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Plant peptide hormone

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Title: Plant peptide hormone  
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Subject: Genetically modified tomato, Plant hormone, Ethylene, Salicylic acid
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Plant peptide hormone

Peptide signaling plays a significant role in various aspects of plant growth and development and specific receptors for various peptides have been identified as being membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor-like molecules in plants. Signaling peptides include members of the following protein families.

  • Systemin — is a small polypeptide functioning as a long-distance signal to activate chemical defenses against herbivores. It was the first plant hormone proven to be a peptide. Systemin induces the production of protein defense compound called protease inhibitors. Systemin was first identified in tomato leaves. It was found to be an 18-amino acid peptide processed from the C-terminus of a 200-amino acid precursor, which is called prosystemin.[1]
  • CLV3/ESR-related ('CLE') peptide family — CLV3 encodes a small secreted peptide that functions as a short range ligand to the membrane-bound CLV1 receptor like kinase that together with CLV2 (a receptor-like protein) function to maintain stem cell homeostasis in Arabidopsis shoot apical meristems. Although the maize embryo-surrounding region protein (ESR).[2] and CLV3 are very different, they are both members of the CLE peptide family given that they share a short conserved 14-amino acid sequence at the carboxy terminal region.[3] To date, more than 150 CLE signaling peptides are identified.[4][5] This proteolytically processed bioactive region is important for both promoting and inhibiting cellular differentiation in both apical and cambial meristems.[6]
  • ENOD40 — is an early nodulin gene, hence ENOD, that putatively encodes two small peptides, one of 12 and the other of 18 amino acid residues. Controversy exists on whether the mRNA or peptides themselves are responsible for bioactivity.[7][8][9][10] Both peptides have been shown "in vivo" to bind to the 93 kDa subunit of sucrose synthase, an essential component in sucrose metabolism.[8] Sucrose degradation is a key step in nitrogen fixation, and is a pre-requisite for normal nodule development.[11]
  • Phytosulfokine (PSK) — was first identified as a "conditioning factor" in asparagus and carrot cell cultures.[12][13] The bioactive five amino acid peptide (PSK) is proteolytically processed from an ~80 amino acid precursor secreted peptide.[14] PSK has been demonstrated to promote cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. It has been demonstrated that PSK binds to a membrane bound LRR receptor like kinase (PSKR).[15]
  • POLARIS (PLS) — The PLS peptide has a predicted length of 36 amino acids however possesses no secretion signal, suggesting that it functions within the cytoplasm. The PLS peptide itself has not yet been biochemically isolated, however loss-of-function mutants are hypersensitive to cytokinin with reduced responsiveness to auxin. Developmentally it is involved in vascularization, longitudinal cell expansion and increased radial expansion.[16]
  • Rapid Alkalinization Factor (RALF) — is 49 amino acid peptide that was identified whilst purifying systemin from tobacco leaves, it causes rapid medium alkanalization and does not activate defence responses like systemin.[17] Tomato RALF precursor cDNA encodes a 115 amino acid polypeptide containing an amino-terminal signal sequence with the bioactive RALF peptide encoded at the carboxy terminus. It is not known how mature RALF peptide is produced from its precursor, but a dibasic amino acid motif (typical of recognition sites of processing enzymes in yeast and animals) is located two residues upstream from the amino terminus of mature RALF. RALF has been identified to bind to potential membrane bound receptors complex containing proteins 25 kDa and 120 kDa in size.[18]
  • SCR/SP11 — are small polymorphic peptides produced by the tapetal cells of anthers and is involved in self-incompatibility of Brassica species.[19][20][21] This secreted polypeptide is between 78 and 80 amino acid residues in length. Unlike other peptide hormones, no further post-translational processing occurs, except for the removal of the N-terminal signal peptide. SCR/SP11 like other small peptide hormones binds to a membrane bound LRR receptor like kinase (SRK).[22][23]

See also


  1. ^ McGurl B, Pearce G, Orozco-Cardenas M, Ryan CA (March 1992). "Structure, expression, and antisense inhibition of the systemin precursor gene". Science 255 (5051): 1570–3.  
  2. ^ Opsahl-Ferstad HG, Le Deunff E, Dumas C, Rogowsky PM (July 1997). "ZmEsr, a novel endosperm-specific gene expressed in a restricted region around the maize embryo". Plant J. 12 (1): 235–46.  
  3. ^ Sharma VK, Ramirez J, Fletcher JC (February 2003). CLV3-like (CLE) genes are expressed in diverse tissues and encode secreted proteins"Arabidopsis"The . Plant Mol. Biol. 51 (3): 415–25.  
  4. ^ Cock JM, McCormick S (July 2001). "A large family of genes that share homology with CLAVATA3". Plant Physiol. 126 (3): 939–42.  
  5. ^ Oelkers K, Goffard N, Weiller GF, Gresshoff PM, Mathesius U, Frickey T (2008). "Bioinformatic analysis of the CLE signaling peptide family". BMC Plant Biol. 8: 1.  
  6. ^ Whitford R, Fernandez A, De Groodt R, Ortega E, Hilson P (November 2008). "Plant CLE peptides from two distinct functional classes synergistically induce division of vascular cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (47): 18625–30.  
  7. ^ Campalans A, Kondorosi A, Crespi M (April 2004). "Enod40, a short open reading frame-containing mRNA, induces cytoplasmic localization of a nuclear RNA binding protein in Medicago truncatula". Plant Cell 16 (4): 1047–59.  
  8. ^ a b Röhrig H, John M, Schmidt J (December 2004). "Modification of soybean sucrose synthase by S-thiolation with ENOD40 peptide A". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 325 (3): 864–70.  
  9. ^ Rohrig H, Schmidt J, Miklashevichs E, Schell J, John M (February 2002). "Soybean ENOD40 encodes two peptides that bind to sucrose synthase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (4): 1915–20.  
  10. ^ Guzzo F, Portaluppi P, Grisi R, et al. (February 2005). "Arabidopsis thaliana"Reduction of cell size induced by enod40 in . J. Exp. Bot. 56 (412): 507–13.  
  11. ^ Gordon AJ, Minchin FR, James CL, Komina O (July 1999). "Sucrose synthase in legume nodules is essential for nitrogen fixation". Plant Physiol. 120 (3): 867–78.  
  12. ^ Bellincampi D, Morpurgo G (1987). "Conditioning factor affecting growth in plant cells in culture". Plant Sci 51: 83–91.  
  13. ^ Birnberg PR, Somers DA, Brenner ML (1988). "Characterization of conditioning factors that increase colony formation from black Mexican sweet corn protoplasts". J. Plant Physiol. 132: 316–21.  
  14. ^ Yang H, Matsubayashi Y, Nakamura K, Sakagami Y (November 1999). "Oryza sativa PSK gene encodes a precursor of phytosulfokine-alpha, a sulfated peptide growth factor found in plants". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (23): 13560–5.  
  15. ^ Matsubayashi Y, Sakagami Y (May 2000). "120- and 160-kDa receptors for endogenous mitogenic peptide, phytosulfokine-alpha, in rice plasma membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (20): 15520–5.  
  16. ^ Topping JF, Lindsey K (October 1997). "Arabidopsis"Promoter trap markers differentiate structural and positional components of polar development in . Plant Cell 9 (10): 1713–25.  
  17. ^ Pearce G, Moura DS, Stratmann J, Ryan CA (October 2001). "RALF, a 5-kDa ubiquitous polypeptide in plants, arrests root growth and development". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (22): 12843–7.  
  18. ^ Scheer JM, Pearce G, Ryan CA (July 2005). "LeRALF, a plant peptide that regulates root growth and development, specifically binds to 25 and 120 kDa cell surface membrane proteins of Lycopersicon peruvianum". Planta 221 (5): 667–74.  
  19. ^ Schopfer CR, Nasrallah ME, Nasrallah JB (November 1999). "Brassica"The male determinant of self-incompatibility in . Science 286 (5445): 1697–700.  
  20. ^ Suzuki G, Kai N, Hirose T, et al. (September 1999). (syn. rapa)"Brassica campestris"Genomic organization of the S locus: Identification and characterization of genes in SLG/SRK region of S(9) haplotype of . Genetics 153 (1): 391–400.  
  21. ^ Takayama S, Shiba H, Iwano M, et al. (February 2000). "Brassica campestris"The pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (4): 1920–5.  
  22. ^ Takayama S, Shimosato H, Shiba H, et al. (October 2001). "Direct ligand-receptor complex interaction controls Brassica self-incompatibility". Nature 413 (6855): 534–8.  
  23. ^ Kachroo A, Schopfer CR, Nasrallah ME, Nasrallah JB (September 2001). self-incompatibility"Brassica"Allele-specific receptor-ligand interactions in . Science 293 (5536): 1824–6.  
  24. ^ Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, et al. (May 2004). "Arabidopsis thaliana"Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in . Plant J. 38 (4): 699–713.  
  25. ^ Wen J, Lease KA, Walker JC (March 2004). development"Arabidopsis"DVL, a novel class of small polypeptides: overexpression alters . Plant J. 37 (5): 668–77.  
  26. ^ Butenko MA, Patterson SE, Grini PE, et al. (October 2003). and identifies a novel family of putative ligands in plants"Arabidopsis"Inflorescence deficient in abscission controls floral organ abscission in . Plant Cell 15 (10): 2296–307.  
  27. ^ Jinn TL, Stone JM, Walker JC (January 2000). leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase, controls floral organ abscission"Arabidopsis"HAESA, an . Genes Dev. 14 (1): 108–17.  
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