World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000200178
Reproduction Date:

Title: Guttation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Dew, Root pressure, Plant secretory tissue, Hydathode, Leaf
Collection: Plant Physiology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Guttation on Equisetum
Guttation on a strawberry leaf
Guttation on a prayer plant
Showing guttation in a plant.

Guttation is the exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses. Guttation is not to be confused with dew, which condenses from the atmosphere onto the plant surface.


  • Process 1
  • Chemical content 2
  • Analysis 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5


At night, transpiration usually does not occur because most plants have their stomata closed. When there is a high soil moisture level, water will enter plant roots, because the water potential of the roots is lower than in the soil solution. The water will accumulate in the plant, creating a slight root pressure. The root pressure forces some water to exude through special leaf tip or edge structures, hydathodes or water glands, forming drops. Root pressure provides the impetus for this flow, rather than transpirational pull. Guttation is most noticeable when transpiration is suppressed and the relative humidity is high, such as during the night.

Chemical content

Guttation fluid may contain a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, mainly sugars, and potassium.[1] On drying, a white crust remains on the leaf surface.

Girolami et al. (2005) found that guttation drops from corn plants germinated from neonicotinoid-coated seeds could contain amounts of insecticide consistently higher than 10 mg/l, and up to 200 mg/l for the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Concentrations this high are near those of active ingredients applied in field sprays for pest control and sometimes even higher. It was found that when bees consume guttation drops collected from plants grown from neonicotinoid-coated seeds, they die within a few minutes.[2] This phenomenon may be a factor in bee deaths and, consequently, colony collapse disorder (CCD).


If high levels of nitrogen appear in the fluid, it is a sign of fertilizer burn. Excess nitrogen must be leached from the soil by addition of large quantities of water. This may result in water pollution, but is the best way to restore soil fertility.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Goatley, James L.; Lewis, Ralph W. (March 1966). "Composition of Guttation Fluid from Rye, Wheat, and Barley Seedlings". Plant Physiology 41 (3): 373–375.  
  2. ^ Girolami, V.; Mazzon L., Squartini A., Mori N., Marzaro M., Di Bernardo A., Greatti M., Giorio C. and A Tapparos (2009). "Translocation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides From Coated Seeds to Seedling Guttation Drops: A Novel Way of Intoxication for Bees". ECOTOXICOLOGY 102 (5): 1808–1815. 
  3. ^ Avoiding Fertilizer Burn
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.