World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Vaišvilkas

Article Id: WHEBN0001908918
Reproduction Date:

Title: Vaišvilkas  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Shvarn, List of Belarus-related topics, Grand Dukes of Lithuania, House of Mindaugas, Vykintas
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Vaišvilkas

Imaginative 16th-17th century portrait
Monastery that was presumably founded by Vaišvilkas (painting by Napoleon Orda)

Vaišelga or Vaišvilkas (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas,;[1] killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267). He was son of Mindaugas, the first and only King of Lithuania.

Nothing is known about the youth of Vaišvilkas as he entered historical sources only in 1254 when he made a treaty, in the name of his father King Mindaugas, with Daniel of Halych-Volhynia. In the treaty, Halych-Volhynia transfers Black Ruthenia with center in Navahrudak to Lithuania. To solidify the treaty, Daniel's son Shvarn was married to Vaišvilkas' sister.[2] Vaišvilkas was appointed as duke of some of these lands. After Vaišvilkas was baptized in a Greek Orthodox rite, he was drawn to religious life so much that he transferred his title and lands to Roman Danylovich, son of Daniel of Halych.[2] He founded a monastery traditionally identified with Lavrashev Monastery on the bank on the Neman River and entered it as a monk.[3] He set off on a pilgrimage to Mount Athos in Greece. However, he did not reach the destination due to wars in the Balkans and returned to Navahrudak.[2]

In 1264, he escaped an assassination plot by Treniota and Daumantas against his father and two of his brothers. Treniota was murdered by former servants of Mindaugas. Vaišvilkas allied himself with his brother-in-law Shvarn from Halych-Volhynia. They managed to take control over Black Ruthenia and the Duchy of Lithuania.[4] Then they waged a war against Nalšia and Deltuva, two main centers of opposition to Mindaugas and Vaišvilkas.[5] Daumantas, Duke of Nalšia, was forced to flee to Pskov. Suksė (Suxe), another influential duke from Nalšia, fled to Livonia. Vaišvilkas become the Grand Duke of Lithuania. As a Christian, he tried to maintain friendly relationships with the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. He signed a peace treaty with Livonia regarding trade on the Daugava River.[2] Lithuanian support of the Great Prussian Uprising ceased, and the orders made advances against Semigallians and Curonians uninterrupted. Together with Shvarn, Vaišvilkas attacked Poland in 1265 to avenge devastation of Yotvingians in 1264.[4]

When in 1267 he decided to go back to monastic life, Vaišvilkas transferred the title of Grand Duke to Shvarn. A year later he was killed by Shvarn's brother, Leo I of Halych, who was angry that Vaišvilkas did not divide the powers between him and his brother.[4] He was interred near the Assumption Church in Volodymyr-Volynskyi.

Name

The original Lithuanian name of this Grand Duke has puzzled many linguists and historians. Their reconstructions resulted in two credible variants Vaišvilkas, based on Woyszwiłk and Vaišelga, based on Vojšalk. The name Vaišvilkas was first reconstructed by Kazimieras Būga.[6] In fact, the first part of the double-stemmed name vaiš- causes no dispute and is attested in many similar names. However, the second part -vilkas, meaning "wolf" is very rare to non existent in Lithuanian names.[6] This led to the hypothesis that the initial form of the name should have been Vaišvilas.[7] The variant Vaišelga/Vaišalga has gained more popularity in historical writings even though the origins of the element -alg and -elg are not entirely clear.[7] Eventually, some researchers even suggest that he had two names, one of them being Vaišvilas.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Baranauskas, Tomas. Древние литовские имена (in Русский). Medieval Lithuania. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Vaišvilkas".  
  3. ^ Rowell, S. C. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 149.  
  4. ^ a b c Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Jūratė Kiaupienė; Albinas Kunevičius (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. pp. 68–69.  
  5. ^ Ivinskis, Zenonas (1978). Lietuvos istorija iki Vytauto Didžiojo mirties (in Lietuvių). Rome: Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akademija. pp. 197–199. 
  6. ^ a b Valentas, Skirmantas (2002). "ISTORINIS VEIKĖJAS EILĖRAŠTYJE: Воишелкъ, Воишевoлкъ". Literatūra (in Lietuvių). 
  7. ^ a b  
  8. ^ Kuzavinis, Kazimieras; Bronys Savukynas (1987). Lietuvių vardų kilmės žodynas (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Mokslas. 
Preceded by
Treniota
Grand Duke of Lithuania
1264–1267
Succeeded by
Shvarn
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.