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Simla Agreement

Simla Agreement
Simla Treaty
Agreement Between the Government of India and the Government Pakistan on Bilateral Relations
Pakistan Army Rangers are standing with the Flags of India and Pakistan
Type Peace treaty
Context Cold war
Drafted June 28, 1972 (1972-06-28)
Signed July 2, 1972 (1972-07-02)
Location Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
Sealed August 3, 1972
Effective August 4, 1972
Condition Ratification of both parties
Expiry April 14, 1974 (1974-04-14)
Negotiators Foreign ministries of India and Pakistan
Signatories Indira Gandhi
(Prime Minister of India)
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
(President of Pakistan)
Parties  India
Ratifiers Parliament of India
Parliament of Pakistan
Depositary Governments of Pakistan and India

The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on July 2, 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.[1] It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan. India entered the war as an ally of Bangladesh on December 3, 1971 immediately before the victory of Bangladesh, which transformed the war into an Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.The agreement was ratified by the Parliaments of both the nations in same year.

The agreement was the result of resolve of both the countries to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations". It conceived the steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations and it also laid down the principles that should govern their future relations.[2]


  • Details 1
  • Text of the Agreement 2
  • Delhi Agreement 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The treaty was signed in Simla, India, by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the President of Pakistan, and Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India. The agreement also paved the way for diplomatic recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan. Technically the document was signed on 0040 hours in the night of 3 July, despite this official documents are dated July 2, 1972.[2][3] Few major outcomes of the Simla Agreement are:

Both countries will "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations".[1][4] India has, many a times, maintained that Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and must be settled through bilateral negotiations as per Simla Agreement, 1972 and thus, had denied any third party intervention even that of United Nations. [5]
The agreement converted the cease-fire line of December 17, 1971 into the Line of Control (LOC) between India and Pakistan and it was agreed that "neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations".[1][3] Many Indian bureaucrats have later argued that a tacit agreement, to convert this LOC into international border, was reached during a one-on-one meeting between the two heads of state. However, Pakistani bureaucrats have denied any such thing.[2][3] This identification of a new "cease-fire line" by both the states has been argued by India as making United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan insignificant. As according to India, the purpose of UNMOGIP was to monitor the cease-fire line as identified in Karachi agreement of 1949 which no longer exists. However, Pakistan have a different take on this issue and both countries still host the UN mission.[5]

Contrary to popular belief, the agreement did not agree over repatriation of prisoners of war (POW) and it was in 1974 in a separate agreement result into three way exchange of POW between Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan.

The agreement has not prevented the relationship between the two countries from deteriorating to the point of armed conflict, most recently in the Kargil War of 1999. In Operation Meghdoot of 1984 India seized most of the inhospitable Siachen Glacier region where the frontier had not been clearly defined in the agreement (possibly as the area was thought too barren to be controversial), this was considered as violation of Simla Agreement by Pakistan. Most of the subsequent deaths in the Siachen Conflict have been from natural disasters, e.g. avalanches in 2010 and 2012.

Text of the Agreement

Simla Agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and President of Pakistan, Z. A. Bhutto, in Simla on July 2, 1972.

Delhi Agreement

The Delhi Agreement on the Repatriation of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between the aforementioned states, signed on 28 August 1973. The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, the Foreign Minister of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, Minister of External Affairs of India and Aziz Ahmed, the Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan.[6][7][8]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "Simla Agreement". Bilateral/Multilateral Documents. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Indo-Pak Shimla Agreement: 40 years later". IANS. IBN Live, CNN IBN. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Relevance of Simla Agreement". Editorial Series. Khan Study Group. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Kapur, Shekhar (Narrator) (September 21, 2013). "1971 Indo-Pak War". Pradhanmantri. Season 1. Episode 11. ABP News. 
  5. ^ a b Press Trust of India (22 January 2013). "India spikes Pak call for third party mediation, says Simla Agreement tops all agendas". Indian Express. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Mark Cutts; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2000). The State of the World's Refugees, 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action. Oxford University Press. pp. 73–.  
  7. ^ Sukhwant Singh (19 July 2009). India's Wars Since Independence. Lancer Publishers. pp. 538–.  
  8. ^ The office of the Foreign Minister, Government of Bangladesh. "The text of the Tripartite agreement at Delhi". Virtualbangladesh. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 

External links

  • Official Document of Shimla Agreement

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