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The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states of Outremer marked with red crosses.
Illustration from the Old French translation of Guillaume de Tyr's Histoire d'Outremer

Outremer (French: outre-mer), for "overseas", was a general name given to the Crusader states established after the First Crusade: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The name was often equated to the Levant of Renaissance. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, and later became fully westernized by the (French) House of Lusignan.

The term was, in general, used to refer to any land "overseas"; for example, Louis IV of France was called "Louis d'Outremer" as he was raised in England.


  • Present-day use 1
  • Literature 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Present-day use

The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas", is notably used for the overseas departments and territories of France (In French: Départements d'outre-mer – Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM – TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)).


  • David Nicolle: Knight of Outremer 1187-1344 AD, Warrior No. 18. Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2003. ISBN 1-85532-555-1.
  • Robert E. Howard: Hawks of Outremer, Donald M. Grant, Publisher, West Kingston, Rhode Island 1979.

See also


External links

  • The French of Outremer

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