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German submarine U-81 (1941)

History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-81
Ordered: 25 January 1939
Builder: Bremer Vulkan, Bremen-Vegesack
Laid down: 11 May 1940
Launched: 22 February 1941
Commissioned: 26 April 1941
Fate:
  • Sunk on 9 January 1944
  • Wreck raised on 22 April 1944 and scrapped[1]
General characteristics
Class & type: Type VIIC U-boat
Displacement:
  • 769 t (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) (o/a)
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) (pressure hull)
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Range:
  • 8,190 nmi (15,170 km; 9,420 mi) surfaced
  • 81 nmi (150 km; 93 mi)submerged
Test depth:
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–967 ft)
Complement: 44 to 52 officers and ratings
Armament:
Service record
Part of:
Commanders:
Operations: 17
Victories:

German submarine U-81 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

Contents

  • Design 1
  • Building and commissioning 2
  • Service history 3
    • Early patrols 3.1
    • Sinking the Ark Royal 3.2
    • Patrols in the Mediterranean 3.3
  • Sinking 4
  • Raiding history 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Design

German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-81 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[2] It had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 6 V 40/46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 shaft horsepower (760 PS; 560 kW) for use while submerged. It had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. It was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[2] When submerged, it could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, it could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-81 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at its bow and one at its stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. It had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[2]

Building and commissioning

She was ordered on 25 January 1939 and laid down on 11 May 1940 at Bremer Vulkan, Bremen-Vegesack, becoming yard number 9. She was launched on 22 February 1941 and commissioned under her first commander, Oberleutnant zur See (Oblt.z.S.) Friedrich Guggenberger, on 26 April of that year. Guggenberger commanded her for her work-ups with the 1st U-boat Flotilla between 26 April and 31 July 1941. She then became a front (operational) boat of the 1st U-boat Flotilla, and set out on a number of training patrols.[3]

Service history

Early patrols

Her first successes came on her second patrol, which took her from Trondheim into the North Sea and the North Atlantic, before putting into the French port of Brest. During the patrol she attacked Convoy SC-42. She sank the cargo ship Empire Springbuck on 9 September, followed by the motor ship Sally Maersk on 10 September, for a combined total of 8,843 tons.

U-81 was one of the U-boats ordered into the Mediterranean. Her first attempt to break into the 'Italian Lake' ended in disaster, when on 30 October she was attacked and severely damaged by a British Catalina of No. 209 Squadron RAF, as she attempted to cross the Strait of Gibraltar. The Catalina was joined by a Lockheed Hudson, which dropped depth charges onto U-81. She was severely damaged and had to return to Brest. There she was repaired to return to the Mediterranean.[3]

Sinking the Ark Royal

On 4 November U-81 left Brest bound for La Spezia in Italy. Whilst sailing off Gibraltar on 13 November, she encountered the inbound ships of Force H. She fired a single torpedo into the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, and then avoided depth charge attacks from the escorts. Despite efforts to salvage her, the Ark Royal had to be abandoned some 12 hours after the attack and capsized some two hours later and sank. Only one life had been lost due to the torpedo explosion.[4] U-81 reached La Spezia on 1 December, where she joined the 29th U-boat Flotilla.

Patrols in the Mediterranean

Her next patrol was uneventful and resulted in no ships attacked. She sailed again on 4 April 1942 and headed into the eastern Mediterranean. On 16 April she sank the Egyptian sailing ships Bab el Farag and Fatouh el Kher, as well as the British Caspia and the Free French anti-submarine naval trawler Vikings. U-81 sank a further two Egyptian sailing ships, Hefz el Rahman on 19 April and the El Saadiah on 22 April. The U-boat put into port at Salamis in Greece on 25 April, having spent 22 days at sea and sunk 7,582 tons of shipping. A further patrol from Salamis was uneventful and she returned to La Spezia on another patrol, which saw the sinking of the British Havre on 10 June. U-81‍ '​s next patrol was into the western Mediterranean. She sank the British Garlinge on 10 November and went on to intercept one of the convoys of Operation Torch (the invasion of French North Africa), sinking the Maron on 13 November.

U-81‍ '​s next patrol was uneventful and saw her briefly shift operations to Pola (now Pula, Croatia). On 25 December Oblt.z.S. Johann-Otto Krieg took command of U-81 from Guggenberger. She sailed from Pola on 30 January 1943 on her next patrol. On 10 February she damaged the Dutch Saroena and on 11 February she sank four sailing vessels, the Egyptian Al Kasbanah and Sabah el Kheir, the Lebanese Husni and the Palestinian Dolphin. U-81 put into Salamis on 19 February after 21 days at sea, 388 tons of shipping sunk and 6,671 tons damaged. Her next patrol sank three more Egyptian sailing vessels, the Bourghieh, the Mawahab Allah and the Rousdi. Her next patrol brought more substantial results, insking the British troopship Yoma on 17 June killing 484 people, followed by the Egyptian sailing vessel Nisr on 25 June and the Syrian sailing vessels Nelly and Toufic Allah on 26 June. On 27 June she sank the Greek Michalios, but was engaged by shore-based guns off Latakia. Her next patrol saw only the Empire Moon hit on 22 July, but she was declared a total loss and spent the rest of the war under repair. The U-boat's next three patrols were uneventful but on 18 November she sank the cargo ship Empire Dunstan.

Sinking

US bombers attacked U-81 while the submarine was in Pola, at 1130hrs on 9 January 1944.[1] She sank with two of her crew dead and an unknown number of survivors. The wreck was raised on 22 April 1944 and broken up.[3] She had conducted 17 patrols, sinking 23 ships totalling 63,289 tons and damaging two others totalling 14,143 tons.[3]

Raiding history

HMS Legion moves alongside the damaged and listing HMS Ark Royal to take off survivors
Date Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate
9 September 1941 Empire Springbuck  United Kingdom 5,591 Sunk
10 September 1941 Sally Mærsk  United Kingdom 3,252 Sunk
13 November 1941 HMS Ark Royal  Royal Navy 22,600 Sunk
16 April 1942 Bab el Farag*  Egypt 105 Sunk
16 April 1942 Caspia  United Kingdom 6,018 Sunk
16 April 1942 Fatouhel el Rahman*  Egypt 97 Sunk
16 April 1942 FFL Vikings  Free French Naval Forces 1,150 Sunk
19 April 1942 Hefz el Rahman*  Egypt 90 Sunk
22 April 1942 Aziza*  Egypt 100 Sunk
22 April 1942 Havre  United Kingdom 2,073 Sunk
10 November 1942 Garlinge  United Kingdom 2,012 Sunk
13 November 1942 Maron  United Kingdom 6,487 Sunk
10 February 1943 Saroena  United Kingdom 6,671 Damaged
11 February 1943 Al Kasbanah*  Egypt 110 Sunk
11 February 1943 Dolphin*  Palestine 135 Sunk
11 February 1943 Husni* Lebanon 107 Sunk
11 February 1943 Sabah al Kheir*  Egypt 36 Sunk
20 March 1943 Bourgheih*  Egypt 244 Sunk
20 March 1943 Mawahab Allah*  Syria 77 Sunk
28 March 1943 Rouisdi*  Egypt 133 Sunk
17 June 1943 Yoma  United Kingdom 8,131 Sunk
25 June 1943 Nisr*  Egypt 80 Sunk
26 June 1943 Nelly*  Syria 80 Sunk
26 June 1943 Toufic Allah*  Syria 75 Sunk
27 June 1943 Michalios  Greece 3,742 Sunk
22 July 1943 Empire Moon  United Kingdom 7,472 Total loss
18 November 1943 Empire Dunstan  United Kingdom 2,887 Sunk

* Sailing vessel

References

  1. ^ a b Kemp 1997, p. 163.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner 1985, pp. 72-74.
  3. ^ a b c d
  4. ^ Rossiter 2007, p. 329.

Bibliography

External links

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