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Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone

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Title: Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Territorial disputes of Saudi Arabia, Territorial disputes of Iraq, Neutral zone (territorial entity), Uqair Protocol of 1922, Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone

The former Neutral Zone between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
Topographic map

The Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone was an area of 7,044 km² on the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq within which the border between the two countries had not been settled. The Treaty of Muhammarah (Khorramshahr) of 5 May 1922,[1] forestalled the imminent conflict between the United Kingdom, which held the mandate for Iraq, and the Kingdom of Nejd, which later became Saudi Arabia (when combined with the Kingdom of Hejaz). The treaty specifically avoided defining boundaries. Following further negotiations, the Protocol of Uqair (Uqayr), 2 December 1922, defined most of the borders between them and created the neutral zone.[1]

No military or permanent buildings were to be built in or near the neutral zone[2] and the nomads of both countries were to have unimpeded access to its pastures and wells.[2]

Administrative division of the zone was achieved in 1975,[3][4] and a border treaty concluded in 1981.[2][4][5] For unknown reasons the treaty was not filed with the United Nations[2] and nobody outside Iraq and Saudi Arabia was notified of the change or shown maps with details of the new boundary.[2] As the Gulf War approached in early 1991, Iraq cancelled all international agreements with Saudi Arabia since 1968. Saudi Arabia responded by registering all previous boundary agreements negotiated with Iraq at the United Nations in June 1991.[4] Thus ended the legal existence of the Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone.

Most official maps no longer show the diamond-shaped neutral zone, but rather draw the border line approximately through the centre of the territory. For example, the United States Office of the Geographer regarded the area as only having an approximate boundary, rather than a precise one.[2]

The Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone formerly had the ISO 3166-1 codes NT and NTZ. These codes were discontinued in 1993.[6] The FIPS 10-4 code for the Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone was IY;[7] that code was deleted in 1992.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b Office of the Geographer (1971-06-01). "International Boundary Study: Iraq – Saudi Arabia Boundary". US Department of State. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Adams, Cecil (1991-02-01). "What's up with the "neutral zones" near Saudi Arabia?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  3. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1990). "The World Factbook 1990 - Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  4. ^ a b c Schofield, Richard. "Arabian Boundary disputes, Archive Editions". Archive Editions. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  5. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1991). "The World Factbook 1991 - Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  6. ^ Law, Gwillim. "ISO 3166-1 Change History". Statoids. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  7. ^ a b Law, Gwillim. "FIPS PUB 10 Change History". Statoids. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 

External links

  • The Straight Dope on the Neutral Zone
  • Arabian Boundary Disputes
  • International Boundary Study No. 111
  • International Frontier Treaty Between Saudi Arabia and Iraq splitting the Neutral Zone, July 2, 1975
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