World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Overview of gun laws by nation

Article Id: WHEBN0000012686
Reproduction Date:

Title: Overview of gun laws by nation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Firearm legislation in South Africa, Gun control after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Gun legislation in Germany, Gun politics in Brazil, Gun politics in Canada
Collection: Firearm Laws, Gun Politics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Overview of gun laws by nation

i_74" title="Firearms license">firearms license in a common format that allows citizens of the European Union (EU) to travel with one or more firearm(s) mentioned on the license from one Member State to another. For certain purposes other documentation may be required, depending on the current states' laws and the reason for the movement; a transfer may be temporary (for a competition) or permanent (on a sale).

Generally, a person with valid European Firearms Pass traveling to or through other Member States must inform the concerned Member States of particulars regarding the journey and firearm, after which he may be granted an approval.[20] Exception to this rule are hunters (regarding firearms in category C and D) and marksmen (B, C & D), who may be in possession of one or more firearms during journey with view to their activities, provided that they are in possession of a European firearms pass listing such firearm or firearms and provided that they are able to substantiate the reasons for their journey, in particular by producing an invitation. That, however, does not apply to journey through Member States that have more stringent laws and generally prohibit such firearms within their territory.[21]

The Directive recognizes the following four categories of firearms and ammunition:

Firearm category Designation Minimum standard required
Category A
- Prohibited firearms
1. Explosive military missiles and launchers.
2. Automatic firearms.
3. Firearms disguised as other objects.
4. Ammunition with penetrating, explosive or incendiary projectiles, and the projectiles for such ammunition.
5. Pistol and revolver ammunition with expanding projectiles and the projectiles for such ammunition, except in the case of weapons for hunting or for target shooting, for persons entitled to use them.
In general, the firearms are prohibited, authorization to acquire and possess may be possible only in special cases.[22]
Category B
- Firearms subject to authorization
1. Semi-automatic or repeating short firearms.
2. Single-shot short firearms with centre-fire percussion.
3. Single-shot short firearms with rimfire percussion whose overall length is less than 28 cm.
4. Semi-automatic long firearms whose magazine and chamber can together hold more than three rounds.
5. Semi-automatic long firearms whose magazine and chamber cannot together hold more than three rounds, where the loading device is removable or where it is not certain that the weapon cannot be converted, with ordinary tools, into a weapon whose magazine and chamber can together hold more than three rounds.
6. Repeating and semi-automatic long firearms with smooth-bore barrels not exceeding 60 cm in length.
7. Semi-automatic firearms for civilian use which resemble weapons with automatic mechanisms.
Acquisition and possession allowed only
  • to persons who have good cause, are older than 18 (or younger in case of hunters and sport shooters) and are not likely to be a danger to themselves, to public order or to public safety.[19]
  • subject to prior authorization.[23]
Category C
- Firearms subject to declaration
1. Repeating long firearms other than those listed in category B, point 6.
2. Long firearms with single-shot rifled barrels.
3. Semi-automatic long firearms other than those in category B, points 4 to 7.
4. Single-shot short firearms with rimfire percussion whose overall length is not less than 28 cm.
Acquisition and possession allowed only
  • to persons who have good cause, are older than 18 (or younger in case of hunters and sport shooters) and are not likely to be a danger to themselves, to public order or to public safety and[19]
  • subject to registration.[24]
Category D
- Other firearms
Single-shot long firearms with smooth-bore barrels. Acquisition and possession allowed only to persons older than 18.[19]

Since the Member States are bound to meet only the minimum requirements set by the Directive, the gun politics vary from one to another:


Guns are currently divided into five categories:
  • Category A - Forbidden weapons and military weapons
    • Military weapons:
      • automatic Weapons
      • semi automatic rifles, except a couple of hunting and sporting rifles
    • Forbidden weapons:
      • firearms disguised as other objects,
      • fast collapsible, shortenable or demountable weapons,
      • shotguns with an overall length under 90 cm and/or a barrel length under 45 cm,
      • silencers
      • weaponlights for rifles
      • brass knuckles
      • Totschläger (translation missing) (a flexible baton with a metal ball at the end)
      • Stahlruten (translation missing) (a slightly flexable baton)
Licenses to own category A weapons are available but rare, for example pre-ban grandfathered pump action shotguns - these are then added like normal category B weapons to the Waffenpass/Waffenbesitzkarte. Carrying permits for this kind of weapons are super rare.
  • Category B - Weapons requiring permission: Semi automatic long weapons for sporting and hunting, repeating (non-pump action) and semi automatic shotguns and weapons shorter than 60 cm in overall length (for example pistols and revolvers, but also bolt/lever/pump action rifles under 60 cm overall length). Semi automatic long weapon models are required to be verified as civilian-legal before this category applies to them, otherwise they are considered category A. A permission can either be a hunting license, gun ownership license ("Waffenbesitzkarte", for sporting, collecting and self-defense at home or work) or a carry permit ("Waffenpass", for carrying a loaded weapon outside of the owner's home or workplace), with the ownership license being the most common way to category B gun ownership.
  • Category C - Weapons requiring registration: Break action rifles and all repeating rifles (i.e. bolt-, lever- or pump action). All Austrian citizens aged 18 or over can freely buy and own this type of weapon, but ownership has to be registered at a licensed dealer or gunsmith within 6 weeks of purchase (Typically, if bought in a store, the store registers them after doing the required background check).
  • Category D - other Weapons: Break action shotguns. All Austrian citizens aged 18 or over can freely buy and own this type of weapon, but ownership has to be registered at a licensed dealer or gunsmith within 6 weeks of purchase (Typically, if bought in a store, the store registers them after doing the required background check).
  • less effective weapons - Weapons with matchlock, wheellock, flintlock ignition, single shot percussion guns, guns made before 1871, air and co²-guns. All Austrian citizens aged 18 or over can freely buy and own this type of weapon without any registration.


The Republic of Cyprus has strict gun control. Private citizens are completely forbidden from owning handguns and rifles in any calber, even .22 rimfire. Only shotguns are allowed, and these require a license. Shotguns are limited to two rounds. The only shotguns typically sold in stores are double-barreled side-by-sides or over-unders. Pump actions and semiautomatics are prohibited.
A private citizen can own a total of ten different shotguns. A citizen is not required to specify a reason for ownership to obtain a license, but most own their guns for hunting. Licenses are issued by provincial police. A gun license is required to buy ammunition, and ammunition sales are recorded. A shotgun owner may purchase up to 250 shells at one time. Cyprus also controls airguns, and airgun owners require a license.[25]

Czech Republic

While in other EU states the most common firearms are usually long hunting rifles, the most common gun in the Czech Republic is ČZ 75.[26]
Gun ownership in the Czech Republic is regulated by gun laws adhering to the European Firearms Directive. The law allows the acquisition and possession of firearms to persons who are not likely to be a danger to themselves, to public order or to public safety and have good cause; self defense is also considered to be a good cause. Generally, a firearm licence in the Czech Republic is available to anybody above statutory age with a clean criminal history who passes reliability check (e.g. no proven alcohol/drug abuse, no repeated offences related to firearms, intoxication, public order, violence, fishing or hunting) , tests about firearms legislation, weapon knowledge and first aid, and a medical inspection (which may optionally include psychological test). The Czech Republic is as a shall issue country.
For ownership of weapons categories A (Prohibited firearms), B (Firearms subject to authorization) and C (Firearms subject to declaration) a firearm licence is needed. Moreover for purchase of each weapon category A or B a police issued purchase permit is required prior the purchase. Purchase of category A firearm requires police issued exception, such exception is very rare and good cause for purchase of such prohibited firearm is required by law. Silencers, gun sights constructed on the principle of night vision devices, and laser sights are prohibited (classified as category A firearms).
After the purchase a registration of the firearm category A, B or C with the police is mandatory.
Gun ownership for self-defense purposes is acceptable. Unlike most European countries the Czech gun laws allow its citizens to carry a concealed firearm without the need to prove a specific reason. For self-defense purposes by private citizens only FMJ and soft point ammo is legal in handguns. Number of firearms owned by a single citizen is not limited, however one person may at one time carry no more than two concealed weapons. Safe storage rules are defined by the law and the requirements on storage depend on the number of firearms stored and/or amount of ammo stored.
Sport shooting is the third most widespread sport in the country (after football (soccer) and ice hockey).


The ownership and use of firearms in Finland is regulated by the country's Firearms Act of 1998. Weapons are individually licensed by local police forces, there is no limit on the number of licenses an individual may hold. Licenses are granted for recreational uses, exhibition or (under certain circumstances) professional use.
With the exception of law enforcement, only specially trained security guards may carry loaded weapons in public. There is almost no regulation of air rifles or crossbows, except that it is illegal to carry or fire them in public. Guns are divided into 13 firearms categories and four action categories; some of which are limited. Fully automatic weapons, rockets and cannons (so called "destructive" weapons), for example, are generally not permitted.
In November 2007 Finland updated their gun laws, pre-empting a new EU directive prohibiting the carrying of firearms by under-18's by removing the ability of 15- to 18-year-olds to carry hunting rifles under parental guidance. In 2011, after controversial high school shootings in 2008 prompted government review, a constitutional law committee concluded that people over the age of 20 can receive a permit for semiautomatic handguns. Though individuals have to show a continuous activity in a handguns sporting for last two years before they can have a license for their own gun.


In France, to buy a firearm, a hunting license or a shooting sport license is necessary. All semi-automatic rifles with a capacity greater than 3 rounds, all handguns and all rifles chambered in 'military' calibers, including bolt action, require permits. These are known as B1, B2 and B4 type permits. Firearms are divided into eight categories that determine the regulations that apply to their possession and use. France also sets limits on the number of cartridges that can be kept at home (1000 rounds per gun).
The total number of firearms owned by an individual is also subject to limits (not possible to have more than 12 authorizations/permits on B1, B2 and B4 type firearms).[27] As of September 2013 France has a capacity limit of 20 rounds for handguns,[28] one needs a permit for category one semi-automatics that have a capacity greater than 3 rounds. Fully automatic firearms are illegal for civilian ownership.


Gun ownership in Germany is regulated by the Federal Weapons Act (German: Waffengesetz), 1972; it extends previous gun legislation. It is considered a restrictive law.[29] Under this act Germany maintains a two-tier policy to firearm ownership.
A firearms ownership license allows for the purchasing of weapons by those over the age of 21 who meet various competency/trustworthiness guidelines. Convicted felons, those with a mental disability or those deemed unreliable are denied licenses. To get a license issued it is also required to prove the necessity of owning a gun, while self-defense is not an accepted reason to own a gun. Owners of multiple firearms need separate ownership licenses for every single firearm they own. For shooters it is necessary to be a member of a shooting club for more than one year. Furthermore, within the last 12 months, 18 times a visit to a shooting club must be established.
The second tier is a firearms carry permit which allows concealed or open carry in public. The permits are usually only issued to individuals with a particular need; such as persons at risk, money couriers, etc.
The laws apply to any weapons with a fire energy exceeding 7.5 Joule.
Several weapons and special ammunitions are completely prohibited. To these belong for example automatic firearms and weapons of war, as well as weapons like Brass knuckles, Switchblades, Balisongs, Nunchakus or Tasers. Buying, possessing, lending, using, carrying, crafting, altering and trading of these weapons is illegal and punishable by up to five years imprisonment, confiscation of the weapon and a fine of up to 10,000. Using an illegal weapon for crime of any kind is punishable by from 1 to 10 years imprisonment.
Germany's National Gun Registry introduced at the end of 2012 counted 5.5 million firearms legally owned by 1.4 million people. (31. Dezember 2013) people in the country.[30]


Gun ownership in Hungary is regulated by Law 24/2004 and Law revision 13/2012.[31][32][33] Hungarian gun law is relatively strict:
In 2010, there were 129,000 registered gun owners (1.3% of the population) in Hungary with 235,000 weapons. The majority of these are hunting guns and handguns for self-defense.
Gun violence is very rare in Hungary; one of the most tragic event took place at the University of Pécs in 2009, causing 1 death and two injured. It was the first and the only school shooting in the country's history. Hungarian Police use lethal weapons less than 10 times a year.[34]


Firearms generally require a firearms certificate (commonly referred to as a licence) in Ireland, though several exceptions to this (such as couriers transporting firearms or people shooting at authorised fairground stalls or shooting ranges with club-owned firearms) exist. To obtain a firearms certificate, applicants apply to either their local Garda Superintendent (for unrestricted firearms) or to their local Garda Chief Superintendent (for restricted firearms). The licencing person has three months in which to issue a grant or refusal of the certificate. If a licence is refused, the applicant may appeal the decision to the local District Court. If the licencing person grants an application, the applicant pays the certificate fee at their local Post Office and the certificate is mailed to them. The fee is eighty euro and the certificate lasts three years from the date of issue.

Irish firearms law is based on several Firearms Acts, each of which amends those Acts which were issued previously. The Firearms Act 1925,[35] laid the foundations of the system of licencing. Relatively small modifications were introduced in 1964,[36] 1968,[37] 1971,[38] 1990,[39] 1998[40] and 2000,[41] but the cumulative effect of even small modifications (along with modifications in other Acts and confusion over which amendments were commenced and which were not) was such that by 2006, the Irish Law Reform Commission recommended[42] that all the extant legislation be restated (a legal process by which all the existing primary and secondary legislation would be read as one and a single document produced as the new Firearms Act (and all prior Acts would be repealed)).

The introduction of the Criminal Justice Act 2006[43] however, contained an enormous rewrite of the Firearms Act, rewriting almost 80% of the Act. It was quickly followed by further amendments in 2007[44] and further major amendments in 2009,[45] exacerbating the legislative confusion. As of 2014, the Law Reform Commission recommendation still stands and has not as yet been fully acted upon; the Firearms Act consists of the initial 1925 Act amended by approximately twenty separate Acts and is well understood by only a handful of those directly involved in its drafting, amendment or usage. Extensive complaints have arisen over the application of the legislation, with several hundred judicial review cases won in the High Court and Supreme Court by firearms owners, all relating to licencing decisions where the licencee held that the licencing person had not adhered to the Firearms Act.

As of 2014, this confusion persists and further cases continue to be brought before the courts.


In Italy different types of gun licenses can be obtained from the national police authorities. Gun usage is restricted to people over the age of 18. There are 3 licenses that allow individuals to own firearms: Hunting license; Shooting Sports license; and Concealed Carry license.
A shooting sports license allows the licensee to transport his/her weapon all throughout the national territory to use it in designated shooting ranges; upon transportation, said guns must be stored in a locked case and unloaded. The hunting license allows holders to engage in hunting with firearms, while to obtain a concealed carry license, a person has to prove that there exists a real "threat to life". This can be, for example, having been shot already.
The number of guns an individual may own and retain in their home is restricted by a classification: three common handguns, six sporting handguns/long guns, and an unlimited number of hunting long guns. Purchase of any gun and ammunition is allowed only to individuals issued with a gun license of any sort.

The Netherlands

In The Netherlands, gun ownership is restricted to law enforcement, hunters, and target shooters. Self-defense is not a valid reason to own guns. To obtain a hunting license one must pass a hunters safety course. To get one for target shooting, one must be a member of a shooting club for a year. People with felonies, drug addictions, and mental illnesses may not possess any firearms.
Once obtained, firearms must be stored in a safe. Firearms may only be used in self-defense as "equal force". Police will come once a year to inspect your guns. Fully automatic guns are banned, however there are little restrictions on types of guns one may own besides that. Semi-automatics, handguns, and magazines of all sizes are legal, as are all types of ammo. A licensed gun owner may only have five firearms registered to his or her license at one time.


Gun ownership in Poland is regulated by the Weapons and Munitions Act. A license is required to keep and purchase firearms. As a result of very strict controls, gun ownership in Poland is the lowest in the European Union, at one firearm per 100 citizens.[46] In order to get a gun license, one must:
  • Prove they are not endangering themselves nor general public by passing a psychological evaluation;
  • Display that they have clean criminal record;
  • Give a valid reason for wanting to own a gun, such as sport shooting or hunting. If the reason is self-defense, one must demonstrate why he believes his life is in danger;
  • Pass an exam in proper weapon handling (not required for members of PZSS and PZŁ).
The psychological evaluation must be repeated every 5 years. Some other weapons, such as crossbows, require the same license as is required for firearms.

There is no requirement of firearms license for:

  • Separate loading weapons constructed before 1885 or repilcas of that weapons
  • Weapons collected in museal collections (others regulations)
  • Professional weapons dealers (separate concession needed)
  • Gunsmiths (regulated by other laws)
  • Handheld incapacitating gas throwers
  • Weapons with shooting ability permanently removed
  • Starting pistol or other handgun, that could fire only 6mm (or less) caliber blank cartridges


Gun ownership in Romania is regulated by Law 39/2004. Romania has one of the toughest gun ownership laws in the world.[47] In order for citizens to obtain a non-lethal weapon, they must obtain a permit from the police, and must register their weapon once they purchased it. Civilians cannot purchase a lethal firearm. The only categories of people who are legally entitled to carry a weapon are magistrates, MPs military forces and certain categories of diplomats. A psychological evaluation is required beforehand in all cases. Furthermore, knives with a blade longer than 15 cm are considered weapons and have a similar regime to those of firearms.[48]
In order for a hunter to obtain a hunting/gun ownership license, he must spend a certain "practice time" with a professional hunter.
Minors (15 and older) may also use a weapon, provided that they are under the supervision of someone who has a gun license. However, they cannot own or carry one until the age of 18.[49]
The use of guns for self-defense is only allowed if the gun is a last resort option.[50]


Gun ownership in Slovakia is regulated principally by law 190/2003.[51] A gun license is necessary to purchase most firearms. Air guns with muzzle energy up to 15 J, gas pistols and non-repeating muzzle-loaded guns are available to anybody above 18 without permission. Fully automatic guns, sound supressors and hollow-point bullets (when used for self-defense) are forbidden.
A gun licence can be issued for 6 categories of possession (A - carrying for defense, B - possession at home for defense, C - gun-holding for work purposes, D - long guns for hunting, E - gun holding for sport shooting, F - guns collecting).
Generally one must be at least 21 years old, free of a criminal history, and of sound health of mind and body to apply for a gun license, which is then issued after passing an oral exam covering aspects of gun law, safe handling, first-aid, etc. The license allowing carrying for self-defense is only issued if the police deem a sufficient justification exists—examples of such justifications include being a business owner (including those self-employed), handling money in connection with business, etc. 2% of the adult Slovak population holds a license allowing for concealed carry.[52]


Regardless of the reason, before applying for a gun permit one must receive a medical exam and a test on the knowledge of weapons. When keeping weapons at home the gun must be stored in a locked cabinet with ammunition stored in a separate location[53]



Gun ownership requires license and is regulated by the weapon law (Vapenlagen 1996:67)[54] further regulations are found in weapon decree (Vapenförordningen 1996:70)[55] and FAP 551-3 - RPSFS 2009:13 "Rikspolisstyrelsens föreskrifter och allmänna råd om vapenlagstiftningen".[56]

The law doesn't ban any specific firearms or weapons, it merely states the requirements to own one. Everything from pepperspray to fully automatic machine guns are technically legal, and licenses to civilians can be given in "special" cases. Like the other Nordic countries, Sweden has a high rate of gun ownership.

The weapons law doesn't apply to air guns and similar with a projectile energy less than 10 joules at the end of barrel.[57] These require no license and may be bought by any person over 18 years. Firearms manufactured before 1890 and not using gas-tight unit cartridges are exempt as well.[58]

The gun license is obtained from the Police, and one must be in good standing and at least 18 years old, but exceptions regarding age can be made. To apply, one must either be a member in an approved shooting club for at least six months or pass a hunting examination (jägarexamen). The former is mostly used to legally acquire pistols for sport shooting and the latter for hunting rifles and shotguns. A gun registered for sport-shooting may not be used in hunting. You are allowed to hunt without passing a hunting exam if you are chaperoned by someone that has passed the exam. The minimum age for taking a hunting exam is 15 years. A person under 18 years may not own a firearm him- or herself, unless an exception have been made. A person with a gun license may legally under supervision lend his or her gun to a person at least 15 years and older.

A person may be granted license to own up to six hunting rifles, ten pistols or a mix of eight rifles and pistols. Owning more firearms than this requires a valid reason. Firearms must be stored in an approved gun safe.

There is no specific permit for carrying guns. For civilians it's illegal to carry a firearm unless there is a specific, legal, purpose (hunting, going to range, etc.). The general guideline, for transport of firearms, is that the gun must be hidden and transported in a safe (unloaded etc.) and secure way (under supervision etc.). The laws and recommendations in how to transport weapons is found in "Rikspolisstyrelsens föreskrifter och allmänna råd om vapenlagstiftningen" (FAP 551-3 - RPSFS 2009:13)[54] and Vapenförordningen 1996:70.[55] A concealed carry permit can be obtained under very special circumstances, such as a proven and very real threat to one's life. Carrying a firearm in public is, otherwise, limited to law enforcement and specially trained security officers.

Another reason for gun ownership is collecting. A collector must have a clearly stated demarcation of the interest of the collection. To be a valid interest of collection it must be possible to obtain a complete collection, for example - Pre-World War II British handguns -. A collector may start a second (or more) collection if he or she has collected for several years and shown a great interest in gun history. If the collection holds guns of criminal interest, such as pistols or submachine guns, the police may demand a very high safety level on the keeping of the guns (such as security windows and vault doors). Collectors may also require a time limited permit in order to be allowed to fire their collectibles.

Guns can also be owned for affection value or as decoration. If ammunition for the guns are easy available, they have to be rendered inoperable.

Owning firearms is viewed as more of a privilege than a right.

United Kingdom

Gun ownership rates vary throughout the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland has a very high rate of gun ownership, one of the highest in the world, and has less restrictive laws than the rest of the UK. In contrast England and Wales have considerably lower rates and Scotland has the lowest in the United Kingdom. Private ownership of firearms is common in many rural areas of Britain.[59] The gun crime rate rose between 1997 and 2004 but has since slightly receded,[60] while the number of murders from gun crime has largely remained static over the past decade.[61]

Over the course of the 20th century, the UK gradually implemented tighter regulation of the civilian ownership of firearms through the enactment of the 1920, 1937, 1968, 1988(Amendment), and 1997 (Amendment) Firearms Acts and [62] leading to the outright ban on the ownership of all automatic, and most self-loading, firearms in the UK. The ownership of breech-loading handguns is, in particular, also very tightly controlled and effectively limited (other than in Northern Ireland)[63] to those persons who may require such a handgun for the non routine humane killing of injured or dangerous animals. In 2007, the number of deaths in Britain (population 60.7 million) from firearms was 51, and in 2008 it was 42, a 20-year low, with vast parts of the country recording no homicides, suicides or accidental deaths from firearms.[64]

Ownership of most types of firearm in the UK requires either a Shotgun Certificate (SGC) or a Firearm Certificate (FAC). Both of these are issued by local police after the applicant has met the required criteria. For a Shotgun Certificate the applicant need to demonstrate that they can securely store the firearms (usually a gun safe bolted to a solid wall), have no criminal convictions, no history of any medical condition or disability including alcohol and drug related conditions, no history of treatment for depression or any other kind of mental or nervous disorder, or epilepsy. Once a SGC is granted the person is free to purchase single shot, multi-barreled and repeating shotguns of lever action, pump action or semi-automatic with non detachable magazine that hold no more than 2 rounds of ammunition, plus one in the breech. There is no restriction on the number of shotguns that can be held on a SGC nor are there any restrictions on the amount of ammunition one can possess. The shotguns can be used wherever one has permission.

The criteria required for the grant of a Firearm certificate are far more stringent. Alongside safe storage requirements and checks on previous convictions and medical records, the applicant must also demonstrated a Good reason for each firearm they wish to hold (Good reason may include hunting, pest control, collecting or target shooting). Police may restrict the type and amount of ammunition held, and where and how the firearms are used.[65] Historically, most certificates approved for handguns listed "self-defence" as a reason. Since 1968 in mainland Britain, self-defence is not considered an acceptable "good reason" for firearm ownership (however use of a licensed firearm in self-defence is often justified provided that the victim can prove they used necessary and reasonable force). Only in Northern Ireland is self-defence still accepted as a reason. The police should not amend, revoke (even partially) or refuse an FAC without stating a valid reason. (Section 29(1) of the 1968 Act gives the chief officer power to vary, by a notice in writing, any such condition not prescribed by the rules made by the Secretary of State. The notice may require the holder to deliver the certificate to the chief officer within twenty one days for the purpose of amending the conditions. The certificate may be revoked if the holder fails to comply with such a requirement.)

Air rifles under 12 ft·lbf (16 J) and air pistols under 6 ft·lbf (8.1 J) can be purchased legally by anyone over the age of 18, and do not require a licence. Licensing is being discussed for all air weapons in Scotland.[66]

In England, Wales and Scotland, the private ownership of most handguns was banned in 1997 following a gun massacre at a school in Dunblane and a 1987 gun massacre in Hungerford in which the combined deaths was 35 and injured 30. Gun ownership and gun crime was already at a low level, which made these slaughters particularly concerning. Only an estimated 57,000 people —0.1% of the population owned such weapons prior to the ban.[67]

In the UK, only eight percent (8%) of all criminal homicides are committed with a firearm of any kind.[68] In 2005/6 the number of such deaths in England and Wales (population 53.3 million) was just 50, a reduction of 36 per cent on the year before and lower than at any time since 1998/9. In the years immediately after the ban, there was a temporary increase in gun crime, though this has since fallen back. The reason for the increase has not been investigated thoroughly but it is thought that three factors may have raised the number of guns in circulation. These are, the reduction in gun crime in Northern Ireland (which led to guns coming from there to the criminal black market in England); guns (official issue or confiscated) acquired by military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan; and guns coming from Eastern Europe after the fall of the Iron Curtain.

Firearm injuries in England and Wales also increased in this time.[69] In 2005-06, of 5,001 such injuries, 3,474 (69%) were defined as "slight," and a further 965 (19%) involved the "firearm" being used as a blunt instrument. Twenty-four percent of injuries were caused with air guns, and 32% with "imitation firearms" (including airsoft guns).[70] In 2007 the number of deaths in Britain (population 60.7 million) from firearms was 51, and in 2008 it was 42, a 20-year low, with vast parts of the country recording no homicides, suicides or accidental deaths from firearms.[64]


Gun laws in Honduras took official form under the Act on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Material of 2000, which sets limitations on what firearms and calibers are permitted and which are prohibited for civilian use.[71] In April 2002, the National Arms Registry was formed, requiring all citizens to register their firearms with the Ministry of Defense.[72]

In 2003, a ban on certain assault rifles was passed restricting citizens from possessing military-style rifles such as the AK-47 and the M-16, among other assault rifles.[73] In 2007, an additional decree suspended the right to openly carry a firearm in public as well as limiting the amount of firearms allowed per person.[74]

Hong Kong

Gun ownership in Hong Kong and Macau is tightly controlled and possession is mainly in the hands of law enforcement, military, and private security firms (providing protection for jewelers and banks). Still, possessing, manufacturing and import/exporting airsoft guns with a muzzle energy not above two joules of kinetic energy is legal to citizens in China's SARs. Under the Section 13 of Cap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance of the Hong Kong law, unrestricted firearms and ammunition requires a license,[75] and those found in possession without a license could be fined HKD$100,000 and imprisonment for up to 14 years.

A license is issued to people who aren't mentally ill or a felon after a rigorous process. Explosives and fully automatics are the only firearms that appear prohibited. Other firearms may be stored at home in a locked box, but ammunition must be kept on a different premise.[76]


The Arms Act of 1959 and the Arms Rules 1962 of India prohibits the sale, manufacture, possession, acquisition, import, export and transport of firearms and ammunition unless under a license and is a stringent process. Indian Government has monopoly over production and sale of firearms, however, Breech Loading Smooth Bore shotguns are exception to this rule, some manufacturers have been allowed to produce certain number of these.[77] The Arms Act classifies firearms into two categories: Prohibited Bore (PB) and Non-Prohibited Bore (NPB), where all semi-automatic and fully automatic firearms fall under the Prohibited Bore category. Any firearm which can chamber and fire ammunition of the caliber .303; 7.62mm; .410; .380; .455; .45 rimless; 9mm is specified as Prohibited Bore under The Arms Act of 1962. Smooth bore guns having barrel of less than 29" in length are also specified as Prohibited Bore guns.[78]

Before 1987, licenses for acquisition and possession of both PB and NPB firearms could be given by the state government or district magistrate but later, the issue of licenses for PB firearms became the responsibility of the central government. The license is valid of 3 years and needs to be renewed and this rule covers sale of firearms, both parties involved need to possess the permit.[79]

The criteria which are considered during the issue of NPB firearm permits are whether the person faces threat to life. These firearm licenses are strictly regulated; PB firearms criteria is even more stringent, applicable for a person, especially having a government position who faces immediate danger or threats, family members of such people and a person whose occupation by nature involves open threats and danger. Acquiring a PB license has become next to impossible as of 2014 because these are highly regulated. Persons eligible for PB licenses are also frequently rejected on basis of national security grounds.[80][81][82][83][84][85][86] Exceptions are, defense officers who are allowed to keep firearms without licenses under the Defense Service rule until they complete their service and for professional shooters.[79] The most common firearm among households is double barreled shotgun of 12 gauge (also known as DBBL 12 Bore). Other common firearms are .315 Bolt Action Rifle (magazine capacity of 5 cartridges) and .32 Smith&Wesson Long revolver (chamber capacity of 6 cartridges).[87]


In Indonesia, gun ownership can only be given to:

  • Private corporate officers in banking business, that are CEO (direktur utama) or president director(presiden direktur), members of board of directors and CFO(direktur keuangan)
  • Government official, that are ministers, Member of People's Consultative Assembly and of the People's Representative council, Secretary-General, Inspector-General, Director-General, cabinet secretary, governor, vice governors, Secretary of regional district, inspector of the province, Speakers of Indonesian representative council at the provincial level
  • Active and retired Military and Police personnel.[88]


Citizens are allowed to have a selective fire AK-47 for home protection with limited ammunition.


Possession of firearms is generally illegal for common citizens. However, carrying a hunting rifle is allowed with permit. A person over 18, who has completed military service, may acquire a hunting rifle permit if he passes a security check and a background check and attends a gun education course. Illegal possession of a gun is punishable by prison terms of 6 months to 2 years for non-automatic guns and 2 to 5 years for automatic guns.


A firearms license is required to own firearms and air pistols and rifles. Soldiers are generally allowed to carry their personal weapons and ammunition together while on furlough during active service, uniformed or in civilian clothing. Self-defense firearms may be carried in public, concealed or openly, together with ammunition, without needing any additional permits.

To obtain a gun license, an applicant must be a resident of Israel for at least three consecutive years, have no criminal record, be in good health, have no history of mental illness, pass a weapons-training course, and be over a certain age:

  • 20 for women who completed military service or civil service equivalent
  • 21 for men who completed military service or civil service equivalent
  • 27 for those who did not complete military service or civil service equivalent
  • 45 for residents of East Jerusalem.

Gun licenses must be renewed every three years and permits are given only for personal use, not for business in the firearms sale while holders for self-defense purposes may own only one handgun, and may purchase a maximum of fifty rounds a year, except for those shot at firing ranges.

The list of below personnel are eligible for licenses allowing them to possess firearms:

  • Israel Defense Forces officers honorably discharged with the rank of non-commissioned officer
  • Reservists honorably discharged with the rank of regimental commander
  • Ex–special forces enlisted men
  • Retired police officers with the rank of sergeant
  • Retired prison guards with the rank of squadron commander
  • Licensed public transportation drivers transporting a minimum of five people
  • Full-time dealers of jewellery or large sums of cash or valuables
  • Civil Guard volunteers
  • Residents of militarily strategic buffer zones considered essential to state security
    • Such personnel are allowed to possess one handgun.
  • Reservists honorably discharged with the rank of regimental commander are also eligible for licences allowing them to possess one rifle.
  • Licensed hunters may possess one shotgun
  • Licensed animal-control officers are allowed to possess two rifles
  • Civil Guard snipers may possess one rifle.

In addition to private licenses of firearms, organizations can issue carry licenses to their members for activity related to that organization (e.g. security companies, shooting clubs, other workplaces).

Members of officially recognized shooting clubs (practical shooting, Olympic shooting) are eligible for personal licenses allowing them to possess additional firearms (small bore rifles, handguns, air rifles, and air pistols) after demonstrating a need and fulfilling minimum membership time and activity requirements. Unlicensed individuals are allowed supervised use of pistols at firing ranges.

In 2005, there were 236,879 private citizens and 154,000 security guards licensed to carry firearms. Another 34,000 Israelis who were previously licensed own guns illegally due to their failure to renew their gun license.[89][90] In 2007, there were estimated to be 500,000 civilian licensed guns in Israel, in addition to 1,757,500 in the military, and 26,040 in the police.[91][92]

To legally own a gun as a souvenir, prize, inheritance, or award of appreciation from the military, an individual must first present proper documentation that they are about to receive it. Permits for gun collectors are extremely rare, and typically only given to ex-high-ranking officers.


Violent crime accelerated in Jamaica after handguns were heavily restricted and a special Gun Court established.[93] However, a high proportion of the illegal guns in Jamaica can be attributed to guns smuggled in from other countries.[94]


During the Tokugawa period in Japan, starting in the 17th century, the government imposed very restrictive controls on the small number of gunsmiths in the nation, thereby ensuring the almost total prohibition of firearms.[95] Japan, in the postwar period, has had gun regulation which is strict in principle. Gun licensing is required, and is heavily regulated by the National Police Agency of Japan.

The weapons law begins by stating "No one shall possess a firearm or firearms or a sword or swords", and very few exceptions are allowed.[96] However, citizens are permitted to possess firearms for hunting and sport shooting, but only after submitting to a lengthy licensing procedure.[97]


It is illegal in Kenya to own any type of firearm without a valid gun ownership license as spelled out under the Firearms Act (Cap. 114) Laws of Kenya. Anyone who is 12 years or older can apply to privately own a gun. However, such persons must provide in writing to the Chief Licensing Officer (CLO) stating genuine reason(s) for their need to privately own and carry a firearm. It remains at the discretion of the CLO to make a decision to award, deny or revoke a gun ownership license based on the reason(s) given.

Anyone seeking to hold a gun license must pass the most stringent of background checks that probes into their past and present criminal, mental health and well as domestic violence records. Failure to pass one of these checks automatically bars one from being permitted to own a firearm. These checks are regularly repeated and must be continually passed for anyone to continue holding the gun license. Failure to pass any of these checks at any stage, means an automatic and immediate revocation of the issued license. Once licensed to own a gun, no permit is required in order to carry around a concealed firearm.


Mexican citizens and legal residents may purchase new non-military firearms for self-protection or hunting only after receiving approval of a petition to the Defense Ministry, which performs extensive background checks. The allowed weapons are restricted to relatively small calibers and may only be purchased legally from the Defense Ministry.

Possession of non-military firearms is regulated by Mexican federal law. Pistols are restricted to calibres up to .380 (9mm short), including .38 Special and .38 Super. Revolvers are also allowed in calibers up to .38 special excluding .357 Magnum. Shotguns up to 12 gauge and rifles up to .30 caliber are allowed for hunting and sporting. "Military" firearms, including pistols with bores exceeding .38 caliber, and BB guns (but not pellet guns) require federal licenses and are regulated in a manner similar to that dictated by the U.S. National Firearms Act (NFA). Generally, non-military firearms may be kept at home, but a license is required to carry them outside the home.

President Felipe Calderón has called attention to the alleged problem of the smuggling of guns from the United States into Mexico and has called for increased cooperation from the United States to stop this illegal weapons trafficking.[98][99] A 2009 GAO report is commonly cited as saying 90% of seized guns in Mexico were traced to the US. However, deeper analysis of the numbers shows that 30,000 firearms were seized, of those 7,200 were submitted to the ATF for tracing, 4,000 were traceable, and of those 3,480 came from the US.[100]

New Zealand

New Zealand's gun laws are notably more liberal than other countries in the Pacific, focusing mainly on vetting firearm owners, rather than registering firearms or banning certain types of firearms. Firearms legislation is provided for in the Arms Act and its associated regulations.

Firearms in New Zealand fall into one of four categories:

Registration is not required for "A Category" firearms, but firearms in any other category require both registration and a "permit to procure" before they are transferred.

Except under supervision of a licence holder, owning or using firearms requires a firearms licence from the police. The licence is normally issued, under the conditions that the applicant has secure storage for firearms, studies the Arms Code and attends a safety lecture and passes a written test. The police will also interview the applicant and two references (one must be a close relative and the other not related) to determine whether the applicant is "fit and proper" to have a firearm. The applicants residence is also visited to check that they have appropriate storage for firearms and ammunition. Having criminal associations or a history of domestic violence, mental instability, alcohol or drug abuse almost always lead to a licence being declined. Misbehaviour involving firearms e.g. being on private land without permission, commonly leads to the license being revoked by the Police.

A standard firearms license allows the use of "A Category" firearms. To possess firearms of another category they are required to get an endorsement to their licence. There are different endorsements for different classes of firearm but they all require a higher level of storage security, stricter vetting requirements and the applicant must have a 'special reason' for wanting the endorsement.

Generally air guns and paintball markers can be purchased by anybody over 16 (with a license) and unlicensed and unrestricted to persons over 18. However as a result of technology improvements a firearms license is now required to purchase high-powered Pre Charged Pneumatic (PCP) air guns (from October 2010).

Even when licensed, a person may only be in possession of a firearm for a particular lawful, proper and sufficient purpose. Self-defence is specifically excluded from being a proper purpose which needs to be a reason such as travelling to and from a range, on a hunting trip, working as a pest exterminator or if you are a member of the military or police. Even officers of the New Zealand Police force rarely carry a pistol on their person. Instead, firearms, usually one or two pistols, shotgun and an AR-15 style weapon are carried in squad cars, locked in a secure mount.

North Korea

North Korea strictly prohibits the use, ownership, manufacture, or distribution of firearms by any citizen not serving in the military or special sectors of the government "executing official duties." Anyone in violation of firearms laws are subject to "stern consequences."

According to experts, gun laws were tightened by the late Kim Jong Il towards the end of his reign in an act to ensure control of society and maintain order for the eventual succession of his son Kim Jong Un.[101]


Firearms in Norway are regulated by the Firearm Weapons Act,[102] with a new secondary law in effect 1 July 2009 providing more detailed regulation.[103]


Pakistan has relatively liberal firearm laws compared to the rest of South Asia. In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Pakistan ranks in 6th place. Laws regulate the carrying of weapons in public in most urban areas. Private guns are prohibited in educational institutions, hostels or boarding and lodging houses, fairs, gatherings or processions of a political, religious, ceremonial or sectarian character, and on the premises of Courts of law or public offices.[104] Gun culture is strong among Pakistanis and traditionally important part of rural and urban life.


Only Russian citizens who are over eighteen years of age can own civilian firearms. Guns may be acquired for self-defense, hunting or sports activities only. Russian citizens can buy smooth-bore long-barreled firearms and pneumatic weapons with a muzzle energy of up to 25 joules. An individual cannot possess more than ten guns unless part of a registered gun collection, guns that shoot in bursts and have more than a ten-cartridge capacity are prohibited.

Carrying permits are issued for hunting firearms licensed for hunting purposes. People who acquire firearms for the first time are required to attend six and a half hours of classes on handling guns safely and must pass federal tests on safety rules and a background check.[105] Gun licenses are for five years and can be renewed.

Saudi Arabia

To obtain a firearms license, the person must be a citizen and provide a medical certificate given by a Psychologist. Then the Citizen must give reason for wanting to own whichever weapon they wish. After they follows the procedure within a week they are given the license or refused. After receiving the license they may go to a gun shop and purchase their firearm or reapply.


Citizens in Singapore must obtain a license to lawfully possess firearms and/or ammunition; applicants must provide justification for the license, such as target shooting or self-defense. Target shooting licenses permit ownership of a gun, stored in an approved and protected firing range. Self-defense permits are nearly never granted, unless one can justify the 'imminent threat to life that cannot be reasonably removed'.

When a license is obtained there is no restriction on types of arms one may own.[106][107][108]


Serbia has relatively liberal weapon laws compared to the rest of Europe. Serbia ranks in 2nd place on the List of countries by gun ownership. Gun culture is strong among Serbs and traditionally important part of rural life.

Weapons are regulated by "Weapons and Ammunition Law" (Zakon o oružju i municiji[109]). Rifles, shotguns and handguns are all allowed to civilians. Handgun ownership is allowed, but the licensing is strict. Concealed carry permits are available to approved handgun owners, but are extremely hard to obtain - one has to prove to the police that his or her life is in imminent danger, and even then, license is far from guaranteed.

In essence, people over 18 are allowed to own guns, but must be issued a permit. People with criminal history, mental disorders, history of alcohol and illegal substance abuse, cannot be issued a permit. There is a thorough background check prior to license approval. Police have the last word on the matter, and there is no court appeal possible. When at home, the guns must be kept in a "safe place", and owner irresponsibility could lead to gun confiscation by police.

Fully automatic weapons and non-lethal self-defense devices are prohibited. Number of guns that may be owned is not limited. Every gun transaction is recorded by police. There is no rifle caliber restriction (Must be smaller than .50BMG, however). Rifle and handgun ammunition is severely restricted, there is a 60 round limit per rifle, per year, except rounds shot at ranges. Shotgun ammo is unrestricted and shell reloading is allowed, but rifle and handgun ammo reloading is not. There is growing pressure, especially from sport shooters associations, to change the law in this regard.

Serbia has its own civilian gun and ammunition industry. Zastava Arms,[110] Prvi Partizan[111] and Krušik[112] export internationally.

South Africa

South Korea

South Korea has one of the most restrictive gun policies in the world. Hunting and sporting licenses are issued, but any firearm used in these circumstances must be stored at a local police station. Violation of firearms law can result in a $(US)18,000 fine and up to 10 years in prison.

Despite the strict regulations, the vast majority of South Korean males are well trained in the use of firearms, due to the mandatory military service required of all male citizens.[113]


Gun possession in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe, in part because of an unusual practice of allowing men to keep their service weapon (but not its ammunition issued by the government) in safe store at home. The Swiss have universal conscription for military service.[114] A recent referendum on a call to force the weapons to be kept at military sites was defeated.[115] However weapons may voluntarily be kept in the local armory and there is no longer an obligation to keep the weapon at home.

Swiss gun laws are considered to be restrictive.[116] The Swiss "Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions" of 20 June 1997, has as its objectives (Art 1) to combat the wrongful use of arms, their accessories, parts and ammunition. It governs the acquisition of arms, their introduction into Swiss territory, export, storage, possession, carrying, transport, brokerage. It regulates the manufacture and trade in arms, and seeks to prevent the wrongful carrying of ammunition and dangerous objects. Article 3 states that "The right to acquire, possess and carry arms is guaranteed in the framework of this law".[117]


A license is needed to own firearms and a reason must be provided such as target shooting or hunting. A license may not be issued to anyone who is a repeat offender or mentally unstable.

Fully automatic firearms and explosive devices are prohibited. A Semi-Automatic centerfire gun with a barrel larger than 16 cm are prohibited except for Shotguns . All other types of firearms are permitted under license. A person is also not allowed to carry their gun without an additional permit for concealed carry.[118]


Citizens are permitted to own non-fully automatic rifles and shotguns as long as they are stored properly when not in use. Handguns are illegal except for target shooting and those who hold concealed carry permits. Handguns are only allowed in .22, 9mm, .357mag and .38 calibre.

A license is required to own firearms, and a citizen may be issued a license if that person:

  • is 21 years of age (18 if the license is for hunting) for shotguns;
  • is 25 years of age for rifles;
  • has no criminal record;
  • has no history of domestic violence;
  • has no mental illness or history of mental illness; and
  • has good reason (target shooting, hunting, collection).

Concealed carry licenses are available, but are not normally issued unless a threat to life is present and can be proven.[119]

Once a license is issued, all guns must be kept unloaded and in a safe. If a person owns more than three firearms, the safe must have an alarm on it.

United States

Ownership of most types of firearms is allowed by citizens except criminals and the mentally ill. The right to keep and bear arms is outlined in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Most States' constitutions also have an enumeration of the right to keep and bear arms, with most explicitly affirming that it is a right retained by each person or individual.

In addition, the carrying of holstered handguns, long guns (rifles/shotguns), or concealed weapons is either a non-prohibited act or is explicitly allowed in most states (except New York, New Jersey, California, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, and Delaware, in which the government reserves the right to issue at will permits for the concealed carrying of weapons) except for a small set of prohibitions like mental illness, convicted felon, etc.[120] Regulation regarding the purchase process, type of firearms allowed, and purchase of ammunition varies from state to state.


Gun laws in Vietnam are generally referred to as restrictive.

The only type of weapon Vietnamese citizens may own is a shotgun, and this is only after a license has been issued. The individual applying for the license must provide valid reasoning for wanting the shotgun such as hunting, and must be at least 18 years of age.

Handguns and automatic weapons are prohibited.[121]

See also


  1. ^ "RENAR". RENAR. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  2. ^ AS/COA . Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "RENAR permits". RENAR. 
  4. ^ "Classification of firearms". RENAR. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "In Other Countries, Gun Laws Are Strict and Work". The New York Times. 17 December 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Brazilians reject gun sales ban". BBCNEWS. 24 October 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2008. 
  7. ^ a b Hearn, Kelly (5 October 2005). "The NRA Takes on Gun Control– in Brazil". Alternet. Retrieved 17 June 2008. 
  8. ^ "Brazil — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law". Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  9. ^ RCMP. "Licensing: Canadian Firearms Program". Government of Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  10. ^ RCMP. "List of Non-Restricted, Restricted, and Prohibited Firearms". Government of Canada. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  11. ^ "UNODC Homicide Statistics". 
  12. ^ "Canada - Gun Facts, Figures and the Law". 
  13. ^ "中华人民共和国枪支管理法 (Firearm Administration Law of the People's Republic of China)". 
  14. ^ "中华人民共和国猎枪弹具管理办法 (Hunting Firearm, Ammunition and Equipment Administration Regulation of the People's Republic of China)". 
  15. ^ "China Reiterates Stance on Gun Control". 
  16. ^ "PM gunning for a law change".  
  17. ^  
  18. ^ European Firearms Directive, Art. 3
  19. ^ a b c d European Firearms Directive, Art. 5
  20. ^ European Firearms Directive Art. 11
  21. ^ European Firearms Directive, Art. 12.
  22. ^ European Firearms Directive, Art. 6
  23. ^ European Firearms Directive, Art. 7
  24. ^ European Firearms Directive, Art. 8
  25. ^ Grupp, Larry (2011). The Worldwide Gun Owner's Guide. Scottsdale, Arizona: Bloomfield Press, 365pp.
  26. ^ Kyša, Leoš (January 28, 2011). "Počet legálně držených zbraní v Česku stoupá. Už jich je přes 700 tisíc [The number of legally owned firearms in the Czech Republic is increasing, there are already over 700 thousand of themr]" (in Czech). Retrieved January 28, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Guns in France". Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ "Germany — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law". International Firearms Injury Prevention & Policy. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  30. ^ "New German firearms registry shows 5.5 millions guns legally owned in country". Associated Press/Fox News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  31. ^ Complex Kiadó Kft. "Hungarian gun law, 24/2004 (Hungarian)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  32. ^ "Hungarian gun law revision, 13/2012 (Hungarian)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  33. ^ "Hungarian gun law, 24/2004 (English)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  34. ^ Független Hírügynökség (2011-04-17). "Fegyverbe magyar?". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  35. ^ 
  36. ^ 
  37. ^ 
  38. ^ 
  39. ^ 
  40. ^ 
  41. ^ 
  42. ^ 
  43. ^ 
  44. ^ 
  45. ^ 
  46. ^ "EU legislators push tougher gun controls - International Herald Tribune". Retrieved 20 January 2008. 
  47. ^ de Andrei Luca POPESCU. "EXCLUSIV. 20.000 de români s-au înarmat în 2011. Fostul şef de la Arme din Poliţie: "Ştii cât e valabil avizul psihologic? Până ieşi pe uşa cabinetului!" - Gandul". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  48. ^ Armă albă
  49. ^ "Legea 407 2006 vanatorii actualizata 2011". 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  50. ^
  51. ^ "Platné zákony a nariadenia". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  52. ^
  53. ^ "Uradni list Republike Slovenije". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  54. ^ a b "Svensk författningssamling 1996:67 Vapenlag (1996:67)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  55. ^ a b "Svensk författningssamling 1996:70 Vapenförordning (1996:70)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  56. ^
  57. ^ "Svensk författningssamling 1996:70 Vapenförordning (1996:70)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  58. ^ "Svensk författningssamling 1996:67 Vapenlag (1996:67)". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  59. ^ Cukier, Wendy; Antoine Chapdelaine, (April 2001). "Small Arms: A Major Public Health Hazard". Medicine & Global Survival (See Figure 2 Firearms possession and intentional firearm deaths) 7 (1). Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
  60. ^ Violent Crime Overview, Homicide and Gun Crime 2004/2005. Home Office. p. 72 (Fig 3.1). 
  61. ^ Violent Crime Overview, Homicide and Gun Crime 2004/2005. Home Office. p. 82 (Table 3.02). 
  62. ^ Firearms (Amendment) Act 1997 (c. 5).
  63. ^ "Article 3" (PDF). p. 75. 
  64. ^ a b Morris, Nigel (8 January 2009). "Britain records 18% fall in gun deaths". London: The Independent. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  65. ^ Firearms Enquiries.
  66. ^ "Gun Crime". Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  67. ^ paragraph 58.
  68. ^ Home Office statistical bulletin on Homicide and firearms offences in 2005/6.
  69. ^ Blair wants gun crime age reduced, BBC News, 18 February 2007.
  70. ^ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2005/2006 Supplementary Volume 1 to Crime in England and Wales (2005/2006).
  71. ^ Honduras National Congress (October 2004). "Act on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Material" (PDF). Junta Técnica de Normas de Contabilidad y Auditoria. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  72. ^ Honduras National Congress (28 April 2004). "National Arms Registry". Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  73. ^ Honduras National Congress (28 August 2003). "DECRETO No. 101-2003" (PDF). Centro Electrónico de Documentación e Información Judicial. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  74. ^ Honduras National Congress (29 August 2007). "DECRETO No. 69-2007" (PDF). Poder Judicial de Honduras. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  75. ^ "Hong Kong Police Force - Advice for Tourists". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  76. ^ "CAP 238 FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION ORDINANCE s 13 Possession of arms or ammunition without licence". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  77. ^ Lakshmi, Rama (1 February 2010). "New groups mobilize as Indians embrace the right to bear arms". Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  78. ^
  80. ^ "CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  81. ^
  82. ^ [1]
  83. ^ [2]
  84. ^ Graduate Institute of International Studies, Small Arms Survey 2003: Development Denied , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 59-60; 112. Williams James Arputharaj, Chamila Thushani Hemmathagama and Saradha Nanayakkara, A Comparative Study of Small Arms Legislation in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka: South Asia Partnership (SAP) International, July 2003.
  85. ^ Niobe Thompson and Devashish Krishnan, "Small Arms in India and the Human Costs of Lingering Conflicts", in Abdel-Fatau Musah and Niobe Thompson, eds., Over a Barrel: Light Weapons and Human Rights in the Commonwealth, London and New Delhi: Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), November 1999, pp. 35-64.
  86. ^ Abhijeet Singh (1999-02-22). "Indian Legal Forms". Abhijeet Singh. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  87. ^ "CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  88. ^ "Dasar Hukum & Prosedur Kepemilikan Senjata Api | SUKA SUKA 'SABerbagi Informasi Ada Di Sini". 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  89. ^ "Quarter of a million Israelis own firearms - Israel News, Ynetnews". 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  90. ^ "Number of gun applications doubles - Israel News, Ynetnews". 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  91. ^ Karp, Aaron. 1 July 2006. "Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles". Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business; Chapter 2 (Appendix I), p. 61. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  92. ^ Karp, Aaron. 27 August 2007. "Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online". Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City; Chapter 2 (Annexe 4), p. 67 refers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  93. ^ Kopel, David B. The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy--Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies? (1992), Prometheus Books, New York, pp. 257-277, ISBN 0-87975-756-6.
  94. ^ "Guns from America fuel Jamaica's gang wars". My Sinchew. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  95. ^ Kopel, David (April 2007). "Weapons of War : To Your Tents, O Israel". Liberty 21 (4): 31–36. Retrieved 3 July 2009. 
  96. ^ "Law Controlling Possession, Etc. of Fire-Arms and Swords" (1978), Law No 6, Art 3, EHS Law Bulletin Series, No 3920.
  97. ^ D Bayley, Forces of Order: Police Behavior in Japan and the United States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), Art 4, 23.
  98. ^ "US guns arm Mexico's drug wars". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 21 January 2008. 
  99. ^ "U.S., Mexico set sights on stopping flow of weapons to cartels". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 21 January 2008. 
  100. ^ Security Weekly. "Mexico's Gun Supply and the 90 Percent Myth". Stratfor. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  101. ^ Oh, Grace. "N. Korea enacts rules on regulating firearms". YONHAP. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  102. ^ "Lov om skytevåpen og ammunisjon m.v". 1961-06-09. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  103. ^ "Våpenforskriften" (PDF) (in Norwegian). 
  104. ^
  105. ^ "Firearms-Control Legislation and Policy: Russian Federation". Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  106. ^ "Small Arms in Singapore: Facts, Figures and Firearm Law". Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  107. ^ "Singapore Statutes Online - 14 - Arms Offences Act". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  108. ^ "Singapore Statutes Online - 14 - Arms Offences Act". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  109. ^
  110. ^ ZASTAVA ARMS Kragujevac | English
  111. ^ "Prvi Partizan Ammunition". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  112. ^ "flm". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  113. ^ Cho, Johee. "Strict Gun Control Laws in South Korea". ABC. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  114. ^ The Swiss Army at
  115. ^ "Switzerland rejects tighter gun controls".  
  116. ^ "Switzerland — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law". International Firearms Injury Prevention & Policy. 27 June 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  117. ^ "Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008); Chapter 1 (Section 1). Geneva: Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. 20 June.". University of Sydney. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  118. ^
  119. ^ "Guns in Ukraine: Firearms, armed violence and gun law". 2001-05-07. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  120. ^ McCune, Greg (July 9, 2013). "Illinois Is Last State to Allow Concealed Carry of Guns", Reuters. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  121. ^ "Guns in Vietnam: Facts, Figures and Firearm Law". Retrieved 2014-04-19. 

External links

  • Small Arms Survey with 2007 survey of 178 countries
  • Missing Pieces: A Guide for Reducing Gun Violence through parliamentary action Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2007
  • Questionnaire for the Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1998 - 2000
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.