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Parti Québécois

Parti Québécois
Leader Pierre Karl Péladeau
President Raymond Archambault
Founded 11 October 1968 (1968-10-11)
Merger of Mouvement Souveraineté-Association,
Ralliement national
Headquarters 1200 av. Papineau, Suite 150, Montreal, Quebec
Ideology Nationalism (Québécois)[1]
Sovereigntism (Québécois)
Social democracy (Québécois)[1][2][3][4]
Political position Centre-Left
Policies Fiscal: Centre-Left
Social: moderate liberal (left)
Official colours Blue, green
Seats in the National Assembly
28 / 125
Politics of Quebec
Political parties

The Parti Québécois (French: Parti québécois[5], PQ; pronounced: ) is a sovereignist[6] provincial political party in Quebec in Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a sovereign state. The PQ has promoted the possibility of maintaining a loose political and economic sovereignty-association between Quebec and Canada. The party traditionally has support from the labour movement, but unlike most other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal.[7] Members and supporters of the PQ are called "péquistes" (Quebec French pronunciation: ;[8]), a French word derived from the pronunciation of the party's initials.

Pierre Karl Péladeau was elected party leader on May 15, 2015.

The party is an observer member of COPPPAL.[9]


  • History 1
    • Formation 1.1
    • Lévesque and the PQ's first government 1.2
    • 1985 defeat 1.3
    • Return to power under Parizeau 1.4
    • Bouchard government 1.5
    • Return to opposition 1.6
    • Splintering on the right and the left 1.7
    • Third place 1.8
    • Marois minority government 1.9
    • 2014 defeat 1.10
    • Péladeau leadership 1.11
  • Relationship with the Bloc Québécois 2
  • Logo 3
  • Party policy 4
  • Slogans 5
  • Party leaders 6
  • Leaders in the legislature 7
  • Party presidents 8
  • Leadership elections 9
  • General election results 10
  • See also 11
  • Notes 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14



The PQ is the result of the 1968 merger between former Quebec Liberal Party cabinet minister René Lévesque's Mouvement Souveraineté-Association and the Ralliement national.[10] Following the creation of the PQ, the Rassemblement pour l'Indépendance Nationale held a general assembly that voted to dissolve the RIN. Its former members were invited to join the new Parti Québécois.

The PQ's primary goals were to obtain political, economic and social autonomy for the province of Quebec. Lévesque introduced the strategy of referenda early in the 1970s.[11]

Lévesque and the PQ's first government

In the 1976 provincial election, the Parti Québécois was elected for the first time to form the government of Quebec. The party's leader, René Lévesque, became the Premier of Quebec. This provided cause for celebration among many French-speaking Quebecers, while it resulted in an acceleration of the migration of the province's Anglophone population and related economic activity toward Toronto.

The first PQ government was known as the "republic of teachers" because of the large number of scholars who served as cabinet members. The PQ was the first government to recognize the rights of Aboriginal peoples to self-determination, insofar as this self-determination did not affect the territorial integrity of Quebec. The PQ passed laws on public consultations and the financing of political parties, which ensured equal financing of political parties and limited contributions by individuals to $3000. However, the most prominent legacy of the PQ is the Charter of the French Language (the Bill 101), a framework law which defines the linguistic primacy of French and seeks to make French the common public language of Quebec. It allowed the advancement of francophones towards management roles, until then largely out of their reach – despite the fact that 85% of the population spoke French and most of them did not understand English, the language of management was English in most medium and large businesses. Critics, both Francophone and Anglophone, have however criticized the charter for restraining citizens' linguistic school choice, as it forbids immigrants and Quebecers of French descent from attending English-language schools funded by the state (private schools have always been an option open to everybody). The Parti Québécois initiated the 1980 Quebec referendum seeking a mandate to begin negotiation for independence. It was rejected by 60 per cent of voters.

The party was re-elected in the 1981 election, but in November 1984 it experienced the most severe internal crisis of its existence. Lévesque wanted to focus on governing Quebec rather than sovereignty, and also wanted to adopt a more conciliatory approach on constitutional issues. This angered the more ardent sovereigntists, known as the purs et durs. Lévesque was forced to resign as a result. In September 1985, the party leadership election chose Pierre-Marc Johnson as his successor.

Despite its social-democratic past, the PQ failed to gain admission into the Socialist International, after the membership application was vetoed by the federal New Democratic Party.[12][13][14]

1985 defeat

The PQ led by Johnson was defeated by the Quebec Liberal Party in the 1985 election that saw Robert Bourassa return as premier. The Liberals served in office for two terms and attempted to negotiate a constitutional settlement with the rest of Canada but with the failure of the Charlottetown Accord and the Meech Lake Accord, two packages of proposed amendments to the Canadian constitution, the question of Quebec's status remained unresolved and the Quebec sovereignty movement revived.

Return to power under Parizeau

The PQ returned to power under the leadership of hardline separatist Jacques Parizeau in the 1994 Quebec election. This saw the PQ win 77 seats and 44% of the vote, on a promise to hold a separation referendum within a year.[15] The following year, Parizeau called the 1995 Quebec referendum proposing negotiations on sovereignty. After leading all night, the final count showed 49.6% of voters supported negotiations that could eventually lead to sovereignty. On the night of the defeat, an emotionally drained Premier Parizeau stated that the loss was caused by "money and the ethnic vote" (which led to accusations that the PQ was racist) as well as by the divided votes amongst francophones. Parizeau resigned the next day (as he is alleged to have planned beforehand in case of a defeat).

Bouchard government

Lucien Bouchard, a former member of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Cabinet and later founder of the Bloc Québécois, a federal-level sovereigntist party, succeeded Parizeau as PQ leader, but chose not to call another referendum due to the absence of "winning conditions". Bouchard's government then balanced the provincial budget – a feat achieved in Canada only by the federal government and a few of the ten Canadian provinces at that point – by reducing government spending, including social programs. The PQ was re-elected in the 1998 election, despite receiving fewer votes than the Quebec Liberal Party led by former federal deputy prime minister Jean Charest. Bouchard resigned in 2001, and was succeeded as PQ leader and Quebec Premier by Bernard Landry, a former PQ Finance minister. Under Landry's leadership, the party lost the 2003 election to Jean Charest's Liberals.

Return to opposition

Mid-late 2004 was difficult for Landry's leadership, which was being contested. A vote was held during the party's June 2005 convention to determine whether Landry continued to have the confidence of the party membership. Landry said he wanted at least 80% of approval and after gaining 76.2% approval on the confidence vote from party membership on 4 June 2005, Landry announced his intention to resign.[16]

Louise Harel had been chosen to replace him until a new leader, André Boisclair, was elected 15 November 2005, through the party's 2005 leadership election. At the time of Boisclair's election, the PQ was as much as 20 percent ahead of the Liberals in opinion polls, suggesting that Boisclair would lead them to a landslide majority government in the next election.[17]

Splintering on the right and the left

Progressives on the left wing of the PQ perceived a rightward move by the party towards neoliberalism under Bouchard, Landry and Boisclair. In 2006, a new left-wing party, Québec solidaire, was formed which included many activists who would have formerly been members or supporters of the PQ. Over subsequent elections, the QS would attract increasing support from left-wing sovereigntists disillusioned with the PQ, while on the right, the ADQ and later the Coalition Avenir Québec attracted the votes of right-wing and soft sovereigntists, resulting in the PQ being squeezed from both sides.

Third place

The PQ was unable to maintain the momentum it briefly had under Boisclair, and in the 2007 provincial election, the party fell to 36 seats and behind the conservative Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) in number of seats and the popular vote: this is the first time since 1973 that the party did not form the government or Official Opposition. Boisclair said that the voters clearly did not support a strategy of a rapid referendum in the first mandate of a PQ government. Instead of a policy convention following the election, the party held a presidents' council. The party caucus in the provincial legislative assembly was said to have supported Boisclair continuing as leader.

On 8 May 2007, Boisclair announced his resignation as leader of the PQ.[18] This was effective immediately, although Boisclair confirmed he would remain within the PQ caucus for the time being. He was replaced by veteran MNA François Gendron, pending a leadership race and convention.

PQ leader Pauline Marois greets voters in Quebec City on the eve of the 2012 general election.

Former Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe was the first to announce his intention to run for party leadership, on 11 May 2007. He was followed the same day by Pauline Marois. In a surprise move, Duceppe withdrew on the 12th – leaving Marois the only declared candidate. No other candidates came forward, and on 26 June 2007, Marois won the leadership by acclamation.

In June 2011, the party was shaken when three of its most prominent MNAs—popular actor Pierre Curzi, former cabinet minister Louise Beaudoin, and Lisette Lapointe, the wife of former premier Jacques Parizeau, followed the next day by a fourth, Jean-Martin Aussant, quit the party to sit as independents over Marois's support for a bill changing the law to permit an agreement between the City of Québec and Quebecor Inc. concerning the management of the new sports and entertainment complex in Quebec City.[19] Unrest continued later in the month when a fifth MNA, Benoit Charette, also quit, citing his dissatisfaction with the party's sole focus being sovereignty. Beaudoin rejoined the PQ caucus in 2012.[20]

Marois minority government

The party won a minority government under Marois in the 2012 provincial election with 54 of 125 seats in the National Assembly. It embarked on a program of "sovereigntist governance" in relations with the rest of Canada, to return Quebec to balanced budgets through higher taxes and debt reduction, to increase the use of French in public services, and to address resource development in Northern Quebec. However the PQ's 'new Bill 101' did not pass. The centrepiece of the government's program was a Quebec Charter of Values which would have curtailed minority religious identity by banning the wearing of religious symbols by those in the employ of the government, particularly Sikh turbans, Muslim veils and Jewish kippas.

2014 defeat

Based on the charter's growing popularity among francophones, Marois called an early election for 7 April 2014 in an attempt to win a majority government. Despite leading in the polls when the writ was dropped, the campaign went badly due to several mishaps. The recruitment of star candidate Pierre Karl Péladeau, whose comments made sovereignty and the prospect of another referendum a focus of the campaign, as well as feminist Janette Bertrand suggesting that wealthy Muslim men were taking over swimming pools, among other incidents badly hurt the PQ.[3] Marois' government was defeated by the Liberals, led by Philippe Couillard, in the 2014 provincial election which resulted in a Liberal majority government. The PQ won 25% of the vote and 30 seats, its worst result in terms of popular vote since 1970. Marois announced her intention to resign as PQ leader that night.[21]

Stéphane Bédard was chosen interim parliamentary leader by the PQ caucus on 10 April 2014.[22]

On the 20 October 2014 Lévis by-election, PQ candidate Alexandre Bégin came in third place, with 8.28% of the popular vote, only narrowly beating Québec Solidaire.[23]

Péladeau leadership

On November 27, 2014, Pierre-Karl Péladeau announced his intentions to run for PQ's leadership, joining Bernard Drainville, Martine Ouellet, Jean-François Lisée, Alexandre Cloutier, and Pierre Céré.[24]

Despite a fiercely contested race, Péladeau was the frontrunner for much of the campaign, causing Jean-François Lisée to drop out in January 2015, Bernard Drainville to drop out on April 22, 2015,[25] and Pierre Céré to follow Drainville only five days before the leadership election.[26]

On May 15, 2015, Pierre-Karl Péladeau was elected permanent leader.[27]

Relationship with the Bloc Québécois

The Gilles Duceppe, the current Bloc leader, is also the son of Jean Duceppe, a Quebec actor who helped found the PQ.

In June 2014, Mario Beaulieu, a former PQ riding president and Bloc candidate, was elected leader of the Bloc Québécois. Notwithstanding his previous ties to both parties, Beaulieu has been critical of what he sees as a too timid approach to sovereignty by both the Bloc and PQ. Beaulieu's election as Bloc leader was more warmly received by the PQ's rival party, Option nationale, than by the PQ.[28][29][30]

The party's symbol was designed in 1968 by painter and poet Roland Giguère. It consists of a stylised letter Q, represented by a blue circle broken by a red arrow. The creator meant it as an allegory of the Parti Québécois breaking the circle of colonialism which he claimed Canada was imposing on Quebec and opening Quebec upon the world and the future.[31]

The creator represented the second letter of the two-letter acronym only (see the Hydro-Québec logo, also an example of a second letter design).

Second logo of the party, used from 1985 to 2007

Compared to the Quebec Liberal Party, which has completely changed its logo often, the PQ has made very few significant modifications to its logo during its history. In 1985 it made the circle and arrow slightly thicker, and placed the tip of the latter at the centre of the circle. The original saw it span the whole diameter]. When placed upon a blue background instead of a white one, the circle was commonly turned to white, the single main design variation currently observed.

The party revealed a new logo on 21 February 2007, at the beginning of the 2007 provincial election campaign. While maintaining the basic style of past logos, the Q was redesigned and modernized. In addition, the tail of the Q was recoloured green, in order to present a more environmentally friendly image of the party.

Party policy

The Parti Québécois centres on the protection of the Franco-Québécois identity, up to or including the ultimate result of sovereignty-association. Sovereigntism, however, is 'Article 1' in its party program.[32]

After then-French President Nicolas Sarkozy rejected the long-standing "non-interference, non-indifference" stance towards Quebec should it seek sovereignty in 2009, PQ leader and Premier Pauline Marois' visit to France in October 2012 saw her reinstate it with French President François Hollande.[33] Also during her visit, Marois commented that "Canada's current foreign policy corresponds to neither our values nor our interests".[34]

The PQ delivered a brief to the reasonable accommodation commission on minorities, which conducted holding hearings across the province. The commission briefing looked to reformulate the relations between Quebec's francophone and minority populations. Its task was to be a platform for the PQ's protectionism of French.[35]

Marois stated there is nothing dogmatic in Francophones wishing to declare their existence even if it includes developing legislation requiring newcomers to have a basic understanding of French before becoming citizens of Quebec. (Note that there are no official citizens of Quebec; residents of Quebec are citizens of Canada.)

Further to her desire to protect French in Quebec, during Marois' visit to France in October 2012, she recommended that the "French elite" conduct themselves only in French on the international scene.[36]

Marois stated the PQ understands the arrival of newcomers is attractive and they donate largely to Quebec's growth, but she stated that does not imply that to better assimilate them that "we must erase our own history."[37]

As of 2014, the PQ electoral program describes the party’s main commitment: "Aspiring to political liberty, the Parti Québécois has as its first objective to achieve the sovereignty of Quebec after consulting the population by a referendum to be held at the moment that the government judges appropriate."[38]

Other electoral issues were the Quebec Charter of Values, and language.[39]


These are the slogans used by the Parti Québécois in general election campaigns throughout its history. They are displayed with an unofficial translation. The elections in which the PQ won or remained in power are in bold.

  • 1970: OUI – Yes
  • 1973: J'ai le goût du Québec – I have a taste for Quebec
  • 1976: On a besoin d'un vrai gouvernement – We need a real government
  • 1981: Faut rester forts au Québec – We must remain strong in Quebec
  • 1985: Le Québec avec Johnson – Québec with Johnson
  • 1989: Je prends le parti du Québec – I'm choosing Quebec's party / I'm taking Quebec's side (double meaning)
  • 1994: L'autre façon de gouverner – The other way of governing
  • 1998: J'ai confiance – I am confident / I trust
  • 2003: Restons forts – Let us stay strong
  • 2007: Reconstruisons notre Québec – Let us rebuild our Quebec
  • 2008: Québec gagnant avec Pauline – Quebec winning with Pauline
  • 2012: À nous de choisir – The choice is ours
  • 2014: Plus prospère, plus fort, plus indépendant, plus accueillant – More prosperous, stronger, more independent, more welcoming

Party leaders

Until 5 June 2005, the office of Leader of the Parti Québécois was known as President of the Parti Québécois.

Party leader Years as party leader Years as Premier
René Lévesque 1968–1985 1976–1985
Pierre-Marc Johnson 1985–1987 1985
Guy Chevrette 1987–1988 acting leader
Jacques Parizeau 1988–1996 1994–1996
Lucien Bouchard 1996–2001 1996–2001
Bernard Landry 2001–2005 2001–2003
Louise Harel 2005 acting leader
André Boisclair 2005–2007 -
François Gendron 2007 acting leader
Pauline Marois 2007–2014 2012–2014
Stéphane Bédard 2014-2015 acting leader
Pierre Karl Péladeau 2015–present -

Leaders in the legislature

When a Parti Québécois leader does not have a seat in the National Assembly, another member leads the party in the legislature.

Parliamentary leader Years as parliamentary leader Comments
René Lévesque 1968–1970 René Lévesque sat as an Independent member until the 29 April 1970 election.
Camille Laurin 1970–1973 René Lévesque did not have a seat from 29 April 1970 to 29 October 1973.
Jacques-Yvan Morin 1973–1976 René Lévesque did not have a seat from 29 October 1973 to 15 November 1976.
René Lévesque 1976–1985
Pierre-Marc Johnson 1985–1987
Guy Chevrette 1987–1989 Became Leader of the Opposition when Johnson resigned on November 10, 1987. Remained parliamentary leader after Jacques Parizeau became party leader from 19 March 1988 until Parizeau won a seat on 25 September 1989.
Jacques Parizeau 1989–1996
Lucien Bouchard 1996–2001 Lucien Bouchard did not have a seat from 27 January 1996 to 19 February 1996.
Bernard Landry 2001–2005
Louise Harel 2005–2006 André Boisclair did not have a seat from 15 November 2005 to 14 August 2006.
André Boisclair 2006–2007
François Gendron 2007
Pauline Marois 2007–2014 Pauline Marois lost her seat on 7 April 2014 and announced her resignation as leader.
Stéphane Bédard 2014–2015 Interim leader following Marois' defeat and Péladeau's election
Pierre Karl Péladeau 2015–present

Party presidents

Until 5 June 2005, the office of President of the Parti Québécois was known as First Vice-President of the Parti Québécois.[40]

Party president Years as party president Comments
Gilles Grégoire 1968–1971
Camille Laurin 1971–1979
Louise Harel 1979–1981
Sylvain Simard 1981–1984
Nadia Assimopoulos 1984–1988 Nadia Assimopoulos served as acting leader (then known as president) from 20 June 1985 to 29 September 1985.
Pauline Marois 1988–1989
Bernard Landry 1989–1994
Monique Simard 1994–1996
Fabien Béchard 1996–2000
Marie Malavoy 2000–2005
Monique Richard 2005–2009
Jonathan Valois 2009–2011
Raymond Archambault 2011–Current

Leadership elections

General election results

General election Leader # of seats won % of popular vote Result
1970 René Lévesque
7 / 108
23.06% Third Party
1973 René Lévesque
6 / 110
30.22% Official Opposition
1976 René Lévesque
71 / 110
41.37% Majority government
1981 René Lévesque
80 / 122
49.26% Majority government
1985 Pierre-Marc Johnson
23 / 122
38.69% Official Opposition
1989 Jacques Parizeau
29 / 125
40.16% Official Opposition
1994 Jacques Parizeau
77 / 125
44.75% Majority government
1998 Lucien Bouchard
76 / 125
42.87% Majority government
2003 Bernard Landry
45 / 125
33.24% Official Opposition
2007 André Boisclair
36 / 125
28.35% Third Party (Liberal minority government)
2008 Pauline Marois
51 / 125
35.17% Official Opposition
2012 Pauline Marois
54 / 125
31.95% Minority government
2014 Pauline Marois
30 / 125
25.38% Official Opposition

See also


  1. ^ a b How Political Parties Respond: Interest Aggregation Revisited. Routledge. p. 149.  
  2. ^ Rodney S. Haddow, Thomas Richard Klassen (2006). Partisanship, globalization, and Canadian labour market policy. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. p. 56.  
  3. ^ Geoffrey Hale; Geoffrey E. Hale (2006). Uneasy Partnership: The Politics of Business and Government in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 24.  
  4. ^ Cecil Young (2004). One Canada. Trafford Publishing. p. 37.  
  5. ^ — La première ministre du Québec, Pauline Marois. "Des élections au Québec le 7 avril | Élections Québec 2014". Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  6. ^
    • Liam D. Anderson (2013). Federal Solutions to Ethnic Problems: Accommodating Diversity. Routledge. p. 210.  
    • Cameron I. Crouch (10 September 2009). Managing Terrorism and Insurgency: Regeneration, Recruitment and Attrition. Routledge. p. 19.  
    • J. Patrick Boyer (25 July 1996). Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn. p. 133.  
    • Eric Braun (1 January 2003). Canada in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 20.  
    • Amílcar Antonio Barreto (1 January 1998). Language, Elites, and the State: Nationalism in Puerto Rico and Quebec. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 104.  
    • Leslie Brokaw; Erin Trahan (23 February 2011). Frommer's Montreal and Quebec City 2011. John Wiley & Sons. p. 9.  
  7. ^ Social Democracy After the Cold War - Bryan Evans, Ingo Schmidt - Google Boeken. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  8. ^ "Péquiste: definition of Péquiste in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)". 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Cameron I. Crouch (10 September 2009). Managing Terrorism and Insurgency: Regeneration, Recruitment and Attrition. Routledge. p. 51.  
  11. ^ [4]
  12. ^ Seymour Martin Lipset; Rafael Gomez; Ivan Katchanovski (2004). The paradox of American unionism: Why Americans like unions more than Canadians do, but join much less. Cornell University Press. p. 63.  
  13. ^ Alvin Finkel (1 April 1997). Our Lives: Canada After 1945. James Lorimer & Company. p. 200.  
  14. ^ Nelson Wiseman (2007). In Search of Canadian Political Culture. UBC Press. p. 176.  
  15. ^
  16. ^ "Bernard Landry quits as Parti Québécois leader". 5 May 2005. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  17. ^ Hébert, Chantal (27 March 2007). "PQ fails miserably to rally sovereignists". The Star (Toronto). Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  18. ^ Mason, Christopher (8 May 2007). "Quebec Separatist Leader Resigns". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  19. ^ "PQ left reeling after three top members of Quebec sovereigntist party quit".  
  20. ^ Philip Authier (3 April 2012). "Parti Québécois leader Pauline Marois welcomes MNA Louise Beaudoin back into the fold".  
  21. ^ "Pauline Marois resigns as PQ leader after crushing defeat". CTV News. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "PQ elects Stephane Bedard to interim leader post". CTV News. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  23. ^ Vendeville, Geoffrey (21 October 2014). "CAQ holds the fort in Lévis byelection".  
  24. ^ Authier, Philip (27 November 2014). "Pierre Karl Péladeau joins the PQ leadership race".  
  25. ^ Authier, Philip (22 April 2015). "Drainville drops out of PQ race after concluding the troops want PKP".  
  26. ^ Authier, Philip (14 May 2015). "After long campaign, fate of new PQ leader in the hands of party members".  
  27. ^ "Pierre Karl Peladeau elected leader of Parti Quebecois".  
  28. ^ Don, Macpherson. "Mario Beaulieu’s victory shows the Bloc’s irrelevance".  
  29. ^ "Les députés bloquistes lancent un appel au calme".  
  30. ^ Gagnon, Lysiane (18 June 2014). "Will the Bloc Self-Destruct?".  
  31. ^ "Archives de Radio-Canada: Fondation du Parti québécois". 8 May 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  32. ^ Fidler, Richard (2011-06-07). "Life on the Left: Behind those resignations from the Parti Québécois". Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  33. ^ Dougherty, Kevin (15 October 2012). "France’s president embraces traditional “ni, niâ€?’ stance on Quebec’s future". Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  34. ^ "Parti Quebecois Premier Pauline Marois tears a strip off Harper's foreign policy". Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  35. ^ " National". Globe and Mail (Toronto). Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. 
  36. ^ "Letter: Marois telling France what to do". Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  37. ^ "PQ leader defends citizenship plan". 21 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  38. ^ "William Johnson: Hard truths for separatists | National Post". Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Conseil national - Le PQ ne profite pas de l'impopularité de Jean Charest". Retrieved 12 February 2005. 


  • Lévesque, Michel and Pelletier, Martin (Sept. 2007). Le Parti québécois : bibliographie 1968–2007, Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale du Québec, 244 pages
  • Dubuc, Pierre (2003). L'autre histoire de l'indépendance : de Pierre Vallières à Charles Gagnon, de Claude Morin à Paul Desmarais, Trois-Pistoles: Éditions Trois-Pistoles, 288 pages ISBN 2-89583-076-2
  • Fraser, Graham (2001). René Lévesque & the Parti Québécois in Power, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 434 pages ISBN 0-7735-2310-3 [First Ed. Toronto: Macmillan, 1984]
  • Godin, Pierre (1997). René Lévesque, Héros malgré lui, Éditions Boréal ISBN 2-89052-833-2
  • Lévesque, René (1986). Memoirs, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 368 pages ISBN 0-7710-5285-5 [translated by Philip Stratford]
  • Montreal Gazette, 15 October 2012.

External links

  • Official website
  • Parti québécois' parliamentary group website (archived)
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