World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0037323547
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pramāda  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mental factors (Buddhism), Outline of Buddhism
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Translations of
English: heedlessness,
Sanskrit: Pramāda, pramada
Tibetan: བག་མེད་པ།
(Wylie: bag med pa;
THL: bakmepa
Glossary of Buddhism

Pramāda (Sanskrit; Tibetan phonetic: bakmepa) is a Buddhist term that is translated as "heedlessness", "carelessness", etc. In the Mahayana tradition, pramāda is defined to not apply oneself earnestly and carefully to adopting a wholesome attitude and abandoning unwholesome actions.[1][2]

Pramāda is identified as:


Mipham Rinpoche states:

Heedlessness (pramada) is to not apply oneself earnestly and carefully to adopting virtue and abandoning evil deeds, and is due to the three poisons along with laziness (kausīdya). It is the opponent of conscientiousness (apramāda), and its function is to increase non-virtue and to diminish virtue.[2]

The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:

What is unconcern (pramada)? It is to persevere in passion-lust (raga), aversion-hatred (dvesha), and bewilderment-erring (moha) aggravated by laziness (kausīdya). It is not to attend to what is positive and so also is not to protect the mind from those things which cannot provide lasting satisfaction. It provides it basis for increasing the unhealthy state and decreasing healthy ones.[1]

Alexander Berzin explains:

Based on longing desire (raga), hostility (dvesha), naivety (moha), or laziness (kausīdya), not caring is the state of mind not to engage in anything constructive and not to restrain from activities tainted with confusion. It is not taking seriously and thus not caring about the effects of our behavior.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 971-973.
  2. ^ a b Kunsang (2004), p. 28.
  3. ^ Berzin (2006)


  • Berzin, Alexander (2006), Mind and Mental Factors: The Fifty-one Types of Subsidiary Awareness
  • Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  • Kunsang, Erik Pema (translator) (2004). Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1. North Atlantic Books.
  • Nina van Gorkom (2010), Cetasikas, Zolag

External links

Mahayana tradition:

  • Mind and Mental Factors: The Fifty-one Types of Subsidiary Awareness
  • bag med paRanjung Yeshe wiki entry for
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.