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Sur Empire

Sur Empire
د سوریانو ټولواکمني


Territory of Sur Empire in green
Capital Sasaram (Bihar)
Languages Pashto
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
 •  Established May 17, 1540
 •  Disestablished 1556

The Sur Empire (Pashto: د سوریانو ټولواکمني‎) was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in Northern part of South Asia[1] for nearly 16 years, between 1540 to 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.[2] It interrupted the rule of the Mughal Empire under Humayun, who later restored the Mughal Empire by ending the Sur Empire.


  • History 1
  • List of Sur dynasty rulers 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri, an ethnic Pashtun of the tribal house of Sur,[1] who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun. Sher Shah defeated padhsah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (June 26, 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540).[3]

The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east.

During the almost 17 year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the region of the South Asia witnessed much economic development and administrative reforms. A systematized relationship was created between the people and the ruler, minimizing corruption and the oppression of the public.

Their rule came to an end by a defeat that led to restoration of the Mughal Empire. Today, the Sur are part of the Pashtun tribal system and belong to the sub-groups of the Ghilzais.

It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol [Lodi], that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,*[The Súr represent themselves as descendants of Muhammad Súr, one of the princes of the house of the Ghorian, who left his native country, and married a daughter of one of the Afghán chiefs of Roh.] with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place which is called in the Afghán tongue “Shargarí,”* but in the Multán tongue “Rohrí.” It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc., in the Panjáb, and they settled in the pargana of Bajwára.[4]
— Abbas Khan Sarwani, 1580

List of Sur dynasty rulers

The 178 grams silver coin, Rupiya released by Sher Shah Suri, 1540–1545 CE, was the first Rupee[5][6]
Name Picture Reign started Reign ended
Sher Shah Suri
May 17, 1540[7] May 22, 1545[7]
Islam Shah Suri
May 26, 1545[8] November 22, 1554[8]
Firuz Shah Suri
Muhammad Adil Shah
1554[9] 1555[10]
Ibrahim Shah Suri
Sikandar Shah Suri
1555[10] June 22, 1555[10]
Adil Shah Suri
June 22, 1555[10] 1556[10]

See also


  1. ^ a b Kissling, H. J.; N. Barbour; Bertold Spuler; J. S. Trimingham; F. R. C. Bagley; H. Braun; H. Hartel (1997). The Last Great Muslim Empires. BRILL. p. 302.  
  2. ^ "Sūr dynasty".  
  3. ^ "Sher Khan". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th edition.  
  4. ^  
  5. ^ Mughal Coinage Reserve Bank of India RBI Monetary Museum,
  6. ^ Rupee  .
  7. ^ a b Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, , p.83
  8. ^ a b Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, , pp.90–93
  9. ^ a b Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, , p.94
  10. ^ a b c d e f Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, , pp.94–96

External links

  • Sher Shah "Suri" and the Afghan Revival
  • Sher Shah Suri
  • Sher Shah Suri

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