World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0005435789
Reproduction Date:

Title: Symbiosism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Philosophy of language, George van Driem, Mime (disambiguation), Contrastivism, Dramatism
Collection: Theories of Language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Symbiosism is a philosophy about the mind and man’s place in nature. It is a Leiden School. Memes are meanings, i.e. iso-functional neuroanatomical constructs corresponding to signs in the sense of Ferdinand de Saussure. Meanings thrive, replicate incessantly and constitute the essence of language. An essential characteristic of memes is that linguistic meanings have the nature of nonconstructible sets in the mathematical sense and do not abide by constraints governing Aristotelian logic, such as the principle of the excluded middle. The Leiden conception of the meme contrasts with the Oxford definition as a unit of imitation, a behavioral notion that in Leiden is captured by the term meme. The fecundity of memes as replicators and their fidelity of replication are limited, more so in pre-linguistic contexts.

Language is a mutualist Frederik Kortlandt.


  • van Driem, George. 2003. The Language Organism: The Leiden theory of language evolution, in Jiří Mírovský, Anna Kotěšovcová and Eva Hajičová, eds., Proceedings of the XVIIth International Congress of Linguists, Prague, July 24–29, 2003. Prague: Matfyzpress vydavatelství Matematicko-fyzikální fakulty Univerzity Karlovy.
  • van Driem, George. 2004. Language as organism: A brief introduction to the Leiden theory of language evolution, pp. 1–9 in Ying-chin Lin, Fang-min Hsu, Chun-chih Lee, Jackson T.-S. Sun, Hsiu-fang Yang and Dah-ah Ho, eds., Studies on Sino-Tibetan Languages: Papers in Honor of Professor Hwang-cherng Gong on his Seventieth Birthday (Language and Linguistics Monograph Series W-4). Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia
  • van Driem, George. 2005. The language organism: The Leiden theory of language evolution, pp. 331–340 in James W. Minett and William S-Y. Wang, eds., Language Acquisition, Change and Emergence: Essays in Evolutionary Linguistics. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.
  • Kortlandt, Frederik Herman Henri. 1985. A parasitological view of non-constructible sets, pp. 477–483 in Ursula Pieper and Gerhard Stickel, eds., Studia linguistica diachronica et synchronica: Werner Winter sexagenario anno MCMLXXXIII gratis animis ab eius collegis, amicis discipulisque oblata. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Kortlandt, Frederik Herman Henri. 1998. Syntax and semantics in the history of Chinese, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 5: 167-176. Click here to read: [1]
  • Kortlandt, Frederik Herman Henri. 2003. The origin and nature of the linguistic parasite, pp. 241–244 in Brigitte Bauer and Georges-Jean Pinault, eds., Language in Time and Space: A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Click here to read: ""
  • Salverda, Reinier. 1998. Is language a virus? Reflections on the use of biological metaphors in the study of language, pp. 191–209 in Mark Janse and An Verlinden, eds., Productivity and Creativity. Studies in General and Descriptive Linguistics in Honor of E.M. Uhlenbeck. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Salverda, Reinier. 2003. Letter to the Editor, New Scientist (1 February 2003), 2380: 25.
  • Wiedenhof, Jeroen Maarten. 1996. Nexus and the birth of syntax, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 28: 139-150. Click here to read: ""
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.