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Title: Ottomanism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Young Ottomans, Tanzimat, Young Turk Revolution, Ottoman Empire, Armenian national liberation movement
Collection: Political Movements of the Ottoman Empire, Turkish Nationalism
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876

Ottomanism (Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the head tax and military service were to be applied to non-Muslims and Muslims alike.

The major precursors to Ottomanism were the Reformation Edict of 1856, which promised full equality regardless of religion, and the Ottoman Nationality Law of 1869, which created a common Ottoman citizenship irrespective of religious or ethnic affiliation. Ottomanism was rejected by many in the non-Muslim millets and by many Muslims. To the former, it was perceived as a step towards dismantling their traditional privileges. Meanwhile, the Muslims saw it as the elimination of their own superior position. There were claims that Ottomanism was a reaction to the Tanzimat, the era of intensive restructuring of the Ottoman Empire by the bureaucratic elite. The inauguration of the Ottoman Parliament contributed to the spirit of reform, as all millets were represented in this bicameral assembly.

Ottomanism enjoyed a revival during the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, and during the Second Constitutional Era. It lost most of its adherents during the First Balkan War of 1912–1913.

Ottomanism and the Removal of Abdul Hamid II

In the year of 1877 Abdul Hamid II came into power in the Ottoman government and used his own personal authority to establish an autocracy. Since there were plans to establish a parliament in the Ottoman empire in 1876, Hamid II had to use the excuse of war to suspend parliament in order to maintain his position. During the time of his reign from 1877–1908 Hamid II diminished a lot of the military and institutions of the Ottoman empire because he was paranoid of being overthrown. In the summer of 1908, officers in the Ottoman army that opposed Abdul Hamid II because of their firm roots in Ottomanism threatened to revolt if he did not step down. Abdul Hamid II was forced to step down from office.

See also


  • The concept is covered under the section The era of Modern Reform:Tanzimat at "History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey" by Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw.
  • Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004. Print
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