count and Peer of France) Marquis Marquis et Pair de France (Marquis and Peer of France)
Duc (Duke) Duc et Pair de France (Dukes and Peer of France) Prince du Sang or Fils de France (Son of France, nobles in the descendance of Saint Louis) Prince de Sang Royal (Royal Prince, children of the King) Dauphin (heir apparent), (Dauphin de Viennois) Roi (King)

National Emblem of France

National Emblem of France
Details
Armiger The French Republic
Escutcheon RF, standing for République française
Other elements Fasces, laurel branch, oak branch

The current emblem of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. It appears on the cover of French passports and was originally adopted by the French Foreign Ministry as a symbol for use by diplomatic and consular missions in 1912 using a design drawn up by the sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain.

In 1953, France received a request from the United Nations for a copy of the national coat of arms to be displayed alongside the coats of arms of other member states in its assembly chamber. An interministerial commission requested Robert Louis (1902–1965), heraldic artist, to produce a version of the Chaplain design. This did not, however, constitute an adoption of an official coat of arms by the Republic.

Technically speaking, it is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not respect heraldic rules—heraldry being seen as an aristocratic art, and therefore associated with the Ancien Régime. The emblem consists of:

Fleur-de-lys

A golden fleur-de-lis, the most common colour in French heraldry

The fleur-de-lys (or fleur-de-lis, plural: fleurs-de-lis; , in Quebec French), translated from French as "lily flower") is a stylized design of either an iris or a lily that is now used purely decoratively as well as symbolically, or it may be "at one and the same time political, dynastic, artistic, emblematic and symbolic",[2] especially in heraldry.

While the fleur-de-lis has appeared on countless European coats of arms and flags over the centuries, it is particularly associated with the French monarchy on a historical context, and nowadays with the Spanish monarchy and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as the only remaining monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

It is an enduring symbol of France that appears on French postage stamps but has not been adopted officially by any of the French republics.

Arms of major cities

All cities within France have coats of arms; these are often intertwined with local traditions over history.

Regions of France

Each region of France has its own coat of arms, although usage varies:

Arms Name
Alsace
Aquitaine
Auvergne
Burgundy
Brittany
Centre
Arms Name
Champagne-Ardenne
Corsica
Franche-Comté
Île-de-France
Languedoc-Roussillon
Limousin
Arms Name
Lorraine
Midi-Pyrénées
Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Lower Normandy
Upper Normandy
Pays de la Loire
Arms Name
Picardy
Poitou-Charentes
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Rhône-Alpes

Départments

Few départments have official arms. There may be substantial disagreements with this table.
Arms Department
Coat of arms of département 01 Ain
Coat of arms of département 02 Aisne
Coat of arms of département 03 Allier
Coat of arms of département 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Coat of arms of département 05 Hautes-Alpes
Coat of arms of département 06 Alpes-Maritimes
Coat of arms of département 07 Ardèche
Coat of arms of département 08 Ardennes
Coat of arms of département 09 Ariège
Coat of arms of département 10 Aube
Coat of arms of département 11 Aude
Coat of arms of département 12 Aveyron
Coat of arms of département 13 Bouches-du-Rhône
Coat of arms of département 14 Calvados
Coat of arms of département 15 Cantal
Coat of arms of département 16 Charente
Coat of arms of département 17 Charente-Maritime
Coat of arms of département 18 Cher
Coat of arms of département 19 Corrèze
Coat of arms of Corsica Southern Corsica
Coat of arms of Corsica Upper Corsica
Coat of arms of département 21 Côte-d'Or
Coat of arms of département 22 Côtes-d'Armor
Coat of arms of département 23 Creuse
Coat of arms of département 24 Dordogne
Arms Department
Coat of arms of département 25 Doubs
Coat of arms of département 26 Drôme
Coat of arms of département 27 Eure
Coat of arms of département 28 Eure-et-Loir
Coat of arms of département 29 Finistère
Coat of arms of département 30 Gard
Coat of arms of département 31 Haute-Garonne
Coat of arms of département 32 Gers
Coat of arms of département 33 Gironde
Coat of arms of département 34 Hérault
Coat of arms of département 35 Ille-et-Vilaine
Coat of arms of département 36 Indre
Coat of arms of département 37 Indre-et-Loire
Coat of arms of département 38 Isère
Coat of arms of département 39 Jura
Coat of arms of département 40 Landes
Coat of arms of département 41 Loir-et-Cher
Coat of arms of département 42 Loire
Coat of arms of département 43 Haute-Loire
Coat of arms of département 44 Loire-Atlantique
Coat of arms of département 45 Loiret
Coat of arms of département 46 Lot
Coat of arms of département 47 Lot-et-Garonne
Coat of arms of département 48 Lozère
Coat of arms of département 49 Maine-et-Loire
Arms Department
Coat of arms of département 50 Manche
Coat of arms of département 51 Marne
Coat of arms of département 52 Haute-Marne
Coat of arms of département 53 Mayenne
Coat of arms of département 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle
Coat of arms of département 55 Meuse
Coat of arms of département 56 Morbihan
Coat of arms of département 57 Moselle
Coat of arms of département 58 Nièvre
Coat of arms of département 59 Nord
Coat of arms of département 60 Oise
Coat of arms of département 61 Orne
Coat of arms of département 62 Pas-de-Calais
Coat of arms of département 63 Puy-de-Dôme
Coat of arms of département 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Coat of arms of département 65 Hautes-Pyrénées
Coat of arms of département 66 Pyrénées-Orientales
Coat of arms of département 67 Bas-Rhin
Coat of arms of département 68 Haut-Rhin
Coat of arms of département 69 Rhône
Coat of arms of département 70 Haute-Saône
Coat of arms of département 71 Saône-et-Loire
Coat of arms of département 72 Sarthe
Savoie
Haute-Savoie
Arms Department
Coat of arms of département 75 Paris
Coat of arms of département 76 Seine-Maritime
Coat of arms of département 77 Seine-et-Marne
Coat of arms of département 78 Yvelines
Coat of arms of département 79 Deux-Sèvres
Coat of arms of département 80 Somme
Coat of arms of département 81 Tarn
Coat of arms of département 82 Tarn-et-Garonne
Coat of arms of département 83 Var
Coat of arms of département 84 Vaucluse
Coat of arms of département 85 Vendée
Coat of arms of département 86 Vienne
Coat of arms of département 87 Haute-Vienne
Coat of arms of département 88 Vosges
Coat of arms of département 89 Yonne
Coat of arms of département 90 Territoire de Belfort
Coat of arms of département 91 Essonne
Coat of arms of département 92 Hauts-de-Seine
Coat of arms of département 93 Seine-Saint-Denis
Coat of arms of département 94 Val-de-Marne
Coat of arms of département 95 Val-d'Oise
Coat of arms of Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
Coat of arms of Martinique Martinique
Coat of arms of Guyane Guyane
Coat of arms of Réunion La Réunion

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c François Velde (2003-02-06). "French Heraldry: National Characteristics". Heraldica. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  2. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Heraldry: its origins and meaning translated by Francisca Garvie (Thames and Hudson 1997), ISBN 0-500-30074-7, p.98
  3. ^ Faure, Juliet (2002). L'arsenal de Paris: histoire et chroniques (in French). L'Harmattan. p. 35. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Ralph Schor, Histoire du Comté de Nice en 100 dates, Alandis Editions, 2007, p. 22-23 (in French)
  5. ^ Histoire du blason de Grenoble (in French)
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