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Tejeros Convention

Philippine presidential election, 1897

March 22, 1897

Nominee Emilio Aguinaldo Andrés Bonifacio Mariano Trías
Party Magdalo Party Magdiwang Party Magdiwang Party[1]
Electoral vote 146 80 30
Percentage 57.03% 31.25% 11.72%

President before election


Elected President

Emilio Aguinaldo
Magdalo Party

Site of the Tejeros Convention in General Trias, Cavite

The Tejeros Convention (alternate names include Tejeros Assembly and Tejeros Congress) was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite on March 22, 1897. These are the first presidential and vice presidential elections in Philippine history, although only the Katipuneros (members of the Katipunan) were able to take part, and not the general populace.


  • Purpose and results 1
  • Allegations of Fraud 2
  • References 3
    • Bibliography 3.1

Purpose and results

The convention was called to discuss the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards during the Philippine Revolution. The contemporary Governor general, Camilo de Polavieja, had regained much of Cavite itself. Instead, the convention became an election to decide the leaders of the revolutionary movement, bypassing the Supreme Council.

Andrés Bonifacio, the contemporary Supremo (supreme leader) of the Katipunan presided over the election. He secured the unanimous approval that the decision would not be questioned.

 Summary of the March 22, 1897 Philippine presidential election, 1897
Candidate Party Results
Votes %
Emilio Aguinaldo Magdalo Party 146 57.03%
Andrés Bonifacio Magdiwang Party 80 31.25%
Mariano Trías Magdiwang Party 30 11.72%
Valid votes 256 100.00%
Votes cast 256 100.00%
Registered voters 256 100.00%

The results of the election:

Position Name
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Vice-President Mariano Trías
Captain-General Artemio Ricarte
Director of War Emiliano Riego de Dios
Director of the Interior Andrés Bonifacio

Bonifacio, who was not formally educated, accepted the decision but not before insisting on a recount of the votes. Supporters such as Severino de las Alas made abortive efforts to help make Bonifacio vice president.[2]:107 However, Daniel Tirona, a Caviteño (a native of Cavite), objected that the post should not be occupied by a person without a lawyer's diploma. He suggested a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario, for the position.[2]:108 Bonifacio, clearly insulted, demanded that Tirona retract the remark. When Tirona made to leave instead, Bonifacio drew a pistol and was about to fire at Tirona, but stopped when Ricarte tried to disarm him.[2]:108 Bonifacio then voided the convention as Supremo of the Katipunan.[3]

Emilio Aguinaldo was not present at the convention, but was at a military front at Pasong Santol, a barrio of Dasmariñas, Cavite. He was notified of his election to the Presidency the following day, and his elder brother, Crispulo Aguinaldo, persuaded him to travel to take the oath of office. Leaving Crispulo in command, Aguinaldo traveled to Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza, Cavite), where he and the others elected, with the exception of Bonaficio, took their oath of office. Crispulo Aguinaldo was among those killed in the Battle of Pasong Santol between March 7 and 24, 1897, which ended with a Spanish victory.[3]

Allegations of Fraud

In addition to Bonifacio's statement voiding the outcome the probity of the election held has been questioned, with allegations that many ballots distributed were already filled out and that the voters had not done this themselves.[4]


  1. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 123. 
  2. ^ a b c Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the Revolution, Madison: Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, ISBN 1-881261-05-0
  3. ^ a b  
  4. ^ Ambeth Ocampo, Election fraud at the Tejeros Convention (November 5, 2007), Philippine Daily Inquirer.


  • The Tejeros Assembly of 1897 MSC Computer Training Center
  • Katipunan and the Acto de Tejeros, March 23, 1897, Documents of the Katipunan, Katipunan : Documents and studies

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