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Voiced labiodental fricative

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Title: Voiced labiodental fricative  
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Subject: Waw (letter), Labiodental approximant, Mizrahi Hebrew, Modern Hebrew phonology, Egyptian Arabic phonology
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Voiced labiodental fricative

Voiced labiodental fricative
v
IPA number 129
Encoding
Entity (decimal) v
Unicode (hex) U+0076
X-SAMPA v
Kirshenbaum v
Braille ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Sound
 ·

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is v, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.

Although this is a familiar sound to most European and Middle Eastern listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia. Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound tend to pronounce it as [p] (Mandarin), [b] (Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese), thus failing to distinguish a number of English minimal pairs.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz европа [evˈropʼa] 'Europe' See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans wees [ˈveə̯s] 'to be' See Afrikaans phonology
Albanian valixhe [vaˈlidʒɛ] 'case'
Arabic Siirt[1] ذهب [vaˈhab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] վեց     'six'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ktava [kta:va] 'book' Only in the Urmia dialects. [ʋ] is also predominantly used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Bai Dali ? [ŋv˩˧] 'fish'
Bulgarian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan Balearic[3] viu [ˈviw] 'live' See Catalan phonology
Southern Catalonia[4]
Valencian[4]
Chechen вашa / vaṣa [vaʃa] 'brother'
Chinese Wu [vɛ] 'cooked rice'
Czech voda [voda] 'water' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[5] véd [ve̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' Most often an approximant [ʋ].[6] See Danish phonology
Dutch All dialects wraak [vraːk] 'revenge' Allophone of /ʋ/ before /r/. See Dutch phonology
Most dialects vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' Often devoiced to [f] by speakers from the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
Standard[7]
English valve [væɫv] 'valve' See English phonology
Ewe[8] evlo [évló] 'he is evil'
Faroese[9] veður [ˈveːʋuɹ] 'speech' Word-initial allophone of /v/, in free variation with an approximant [ʋ].[9] See Faroese phonology
French[10] valve [valv] 'valve' See French phonology
[11] იწრო [ˈvitsʼɾo] 'narrow'
German Wächter [ˈvɛçtɐ] 'guard' See German phonology
Greek βερνίκι verníki [ve̞rˈnici] 'varnish' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew גב [ɡav] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi[12] व्र [vrət̪] 'fast' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian veszély [vɛseːj] 'danger' See Hungarian phonology
Irish bhaile [vaːlə] 'home' See Irish phonology
Italian[13] avare [aˈvare] 'miserly' (f.pl.) See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mueve [ˈmwɛvɛ] 'nine'
Kabardian вагъуэ     'star' Corresponds to [ʒʷ] in Adyghe
Macedonian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Macedonian phonology
Maltese iva [iva] 'yes'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[14][15][16][17] venn [vɛ̝nː] 'friend' Allophone of /ʋ/ before a pause and in emphatic speech.[17] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Auvergnat vol [vɔl] 'flight' See Occitan phonology
Limousin
Provençal
Polish[18] wór     'bag' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[19] vila [ˈvilɐ] 'town' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian val [val] 'wave' See Romanian phonology
Russian[20] волосы [ˈvoləsɨ] 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[21] гроф би / grof bi [ɡrô̞v bi] 'the earl would' Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants.[21] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak voda     'water'
Spanish[22] afgano [ävˈɣ̞äno̞] 'Afghan' Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants. See Spanish phonology
Swedish vägg [ˈvɛɡː] 'wall' See Swedish phonology
Turkish cetvel [dʒetvæl] 'ruler' Allophone of /ʋ/ after voiceless consonants. See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese[23] và [vaː˨˩] 'and' In southern dialects, is in free variation with [j]. See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh fi [vi] 'I'
West Frisian weevje [ˈʋeːvjə] 'to weave' Never occurs in word-initial positions
Yi /vu [vu˧] 'intestines'

See also

References

  1. ^ Watson (2002:15)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:18)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  4. ^ a b Wheeler (2002:13)
  5. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005:66)
  7. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  9. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  10. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  11. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  12. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods) (PDF), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996,  
  13. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  14. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  15. ^ Strandskogen (1979:28 and 32)
  16. ^ Skaug (2003:100)
  17. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  18. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  20. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  21. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  22. ^ http://www.uclm.es/profesorado/nmoreno/compren/material/2006apuntes_fonetica.pdf http://plaza.ufl.edu/lmassery/Consonantes%20oclusivasreviewlaurie.doc
  23. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)

Bibliography

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press.  
  •  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  •  
  •  
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69,  
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87,  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Skaug, Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996], Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (3rd ed.), Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS,  
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal,  
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press,  
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