World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sociotechnical system

Article Id: WHEBN0000231202
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sociotechnical system  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Systems science, Systems psychology, Systems theory, Sociology of knowledge, Technology assessment
Collection: Philosophy of Technology, Social Systems, Sociological Theories, Systems Psychology, Systems Theory
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Sociotechnical system

Sociotechnical systems (STS) in work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behaviour. In this sense, society itself, and most of its substructures, are complex sociotechnical systems. The term sociotechnical systems was coined by Eric Trist, Ken Bamforth and Fred Emery, World War II era, based on their work with workers in English coal mines at the Tavistock Institute in London.[1]

Sociotechnical systems pertains to theory regarding the social aspects of society as a whole.[2] Sociotechnical theory therefore is about joint optimization, with a shared emphasis on achievement of both excellence in technical performance and quality in people's work lives. Sociotechnical theory, as distinct from sociotechnical systems, proposes a number of different ways of achieving joint optimisation. They are usually based on designing different kinds of organisation, ones in which the relationships between socio and technical elements lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing.


  • Overview 1
  • Principles 2
    • Responsible autonomy 2.1
    • Adaptability 2.2
    • Whole tasks 2.3
    • Meaningfulness of tasks 2.4
  • Topics in sociotechnical systems theory 3
    • Sociotechnical system 3.1
    • Sociotechnical systems approach 3.2
    • Autonomous work teams 3.3
    • Job enrichment 3.4
    • Job enlargement 3.5
    • Job rotation 3.6
    • Motivation 3.7
    • Process improvement 3.8
    • Task analysis 3.9
    • Job design 3.10
    • Deliberations 3.11
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7


Sociotechnical refers to the interrelatedness of social and technical aspects of an organization. Sociotechnical theory is founded on two main principles:

  • One is that the performance. This interaction consists partly of linear "cause and effect" relationships (the relationships that are normally "designed") and partly from "non-linear", complex, even unpredictable relationships (the good or bad relationships that are often unexpected). Whether designed or not, both types of interaction occur when socio and technical elements are put to work.
  • The corollary of this, and the second of the two main principles, is that optimization of each aspect alone (socio or technical) tends to increase not only the quantity of unpredictable, "un-designed" relationships, but those relationships that are injurious to the system's performance.

Therefore, sociotechnical theory is about joint optimization,[3] that is, designing the social system and technical system in tandem so that they work smoothly together. Sociotechnical theory, as distinct from sociotechnical systems, proposes a number of different ways of achieving joint optimization. They are usually based on designing different kinds of organization, ones in which the relationships between socio and technical elements lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing, rather than the all too often case of new technology failing to meet the expectations of designers and users alike.

The scientific literature shows terms like sociotechnical all one word, or socio-technical with a hyphen, sociotechnical theory, sociotechnical system and sociotechnical systems theory. All of these terms appear ubiquitously but their actual meanings often remain unclear. The key term "sociotechnical" is something of a buzzword and its varied usage can be unpicked. What can be said about it, though, is that it is most often used to simply, and quite correctly, describe any kind of organization that is composed of people and technology. But, predictably, there is more to it than that.


Some of the central principles of sociotechnical theory were elaborated in a seminal paper by

Responsible autonomy

Sociotechnical theory was pioneering for its shift in emphasis, a shift towards considering teams or groups as the primary unit of analysis and not the individual. Sociotechnical theory pays particular attention to internal supervision and leadership at the level of the "group" and refers to it as "responsible autonomy".[4] The overriding point seems to be that having the simple ability of individual team members being able to perform their function is not the only predictor of group effectiveness. There are a range of issues in team cohesion research, for example, that are answered by having the regulation and leadership internal to a group or team.[5]

These, and other factors, play an integral and parallel role in ensuring successful teamwork which sociotechnical theory exploits. The idea of semi-autonomous groups conveys a number of further advantages. Not least among these, especially in hazardous environments, is the often felt need on the part of people in the organisation for a role in a small primary group. It is argued that such a need arises in cases where the means for effective communication are often somewhat limited. As Carvalho [6] states, this is because "…operators use verbal exchanges to produce continuous, redundant and recursive interactions to successfully construct and maintain individual and mutual awareness…". The immediacy and proximity of trusted team members makes it possible for this to occur. The coevolution of technology and organizations brings with it an expanding array of new possibilities for novel interaction. Responsible autonomy could become more distributed along with the team(s) themselves.

The key to responsible autonomy seems to be to design an organization possessing the characteristics of small groups whilst preventing the "silo-thinking" and "stovepipe" neologisms of contemporary management theory. In order to preserve "…intact the loyalties on which the small group [depend]…the system as a whole [needs to contain] its bad in a way that [does] not destroy its good".[4] In practice [7] this requires groups to be responsible for their own internal regulation and supervision, with the primary task of relating the group to the wider system falling explicitly to a group leader. This principle, therefore, describes a strategy for removing more traditional command hierarchies.


Carvajal [8] states that "the rate at which uncertainty overwhelms an organisation is related more to its internal structure than to the amount of environmental uncertainty". Sitter in 1997 offered two solutions for organisations confronted, like the military, with an environment of increased (and increasing) complexity: "The first option is to restore the fit with the external complexity by an increasing internal complexity. ...This usually means the creation of more staff functions or the enlargement of staff-functions and/or the investment in vertical information systems".[9] Vertical information systems are often confused for "network enabled capability" systems (NEC) but an important distinction needs to be made, which Sitter et al. propose as their second option: "…the organisation tries to deal with the external complexity by 'reducing' the internal control and coordination needs. ...This option might be called the strategy of 'simple organisations and complex jobs'". This all contributes to a number of unique advantages. Firstly is the issue of "human redundancy"[10] in which "groups of this kind were free to set their own targets, so that aspiration levels with respect to production could be adjusted to the age and stamina of the individuals concerned".[4] Human redundancy speaks towards the flexibility, ubiquity and pervasiveness of resources within NEC.

The second issue is that of [11]

Many type of organisations are clearly motivated by the appealing "industrial age", rational principles of "factory production", a particular approach to dealing with complexity: "In the factory a comparatively high degree of control can be exercised over the complex and moving "figure" of a production sequence, since it is possible to maintain the "ground" in a comparatively passive and constant state".[11] On the other hand, many activities are constantly faced with the possibility of "untoward activity in the 'ground'" of the 'figure-ground' relationship"[11] The central problem, one that appears to be at the nub of many problems that "classic" organisations have with complexity, is that "The instability of the 'ground' limits the applicability […] of methods derived from the factory".[11]

In Classic organisations, problems with the moving "figure" and moving "ground" often become magnified through a much larger social space, one in which there is a far greater extent of hierarchical task interdependence.[11] For this reason, the semi-autonomous group, and its ability to make a much more fine grained response to the "ground" situation, can be regarded as "agile". Added to which, local problems that do arise need not propagate throughout the entire system (to affect the workload and quality of work of many others) because a complex organization doing simple tasks has been replaced by a simpler organization doing more complex tasks. The agility and internal regulation of the group allows problems to be solved locally without propagation through a larger social space, thus increasing tempo.

Whole tasks

Another concept in sociotechnical theory is the "whole task". A whole task "has the advantage of placing responsibility for the […] task squarely on the shoulders of a single, small, face-to-face group which experiences the entire cycle of operations within the compass of its membership."[4] The Sociotechnical embodiment of this principle is the notion of minimal critical specification. This principle states that, "While it may be necessary to be quite precise about what has to be done, it is rarely necessary to be precise about how it is done".[12] This is no more illustrated by the antithetical example of "working to rule" and the virtual collapse of any system that is subject to the intentional withdrawal of human adaptation to situations and contexts.

The key factor in minimally critically specifying tasks is the responsible autonomy of the group to decide, based on local conditions, how best to undertake the task in a flexible adaptive manner. This principle is isomorphic with ideas like Effects-based operations (EBO). EBO asks the question of what goal is it that we want to achieve, what objective is it that we need to reach rather than what tasks have to be undertaken, when and how. The EBO concept enables the managers to "…manipulate and decompose high level effects. They must then assign lesser effects as objectives for subordinates to achieve. The intention is that subordinates' actions will cumulatively achieve the overall effects desired".[13] In other words, the focus shifts from being a scriptwriter for tasks to instead being a designer of behaviours. In some cases this can make the task of the manager significantly less arduous:)

Meaningfulness of tasks

Effects-based operations and the notion of a "whole task", combined with adaptability and responsible autonomy, have additional advantages for those at work in the organization. This is because "for each participant the task has total significance and dynamic closure"[4] as well as the requirement to deploy a multiplicity of skills and to have the responsible autonomy in order to select when and how to do so. This is clearly hinting at a relaxation of the myriads of control mechanisms found in more classically designed organizations.

Greater interdependence (through diffuse processes such as globalisation) also bring with them an issue of size, in which "the scale of a task transcends the limits of simple [14] The group based form of organization design proposed by sociotechnical theory combined with new technological possibilities (such as the internet) provide a response to this often forgotten issue, one that contributes significantly to joint optimisation.

Topics in sociotechnical systems theory

Sociotechnical system

A sociotechnical system is the term usually given to any instantiation of socio and technical elements engaged in goal directed behaviour. Sociotechnical systems are a particular expression of sociotechnical theory, although they are not necessarily one and the same thing. Sociotechnical systems theory is a mixture of sociotechnical theory, joint optimisation and so forth and general systems theory. The term sociotechnical

  • Günter Ropohl, Philosophy of socio-technical systems, in: Society for Philosophy and Technology, Spring 1999, Volume 4, Number 3, 1999.
  • JP Vos, The making of strategic realities : an application of the social systems theory of Niklas Luhmann, Technical University of Eindhoven, Department of Technology Management, 2002.
  • STS Roundtable, an international not-for-profit association of professional and scholarly practitioners of Sociotechnical Systems Theory
  • IEEE 1st Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects of Mashups
  • Archived Vol I, II, & III of The Tavistock Anthology

External links

  • Kenyon B. De Greene (1973). Sociotechnical systems: factors in analysis, design, and management.
  • Jose Luis Mate and Andres Silva (2005). Requirements Engineering for Sociotechnical Systems.
  • Enid Mumford (1985). Sociotechnical Systems Design: Evolving Theory and Practice.
  • William A. Pasmore and John J. Sherwood (1978). Sociotechnical Systems: A Sourcebook.
  • William A. Pasmore (1988). Designing Effective Organizations: The Sociotechnical Systems Perspective.
  • Pascal Salembier, Tahar Hakim Benchekroun (2002). Cooperation and Complexity in Sociotechnical Systems.
  • James C. Taylor and David F. Felten (1993). Performance by Design: Sociotechnical Systems in North America.
  • Eric Trist and H. Murray ed. (1993).The Social Engagement of Social Science, Volume II: The Socio-Technical Perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • James T. Ziegenfuss (1983). Patients' Rights and Organizational Models: Sociotechnical Systems Research on mental health programs.
  • Hongbin Zha (2006). Interactive Technologies and Sociotechnical Systems: 12th International Conference, VSMM 2006, Xi'an, China, October 18–20, 2006, Proceedings.
  • Trist, E., & Labour, O. M. o. (1981). The evolution of socio-technical systems: A conceptual framework and an action research program: Ontario Ministry of Labour, Ontario Quality of Working Life Centre.

Further reading

18. Pava, C., 1983. Managing New Office Technology. Free Press, New York, NY.

  1. ^ Susan Long. Socioanalytic Methods: Discovering the Hidden in Organisations and Social Systems.  
  2. ^ For the latter, see the use of sociotechnical in the works of sociologist Niklas Luhmann and philosopher Günter Ropohl.
  3. ^ Cooper, R., & Foster, M. (1971). Sociotechical systems. American Psychologist, 26, 467-474.
  4. ^ a b c d e Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.7-9.
  5. ^ Siebold, G. L. (1991). "The evolution of the measurement of cohesion". In: Military Psychology, 11(1), 5-26.
  6. ^ P.V.R. Carvalho (2006). "Ergonomic field studies in a nuclear power plant control room". In: Progress in Nuclear Energy, 48, pp. 51-69
  7. ^ A. Rice (1958). Productivity and social organisation: The Ahmedabad experiment. London: Tavistock.
  8. ^ R. Carvajal (1983). "Systemic netfields: the systems' paradigm crises. Part I". In: Human Relations 36(3), pp.227-246.
  9. ^ Sitter, L. U., Hertog, J. F. & Dankbaar, B., From complex organizations with simple jobs to simple organizations with complex jobs, in: Human Relations, 50(5), 497-536, 1997. p. 498
  10. ^ D.M. Clark (2005). "Human redundancy in complex, hazardous systems: A theoretical framework". In: Safety Science. Vol 43. pp. 655-677.
  11. ^ a b c d e Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.20-21.
  12. ^ A. Cherns (1976). "The principles of sociotechnical design". In: Human Relations. Vol 29(8), pp.783-792. p.786
  13. ^ J. Storr (2005). A critique of effects-based thinking. RUSI Journal, 2005. p.33
  14. ^ Eric Trist & K. Bamforth (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting, in: Human Relations, 4, pp.3-38. p.14.
  15. ^ Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  16. ^ Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porte, Motivation and Work Behavior, 1991. pages 215, 322, 357, 411-413, 423, 428-441 and 576.
  17. ^ Geen, R. G. (1995), Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole.


See also

Deliberations are key units of analysis in non-linear, knowledge work. They are 'choice points' that move knowledge work forward. As originated and defined by Cal Pava (1983) in a second-generation development of STS theory, deliberations are patterns of exchange and communication to reduce the equivocality of a problematic issue; for example, for systems engineering work, what features to develop in new software. Deliberations are not discrete decisions--they are a more continuous context for decisions. They have 3 aspects: topics, forums, and participants.


job enrichment. The aims of work design to improved job satisfaction, to improved through-put, to improved quality and to reduced employee problems, e.g., grievances, absenteeism.

Job design

Task analysis is the analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task. This information can then be used for many purposes, such as personnel selection and training, tool or equipment design, procedure design (e.g., design of checklists or decision support systems) and automation.

Task analysis

goals and objectives. These actions often follow a specific methodology or strategy to create successful results.

Process improvement

Motivation in psychology refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.[17] Motivation is a temporal and dynamic state that should not be confused with personality or emotion. Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something. A motivated person can be reaching for a long-term goal such as becoming a professional writer or a more short-term goal like learning how to spell a particular word. Personality invariably refers to more or less permanent characteristics of an individual's state of being (e.g., shy, extrovert, conscientious). As opposed to motivation, emotion refers to temporal states that do not immediately link to behavior (e.g., anger, grief, happiness).


Job rotation is an approach to management development, where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation. The term job rotation can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices, especially in public offices, prior to the end of incumbency or the legislative period. This has been practiced by the German green party for some time but has been discontinued

Job rotation

Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities. This contradicts the principles of specialisation and the division of labour whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is performed repetitively by an individual worker. Some motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused by the division of labour can actually cause efficiency to fall.

Job enlargement


Job enrichment

Autonomous work teams also called self-managed teams, are an alternative to traditional assembly line methods. Rather than having a large number of employees each do a small operation to assemble a product, the employees are organized into small teams, each of which is responsible for assembling an entire product. These teams are self-managed, and are independent of one-another.[15]

Autonomous work teams

In organizational development, the term sociotechnical systems describes an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behavior. In this sense, society itself, and most of its sub-structures, are complex sociotechnical systems.

Sociotechnical systems approach
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.