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سنڌ   ‎/   سندھ ਸਿੰਧ
Flag of Sindh
Official seal of Sindh
Nickname(s): Valley Of Mehran( Mehran Ji Waadi).Sindh Ammar(Motherland Sindh)
Location of Sindh in Pakistan
Location of Sindh in Pakistan
Map of Sindh, Pakistan
Map of Sindh, Pakistan
Country  Pakistan
Established 1 July 1970
Capital Karachi
Largest city Karachi
 • Type Province
 • Body Provincial Assembly
 • Governor Ishrat ul Ibad (MQM) (PPP)
 • Chief Minister Qaim Ali Shah (PPP)
 • High Court Sindh High Court
 • Total 140,914 km2 (54,407 sq mi)
Population (2012 census preliminary)[1]
 • Total 42,400,000
 • Density 300/km2 (780/sq mi)
Demonym Sindhi
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
ISO 3166 code PK-SD
Main Language(s)
Other languages: Saraiki, Kutchi, Memoni, Haryanvi, Punjabi, Brahui, Baluchi, Dhatki,[2][3]
Assembly seats 168[4]
Districts 24
Towns 119
Union Councils 1108[5]

Sindh (Sindhi: سنڌ (Perso- Arabic) सिंध (Devanagari) ; Urdu: سندھ‎ ; Latin: Indus ; Ancient Greek: Ἰνδός Indós ; Sanskrit: सिंधु Sindhu ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". The name "Sindh" is derived from the Sanskrit "Sindhu", a reference to the Indus River that passes almost through the middle of the entire province. This river was known to the ancient Iranians in Avestan as Hindu, in Sanskrit as Sindhu, to Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BC) as Sinda, to the Persians as Ab-e-sind, to the Greeks as Indos, to the Romans as Indus, to the Pashtuns as Abasind, to the Arabs as Al-Sind, to the Chinese as Sintow, and to the Javanese as Santri.

Sindh is bounded to the west by Balochistan, to the north by Punjab, to the east by the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan and to the south by the Arabian Sea. The capital and largest city of the province is Karachi, which is also Pakistan's largest city and the country's only financial hub. Most of the population in the province is Muslim, with sizable Hindu, Christian, Parsi and Sikh minorities.


  • Origin of the name 1
  • History 2
    • Prehistoric period 2.1
    • Arrival of Islam 2.2
    • Soomro period 2.3
    • Samma period 2.4
    • Kalhoro and Mughal period 2.5
    • British Raj 2.6
    • Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly 2.7
    • Creation of Pakistan 2.8
  • Geography and climate 3
  • Flora and fauna 4
  • Demographics and society 5
  • Languages 6
    • Sindhi language 6.1
    • Urdu language 6.2
    • Parkari Koli language 6.3
    • Religion 6.4
  • Government 7
    • Districts 7.1
  • Major cities 8
  • Economy 9
  • Education 10
  • Culture 11
    • Arts and crafts 11.1
    • Cultural heritage 11.2
  • Languages 12
    • Sindhi language 12.1
    • Urdu language 12.2
    • Saraiki language 12.3
    • Parkari Koli language 12.4
  • Places of interest 13
  • See also 14
  • References 15
  • Further reading 16
  • External links 17

Origin of the name

Sindh Province and the people inhabiting the region are named after the river known as the Sindhu before independence and now called the Indus River. In Sanskrit, síndhu means "river, stream", and refers to the Indus river in particular. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh. In Persian S is sounded H. When the British arrived in the 17th century in India, they followed that regional example and applied the Greek name for Sindh to the entire South Asia, calling it India.


Prehistoric period

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC.
The Priest King from Mohenjo-daro, more than 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan.

Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh, currently in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems.

The Indus Valley Civilization is the farthest known outpost of archaeology in prehistoric times. Evidence of a new element of pre-

  • Sindh Transport Department official website
  • Government of Sindh
  • Guide of Sindh
  • Map of the districts of Sindh
  • Sindh at DMOZ

External links


Further reading

  1. ^ "Sind - type and level of administrative division". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ "Percentage Distribution of Households by Language Usually Spoken and Region/Province, 1998 Census.". Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2008. Federal Bureau of Statistics - Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  3. ^ "Sindh (province, Pakistan)" at Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  4. ^ "Provincial Assembly Seats". 
  5. ^ "Government of Sindh". 
  6. ^ "Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro". The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) website. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  7. ^ Suhail Zaheer Lari, An Illustrated History of Sindh (1994, Karachi) p. 16, 17
  8. ^ Sohail Zaheer Lari, "An Illustrated History of Sindh" (1994, Karachi) p. 17
  9. ^ John Beames (1970). A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya and Bangali. Munshiram Manoharlal. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Foreign influence on ancient India By Krishna Chandra Sagar
  11. ^ Foreign Influence on Ancient India - Krishna Chandra Sagar - Google Books. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  12. ^ Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006 [1]. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  13. ^ Naik, C.D. (2010). Buddhism and Dalits: Social Philosophy and Traditions. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 32.  
  14. ^ P. 151 Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World By André Wink
  15. ^ P. 164 Notes on the religious, moral, and political state of India before the Mahomedan invasion, chiefly founded on the travels of the Chinese Buddhist priest Fai Han in India, A.D. 399, and on the commentaries of Messrs. Remusat, Klaproth, Burnouf, and Landresse, Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Sykes by Sykes, Colonel;
  16. ^ P. 505 The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
  17. ^ Seidensticker, Tilman. "Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī - Brill Reference". Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  18. ^ A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire - Sugata Bose - Google Books. 2004-12-26. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  19. ^ "Topics". 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  20. ^ a b by Nicholas Tarling p.39The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia . 
  21. ^ Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492–1792 by Jeremy Black p.16 [2]
  22. ^ Cervantes Virtual website
  23. ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 
  24. ^ Kazi, Najma (24 November 2007). "Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work". FSTC Limited. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  25. ^ Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination - M. Reda Bhacker - Google Books. 1992-11-17. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ Fall and Colored Leaves - Jasbir Singh Sethi - Google Books. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  28. ^ Qammaruddin Bohra, City of Hyderabad Sindh 712-1947 (2000).
  29. ^ Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley
  30. ^ General Napier was apocryphally supposed to have reported his conquest of the province to his superiors with the one-word message peccavi, a schoolgirl's pun recorded in Punch (magazine) relying on the Latin word's meaning, "I have sinned", homophonous to "I have Sindh". Eugene Ehrlich, Nil Desperandum: A Dictionary of Latin Tags and Useful Phrases [Original title: Amo, Amas, Amat and More], BCA 1992 [1985], p. 175.
  31. ^ Personal observations on Sindh: the manners and customs of its inhabitants ... - Thomas Postans - Google Boeken. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  32. ^ Weiss, Anita M. and Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb (2012). "Pakistan". Louis Kotzé and Stephen Morse (eds), Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Vol. 9. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire, pp. 236-240.
  33. ^ "Population shoots up by 47 percent since 1998". Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  34. ^ a b 1998 Census Data
  35. ^ [3]
  36. ^
  37. ^ a b c d "Political and ethnic battles turn Karachi into Beirut of South Asia » Crescent". Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  38. ^ "Govt declares Neem `provincial tree`". Dawn. April 15, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  39. ^ Amar Guriro (December 14, 2011). "‘Our Sindhi symbols – ibex, black partridge’". Pakistan Today. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  40. ^ "District Nazims of the Province of Sindh". 
  41. ^ "Pakistan: Largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  42. ^ "Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000". 
  43. ^ "World Bank Document" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  44. ^ "Population by Level of Education and Rural/Urban". Statistics Division: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics. Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  45. ^ "Cultural Heritage". =. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  46. ^ "'"Sindh celebrates first ever 'Sindhi Topi Day. 
  47. ^ "English Translations of the Quran » Crescent". Retrieved 2012-11-07. 


See also

Historical tourist sites include the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana, Runi Kot, Jamshoro, Kot Deji, the Jain temples of Nangar Parker and the historic temple of Sadhu Bela, Sukkur. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; its numerous mausoleums include the ancient Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum.

Sindh has numerous tourist sites. Modern tourist sites include certain recent resorts, amusement parks, water parks and golf clubs. The most commonly known are Arena, Aladdin Amusement Park, Go-Aish and Sindbad.

Places of interest

Parkari Koli (sometimes called just Parkari) is a language mainly spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It has 250,000 speakers (1995). Also explained in Sindh Past History... (Ujjan Ahmed)

Parkari Koli language

Saraiki is also spoken in Sindh. It is an Indo-European language, related to Punjabi, Kutchi, Gujarati and other Indo-European languages prevalent in the region with substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic loan words. In Pakistan it is written in a modified Arabic script.

Saraiki language

Urdu is another widely used language in Sindh, especially in the urban areas of Sindh alongside Sindhi and is the lingua franca of Pakistan. It is another Indo-Aryan language with strong linguistic ties to Sindhi.

Urdu language

Key dialects: Kutchi, Lasi, Parkari, Memoni, Lari, Vicholi, Utradi, Macharia, Dukslinu (spoken by Hindu Sindhi) and Siraki. During British colonial period, Siraiki evolved as a separate language.

In Pakistan Sindhi is written in a modified Arabic script, where the majority of the Sindhi population is Muslim. Hindu Sindhis who migrated to India after independence (currently are about 6 million) still register their mother tongue as Sindhi, meanwhile 7 million Hindu Sindhis are living in Pakistan.

Sindhī (Arabic script: سنڌي) is spoken by more than 35 million people(in 2011) in the province of Sindh. However 25% people are Sindhi-speaking in the largest city of Karachi, Pakistan. Karachi is also populated by migrants from India who speak Urdu and form about 30% of the city.[37] The other migrated inhabitants of the city are Biharis from Bangladesh, Pastuns from Khaybar Pakhtoonkhwah, Punjabis from various parts of Punjab and other linguistic groups of Pakistan. Most of these Urdu-speaking people sought refuge in the city from India during the independence of Pakistan, and they settled in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkar and other cities in Sindh.[37] Sindhi is an Indo-European language, linguistically considered to be the sister language of Sanskrit. Balochi, Gujarati, Rajasthani language have influences of Sindhi and Sanskrit however accommodating substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic words.

The first complete translation of the Quran was completed in 884 CE in Mansura by the orders of the Abbasid Emir Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Abdul Aziz on the request of the Hindu Raja Mehruk.[47]

Sindhi language


Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur, the last ruler of Sindh
Acclaimed Sufi Singer Parveen performing at the Sindh Festival in 2014.
Huts in the Thar desert

Different non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as the World Wildlife Fund, Pakistan, also play an important role to promote the culture of Sindh. They also provide training to women artisans in the interior of Sindh so these females get a source of generating income for themselves. For this purpose they are promoting their products under the name of "Crafts Forever".

Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, 2009 to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.[46]

Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity.

The ralli (also known as rilli, rehli, rallee, gindi or other names), or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have many rallis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The ralli is made with small pieces of cloth of different geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket, and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.


The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like homecoming.

Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Damascus, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China. Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel (charkha) and treadle (pai-chah) in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age.[45]

The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is also publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala's artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala's handicraft.

Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village
The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore

Cultural heritage

Painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art.

Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions.

Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the ralli quilt, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot.

The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose various modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects—whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric—can be traced to Muslim influence.

Arts and crafts

Sindhi culture is known all over the world for its arts, crafts and heritage.


Major public and private educational institutes of Sindh include:

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment ratio (%)
14,839,862 15,600,031 30,439,893
Below Primary 1,984,089 3,332,166 5,316,255 100.00
Primary 3,503,691 5,687,771 9,191,462 82.53
Middle 3,073,335 2,369,644 5,442,979 52.33
Matriculation 2,847,769 2,227,684 5,075,453 34.45
Intermediate 1,473,598 1,018,682 2,492,280 17.78
Diploma, Certificate... 1,320,747 552,241 1,872,988 9.59
BA, BSc... degrees 440,743 280,800 721,543 9.07
MA, MSc... degrees 106,847 53,040 159,887 2.91
Other qualifications 89,043 78,003 167,046 0.54
[44]This is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in 1998.
Year Literacy rate
1972 60.77
1981 37.5%
1998 45.29%
2008 60.7%
2012 69.50%
Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century


Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton, rice, wheat, sugar cane, Date (fruit)), bananas, and mangoes as the most important crops. Sindh is the richest province in natural resources of gas, petrol, and coal.

Sindh is Pakistan's most natural gas producing province.

Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

Sindh has the second largest economy in Pakistan. Its GDP per capita was $1,400 in 2010 which is 50 per cent more than the rest of the nation or 35 per cent more than the national average. Historically, Sindh's contribution to Pakistan's GDP has been between 30% to 32.7%. Its share in the service sector has ranged from 21% to 27.8% and in the agriculture sector from 21.4% to 27.7%. Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from 36.7% to 46.5%.[42] Since 1972, Sindh's GDP has expanded by 3.6 times.[43]

GDP by Province
A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province


Other cities and towns of Sindh:

List of major cities in Sindh
Rank City District Population




1 Karachi Karachi (East, West, South, Central, Malir) - 2 Hyderabad Hyderabad - 3 Sukkur Sukkur - 4 Larkana Larkana - 6 Mirpur Khas Mirpur Khas - 5 Nawabshah Shaheed Benazirabad - 7 Jacobabad Jacobabad - 8 Shikarpur Shikarpur - 9 Tando Adam Sanghar - Source: World Gazetteer 2012[41]
This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations
. This is similar to Egypt, where many settlements are located on the Nile. River Indus Many of the settlements in Sindh are located on, or close to the

Major cities

There are 24 districts in Sindh, Pakistan.[40]


The Provincial Assembly of Sindh is unicameral and consists of 168 seats, of which 5% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women. The provincial capital of Sindh is Karachi. The government is presided over by the Chief Minister of Sindh. Most of the Sindhi tribes in the province are involved in Pakistan's politics. Sindh is a stronghold of the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), which is the largest political party in the province.

Districts of Sindh
Provincial symbols of Sindh (unofficial)[38][39]
Provincial animal Sindh Ibex
Provincial bird Sind Sparrow
Provincial flower Nerium (common)
Provincial tree Neem Tree


Sindh's population is mainly Muslim (81.32%), and Sindh is also home to nearly all (93%) of Pakistan's Hindus, who form 16% of the province's population.[34] The majority of Muslims are Sunni Hanafi followed by Shia Ithnā‘ashariyyah. The non-Muslim communities includes Hindus, Christians, and Zoroastrians 2% of Sindh. A large number of Hindus migrated to India after independence of Pakistan in 1947 while Muslim refugees, Muhajirs, arrived from India.


Parkari Koli (sometimes called just Parkari) is a language mainly spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It has 250,000 speakers (1995).

Parkari Koli language

Urdu is another widely used language in Sindh, especially in the urban areas of Sindh alongside Sindhi and is the lingua franca of Pakistan. It is another Indo-Aryan language with strong linguistic ties to Sindhi. It is mostly spoken & understood in urban areas, because the foreign settlers mainly from North India, Bengal, Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab are settled there. The local ethno-linguistic indigenous population only understands Urdu. The languages of the above-mentioned people are not spoken or understood by the original dwellers of Sindh.

Urdu language

Key dialects: Kutchi, Lasi, Parkari, Memoni, Lari, Vicholi, Utradi, Macharia, Dukslinu (spoken by Hindu Sindhi) and Siraki. During British colonial period, Siraiki evolved as a separate language.

In Pakistan Sindhi is written in a modified Arabic script, where the majority of the Sindhi population is Muslim. Hindu Sindhis who migrated to India after independence (currently are about 6 million) still register their mother tongue as Sindhi, meanwhile 7 million Hindu Sindhis are living in Pakistan.

Sindhī (Arabic script: سنڌي) is spoken by more than 35 million people(in 2011) in the province of Sindh. However 25% people are Sindhi-speaking in the largest city of Karachi Sindh, Pakistan. Karachi is also populated by migrants from India who speak Urdu .[37] The other migrated inhabitants of the city are Biharis from Bangladesh, Pashtuns from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjabis from various parts of Punjab and other linguistic groups of Pakistan. Most of these Urdu-speaking people sought refuge in the city from India during the independence of Pakistan, and they settled in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkar and other cities in Sindh.[37] Sindhi is an Indo-European language, linguistically considered to be the sister language of Sanskrit. Balochi, Gujarati, Rajasthani language have influences of Sindhi and Sanskrit however accommodating substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic words.

Dialects of Sindhi.

Sindhi language

Other languages include Kashmiri, Gujarati, Memoni, Dari, Kutchi, Khowar, Shina, Kashmiri, Bangali Thari, Lari (dialect), and Brahui.

  • Punjabi 10% (including Standard, Saraiki, Hindko, and Pahari-Potowari dialects 7%, 1%, 1% and 1% respectively)

According to the 1998 Population Census of Pakistan following are the Major Languages of the Province [36]


A significant number of Hindu Sindhis can be also found in India, they emigrated to Republic of India following religious violence during independence. Sindh's population is estimated to be roughly 40 million, however, the 2012 Census that was later invalidated claimed 55 million. Whatever the case, Sindh is the 2nd most populous entity after Punjab, and has a significantly higher population growth rate visavis Punjab.

The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, various sub-groups related to the Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh and to a lesser extent Sindhis of Pashtun origins. Sindhis of Balochi origins make up about 30% of the total Sindhi population (they however speak Sindhi as their native tongue), while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up over 19% of the total population of the province while Pashtuns represent 10%.

Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.628.[35] The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million. Just under half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century.

Religions in Sindh[34]
Religion Percent
Sindh Demographic Indicators
Indicator Statistic
Urban population 49.50%
Rural population 50.50%
Population growth rate 2.80%
Gender ratio (male per 100 female) 112.24
Economically active population 22.75%

Demographics and society

Although Sindh has a World Wide Fund for Nature and Sindh Wildlife Department support a huge variety of animals and birds. The Kirthar National Park in the Kirthar range spreads over more than 3000 km² of desert, stunted tree forests and a lake. The KNP supports Sindh Ibex, wild sheep (urial) and black bear along with the rare leopard. There are also occasional sightings of The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat. There is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants too in KNP near the huge Hub Dam Lake. Between July and November when the monsoon winds blow onshore from the ocean, giant Olive Ridley turtles lay their eggs along the seaward side. The turtles are protected species. After the mothers lay and leave them buried under the sands the SWD and WWF officials take the eggs and protect them until they are hatched to protect them from predators.

There are also varieties of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper). Some unusual sightings of Asian Cheetah occurred in 2003 near the Balochistan Border in Kirthar mountains. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, the eastern Nara channel and some population of Marsh crocodiles can be very easily seen in the waters of Haleji Lake near Karachi. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sindh coast. The pallo (sable fish), though a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn. The rare Houbara Bustard also find Sindh's warm climate suitable to rest and mate. Unfortunately, it is being hunted by locals and foreigners alike.

Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), Blackbuck, wild sheep (urial or gadh) and black bear are found in the western rocky range, whereas the leopard is now rare and the Asiatic Cheetah already extinct. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are a variety of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper), and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, eastern Nara channel and Karachi backwater. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sindh coast. The pallo (sable fish), a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn. The Indus river dolphin is among the most endangered species in Pakistan and is found in the part of the Indus river in northern Sindh. Hog deer and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt.

Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.

The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees.

Indus River Dolphin

Flora and fauna

Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro (the upper region, centred on Jacobabad), Wicholo (the middle region, centred on Hyderabad), and Lar (the lower region, centred on Karachi). The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh's temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Central Sindh's maximum temperature typically reaches 43–44 °C (109–111 °F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. Lower Sindh's maximum temperature reaches about 35–38 °C (95–100 °F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) and higher at Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snowfall is received in the winters.

Sindh lies between the two monsoons—the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains—and escapes the influence of both. The region's scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season.

Sindh lies in a tropical to subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and mild to warm in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January in the northern and higher elevated regions. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January.

Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 kilometres (360 mi) from north to south and 442 kilometres (275 mi) (extreme) or 281 kilometres (175 mi) (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometres (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus River.[32]

Peninsula of Manora

Geography and climate

On 14 August 1947, Pakistan was created according to the two nation theory. The province of Sindh attained self-rule for the first time since the defeat of Sindhi Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. The first major challenge faced by the Government of Pakistan was the settlement of over 2 million Muhajirs from India who began migrating into newly created Pakistan. In 1947 Sindh joined Pakistan by vote of members of legislature.

Creation of Pakistan

The newly created province of Sindh secured a legislative assembly of its own, elected on the basis of communal and minorities' representation. Sir Lancelot Graham was appointed as the first governor of Sindh by the British government on 1 April 1936. He was also the Head of the Council, which comprised 25 members, including two advisors from the Bombay Council to administer the affairs of Sindh until 1937. The British ruled the area for a century. According to English explorer Richard Burton, Sindh was one of the most restive provinces during the British Raj and was, at least originally, home to many prominent Muslim leaders such as Ubaidullah Sindhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (neither of whom were Sindhi) who strove for greater Muslim autonomy. At the 27th Session of the Muslim League at Lahore on March 23, 1940, Sir Haji Abdullah Haroon was among those who spoke and endorsed the 'Pakistan Resolution'.

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. Influential Sindhi activists under the supervision of G.M. Syed and other important leaders at the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly. In 1890 Sindh acquired representation for the first time in the Bombay Legislative Assembly. Four members represented Sindh. Those leaders and many others from Sindh played an important role in ensuring the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency, which took place on 1 April 1936.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who spoke five languages: Sindhi, Kutchi, Urdu, Gujarati, and English

Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly

Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the Sindhi Muslim Hur Movement against the British Raj. He was hanged on 20 March 1943 in Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known. During the British period, railways, printing presses and bridges were introduced in the province. Writers like Mirza Kalich Beg compiled and traced the literary history of Sindh.

Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853, the British divided Sindh into districts and later made it part of British India's Bombay Presidency. Sindh became a separate province in 1935.

British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the nineteenth century and conquered Sindh in 1843.[30] The Baloch coalition led by Talpur Balochs under Mir Nasir Khan Talpur Baloch was defeated at the Battle of Miani, during which 5,000 Talpur Baloch were killed. Shortly afterward, Hoshu Sheedi commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo, where 5,000 Baloch were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh. As result he was granted a lifetime pension. A British journal[31] by Thomas Postans mentions the captive Sindhi Amirs: "The Amirs as being the prisoners of "Her Majesty"... they are maintained in strict seclusion; they are described as Broken-Hearted and Miserable men, maintaining much of the dignity of fallen greatness, and without any querulous or angry complaining at this unlivable source of sorrow, refusing to be comforted".

"a city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandahs some three or four stories high ... the city has 3,000 looms ... the textiles of Sindh were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sindh gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000 Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well armed Sepoys".

In 1802, when Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur Baloch succeeded as the Nawab, internal tension broke out in the province. As a result, the following year the Maratha Empire declared war on Sindh and Berar Subah, during which Arthur Wellesley took a leading role — causing much early suspicion between the Emirs of Sindh and the British Empire.[29] The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was:

Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.

British Raj

In the year 1701 the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously. After the Sikhs annexed Multan, the Kalhora Dynasty supported counterattacks against the Sikhs and defined their borders, however due to the lack of internal stability the Kalhoras could not continue further conquests.[27] In the year 1783 Akbar Shah II issued a firman, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur baloch as the new Nawab of Sindh, and mediated peace particularly after the ferocious Battle of Halani and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur baloch tribes.[28]

During the reign of Akbar, Sindh produced various scholars such as and others such as Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi, Tahir Muhammad Thattvi and Mir Ali Sir Thattvi and the Mughal chronicler Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and his brother the poet Faizi was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak was the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of the Mughal Empire). It was also during the Mughal period when Sindhi literature began to flourish and historical figures such as Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sulatn-al-Aoliya Muhammad Zaman and Sachal Sarmast became prominent throughout the land. In the year 1603 Shah Jahan visited the province of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously welcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule under the supervision of Mirza Ghazi Beg. Also during his reign, in the year 1659 in the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method.[23][24] Sindh was also home to very famous wealthy merchant-rulers such as Mir Bejar of Sindh, whose great wealth had attracted the alliance of Sultan bin Ahmad of Oman.[25] After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire and its institutions began to decline. Various warring Nawabs took control of vast territories; they ruled independently of the Mughal Emperor.

In the year 1524, the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and Babur dispatched his forces to defeat the Arghuns and the Tarkhans, who had violated the liberties of the inhabitants of the province. In the coming centuries Sindh became a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals. A network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh.[20][21] In 1540 a deadly mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Emir Hussein Umrani. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum. She gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542. In 1556 the Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis visited Humayun; various regions of the South Asia including Sindh (Makran coast and the Mehran delta) are mentioned in his book Mirat ul Memalik. The Portuguese navigator Fernão Mendes Pinto claims that Sindhi sailors joined the Ottoman Admiral Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis on his expedetion to Aceh in 1565.[20][22]

Cover of a book containing the epic Dodo Chanesar written in the Khudabadi script
The famous Pacco Qillo became one of the largest military garrisons in the region during the Mughal Era.

Kalhoro and Mughal period

In 1339 Jam Unar founded a Sindhi Muslim Samma Dynasty and challenged the Sultans of Delhi. he used the title of the Sultan of Sindh. The Samma tribe reached its peak during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II (also known by the nickname Jám Nindó). During his reign from 1461 to 1509, Nindó greatly expanded the new capital of Thatta and its Makli hills, which replaced Debal. He also patronized Sindhi art, architecture and culture. The Samma had left behind a popular legacy especially in architecture, music and art. Important court figures included the famous poet Kazi Kadal, Sardar Darya Khan, Moltus Khan, Makhdoom Bilwal and the theologian Kazi Kaadan. However, Thatta was a port city; unlike garrison towns, it could not mobilize large armies against the Arghun and Tarkhan Mongol invaders, who killed many regional Sindhi Mirs and Amirs loyal to the Samma. Some Parts of sindh still remained under the Sultans of Delhi and the ruthless Arghuns and the Tarkhans sacked Thatta during the rule of Jam Ferozudin.

The Samma period is known for pioneering of Sindhi folklore and literature.

Samma period

When the Soomro Dynasty lost ties with the Abbasid Caliphate after the Siege of Baghdad (1258) the Soomra King Dodo-I, established their rule from the shores of the Arabian Sea to the punjab in the north and in the east to Rajistan and in the west to Balochistan. The Soomros were one of the first Muslims in Sindh. They created a chivalrous culture in Sindh which eventually facilitated their rule centered at Mansura. Puran was later abandoned due to changes in the course of the Puran River; they ruled for the next 95 years until 1351 AD. During this period, Kutch was ruled by the Samma Dynasty, who enjoyed good relations with the Soomras in Sindh. Since the Soomro Dynasty lost its support from the Abbasid Caliphate, the Sultans of Delhi wanted a piece of Sindh. The Soomros successfully defended their kingdom for about 36 years but their dynasties soon fell to the might of the massive Sultans of Delhi armies such as the Tughluks and the Khiljis.

When Sindh was under the Umayyad Caliphate, the Habbari dynasty was in control. The Umayyads appointed Aziz al Habbari as the governor of Sindh. Habbaris ruled Sindh until Mahmud Ghaznavi defeated the Habbaris in 1120. Mahmud Ghaznavi viewed the Abbasids to be the Caliphs thus he removed the remaining influence of the Umayyad Caliphate in the region and Sindh fell to Abbasid control following the defeat of the Habbaris. The Abbasid Caliphate then made Al Khafif from Samarra; the term 'Soomro' means 'of Samarra' in Sindhi. The new governor of Sindh was to create a better, stronger and stable government. Once he became the governor he allotted several key positions to his family and friends; thus Al-Khafif or Sardar Khafif Soomro formed the Soomro Dynasty in Sindh and became its first king. Until the Siege of Baghdad (1258) the Soomro dynasty was the Abbasid Caliphate's functionary in Sindh, but after that it became independent. Since then some Soomras intermarried with local women and adopted some local customs as well. They were the first Muslims to translate the Quran into the Sindhi language.

Soomro period

By the year 750 AD, Debal was second only to Basra; Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat, Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java (where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri). During the power struggle between the Umayyads and the Abbasids. The Habbari Dynasty became semi independent and was eliminated and Mansura was invaded by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Sindh then became an eastern most province of the Abbasid Caliphate ruled by the Soomro Dynasty until the Siege of Baghdad (1258). It should be noted that Mansura was the first capital of the "Soomra Dynasty" and the last of the "Habbari dynasty". Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, Nizami,[18] al-Biruni, Saadi Shirazi, Ibn Battutah and Katip Çelebi[19] wrote about or visited the region, sometimes using the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush.

In 711 AD, Muhammad bin Qasim led an Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults. Muhammad bin Qasim defeated the Raja Dahir, and captured the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad Caliphate and was referred to as "Al-Sindh" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capital; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata al-Sindhi,[17] Abu Raja Sindhi and Sind ibn Ali. At the port city of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors; they became famous due to their skills in navigation, geography and languages. After Bin Qasim left, the Umayyads ruled Sindh through the Habbari dynasty.

In AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam, Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty,[12][13] a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region,[14] especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist.[15][16] The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.

A manuscript written during the Abbasid Era.

Arrival of Islam

The Kushan Empire was defeated in the mid 200s AD by the Sassanid Empire of Persia, who installed vassals known as the Kushanshahs. These rulers were defeated by the Kidarites in the late 300s. It then came under Gupta Empire after dealing with the Kidarites. By the late 400s, attacks by Hephthalite tribes known as the Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas (Huns) broke through the Gupta Empire's northwestern borders and overran much of northwestern India. Sindh came under the rule of Emperor Harshavardhan, then the Rai Dynasty around 478 AD. The Rais were overthrown by Chachar of Alor around 632. The Brahman dynasty ruled a vast territory that stretched from Multan in the north to the Rann of Kutch, Alor was their capital.

In the late 100s BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the Punjab region, they seized Sistan and invaded South Asia through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps). By the first century AD, the Tocharian Kushan Empire annexed Sindh. Though the Kushans were Zoroastrian due to their former contacts with Persians, they were tolerant of the local Buddhist tradition and sponsored many building projects for local beliefs. Ahirs were also found in large numbers in Sindh.[9] Abiria country of Abhira tribe was located in southern Sindh.[10][11]

Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Sunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was later defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Under the reign of Menander I many Indo-Greeks followed his example and converted to Buddhism.

Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharatha as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. In the late 300s BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh.

Part of a series on

Etymology · History
Language · Culture · Cuisine · Diaspora · Sindhology
Tribes · Media

According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite. The grand and presumably holy site might have been the great bath, which is built upon an artificially created elevation.[7] This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BC. The cause is hotly debated, and may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Mohen Jo Daro ("mount of dead") indicate that the city was suddenly attacked and the population was wiped out.[8]


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