World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Oromia Region

Article Id: WHEBN0000503738
Reproduction Date:

Title: Oromia Region  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of airports in Ethiopia, Ethiopia, Alemayehu Atomsa, Ambo, Ethiopia, Welega (disambiguation)
Collection: Oromia Region, Regions of Ethiopia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Oromia Region

Oromia Region
Flag of Oromia Region
Map of Ethiopia showing Oromia Region
Map of Ethiopia showing Oromia Region
Country Ethiopia
Capital de jure Addis Ababa[1]
de facto Adama[2]
 • Total 284,538 km2 (109,861 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Total 27,158,471
 • Density 95/km2 (250/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code ET-OR

Oromia (spelled Oromiyaa in the Oromo language; Amharic: ኦሮምያ) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia, covering 284,538 square kilometers.[3] It is bordered by the Somali Region to the east; the Amhara Region, the Afar Region and the Benishangul-Gumuz Region to the north; South Sudan, Gambela Region, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region to the west; and Kenya to the south. The 2007 census reported Oromia's population at over 27 million, making it the largest state in population and area. It includes the former Arsi Province along with portions of the former Bale, Hararghe, Illubabor, Kaffa, Shewa, Sidamo, and Welega provinces. Its current capital is Addis Ababa (Oromo: Finfinne); other important cities and towns include Adama, Dirre Dewa, Harer, Chiro, Ambo, Asella, Bishoftu, Chiro, Dembidolo, Fiche, Gimbi, Robe, Goba, Dello Buna, Jimma, Metu, Negele Boran, Moyale, Nekemte, Shashamane and Waliso.


  • History 1
  • Demographics 2
    • Ethnic groups 2.1
    • Religion 2.2
      • Religion in entire region 2.2.1
      • Religion in urban areas 2.2.2
    • Languages 2.3
  • Economy 3
  • Presidents of the Executive Committee 4
  • Administrative zones 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8
    • Media 8.1


The region of Oromia was inhabited by ethnic communities for centuries. The earliest people to live in northern Oromia are believed to be Muslim Gurage people from southern Abyssinia.[4] The Sultanate of Ifat, Adal Sultanate, the Sultanate of Showa and the Abyssinian Empire were some of the kingdoms in the area before the medieval Oromo migrations.

Before 2000, the regional capital of Oromia was Addis Ababa, also known as "Finfinne" (the original name in the Oromo language). The relocation of the regional capital to Adama sparked considerable controversy, and this forced the government to bring back the capital to Addis Ababa. Critics of the move believed the Ethiopian government wished to de-emphasize Addis Ababa's location within Oromia.[5][6] On the other hand, the government maintained that Addis Ababa "has been found inconvenient from the point of view of developing the language, culture and history of the Oromo people."[7]

On June 10, 2005, the

  • Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau
  • Oromia President office
  • Sheger Times
  • Oromia TV


  • Map of Oromia Region at UN-OCHA (PDF file)
  • Map of Oromia Region at DPPA of Ethiopia (PDF file)
  • FDRE States: Basic Information - Oromia

External links

  1. ^ "FDRE States: Basic Information, Oromia". The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  2. ^ 2009 CIA map marks Nazrēt (Adama) as an administrative (regional) capital. Eritrea and Ethiopia (Map). 1:5,000,000.  
  3. ^ 2011 National Statistics (accessed 7 May 2012).
  4. ^ gurage muslim kingdom in shawa
  5. ^ Hameso, Seyoum and Tilahun Ayanou Nebo (2000). "Ethiopia: A New Start?". The Sidama Concern. Retrieved February 25, 2006. 
  6. ^ Mosisa, Abraham T. (January 13, 2004). "Letter to U.N. Secretary-General". Oromo Studies Association. Retrieved February 25, 2006. 
  7. ^ "Nazareth Selected as Oromiya's Capital".  
  8. ^ "Chief Administrator of Oromia says decision to move capital city based on study". Walta Information Center. 2005-06-11. Archived from the original on 2005-06-13. Retrieved February 25, 2006. 
  9. ^ "Somali-Oromo border referendum of December 2004", Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre website (accessed 11 February 2009)
  10. ^ Focus on Ethiopia"Regional Overview: Oromiya Region", (April 2005), p. 5 (accessed 11 February 2009)
  11. ^ Focus on Ethiopia"Regional Update: Oromiya", (May 2005), p. 5 (accessed 11 February 2009)
  12. ^ "Households by sources of drinking water, safe water sources" (PDF). CSA Selected Basic Welfare Indicators. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  13. ^ Macro International Inc. Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005 (PDF). Calverton: Macro International, 2008. 2008. pp. 2, 3, 10. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  14. ^ a b Census 2007 Tables: Oromia Region, Table 3.3.
  15. ^ "CSA 2005 National Statistics - Tables D.4 - D.7." (PDF). 
  16. ^ Klaus Deininger; et al. "Tenure Security and Land Related Investment, WP-2991". Retrieved 23 March 2006. 
  17. ^


See also

The Oromia is subdivided into administrative zones:

Administrative zones

(This list is based on information from

Presidents of the Executive Committee

According to a March 2003 World Bank publication, the average rural household has 1.14 hectares of land compared to the national average of 1.01 hectares, 24% of the population is in non-farm related jobs compared to the national average of 25%.[16]

The CSA reported that for 2004-2005 115,083 tons of coffee were produced in Oromia, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian Coffee and Tea Authority. This represents 50.7% of the total production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total of 17,214,540 cattle (representing 44.4% of Ethiopia's total cattle), 6,905,370 sheep (39.6), 4,849,060 goats (37.4%), 959,710 horses (63.25%), 63,460 mules (43.1%), 278,440 asses (11.1%), 139,830 camels (30.6%), 11,637,070 poultry of all species (37.7%), and 2,513,790 beehives (57.73%).[15]


Oromo (Oromiffa), presently written with Latin characters, is the most commonly spoken language, constituting 83.5% of the spoken language. Other major languages are Amharic (11%) (especially in eastern Welega and northern Shewa), Gurage languages (Sebat Bet Gurage, Soddo, Silt'e), Hadiya, Gedeo (0.98%), especially in western and eastern Shewa; and Tigrigna (0.25%). Omotic languages are spoken by significant minorities in Jimma, Illubabor and western Welega; and some Nilo-Saharan languages (including Komo, Majang, Gumuz, and Berta) are spoken in communities scattered in the west.


Religion 1994 Census 2007 Census[14]
Orthodox Christians 67.8% 51.2%
Muslim 24.0% 29.9%
Protestant 7% 17.5%
other religious groups - 1.5%

Religion in urban areas

Religion 1994 Census 2007 Census[14]
Muslim 44.3% 47.6%
Orthodox Christians 41.3% 30.4%
Protestants 8.6% 17.7%
traditional religions 4.2% 3.3%
other religious groups 1.6% 1%

Religion in entire region


Figures of full ethnic background are disputed, since many ethnically mixed Ethiopians are difficult to categorize. Particularly, Shewa Oromos and urban Oromos are known to have assimilated with ethnic Amhara and others, while southwestern Oromos have mixed with the Sidama and other ethnicities. The census and the general system of governance has remained controversial and related to the politics of the country. For instance, mixed Ethiopians with an Oromo father and Amhara mother are registered into the census using only their father's ethnic label. Similarly, Ethiopians with an Amhara father (or from another ethnic background) and Oromo mother are registered using only their father's ethnic label and counted as non-Oromo.

Ethnic group 1994 Census 2007 Census
Oromo 85% 87.8%
Amhara 9.1% 7.22%
Gurage (some of Sebat Bet Gurage, Soddo Gurage, and Silt'e) 0.98% 0.93%
other ethnic groups 4.6% 4%

Ethnic groups

According to the CSA, as of 2004, 32% of the population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 23.7% were rural inhabitants and 91.03% were urban.[12] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Oromia as of 2005 include the following: 19.9% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 61.5% and for women 29.5%; and the regional infant mortality rate is 76 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is about the same as the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants’ first month of life.[13]

In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 18,732,525, of whom 9,371,228 were men and 9,361,297 women; urban inhabitants number 621,210 or 14% of the population.

Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), Oromia has a total population of 27,158,471, consisting of 13,676,159 men and 13,482,312 women; urban inhabitants number 3,370,040 or 11.3% of the population. With an estimated area of 353,006.81 square kilometers, this region has an estimated population density of 76.93 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 5,590,530 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.8 and rural households 5.0 people.


Oromia shares a boundary with almost every region of Ethiopia except for the Tigray Region. This boundary has been disputed with Oromia's neighbors in a number of cases, most notably between Oromia and the Somali Region. One attempt to resolve the dispute between the two regions was the October 2004 referendum held in about 420 kebeles in 12 woredas across five zones of the Somali Region. According to the official results of the referendum, about 80% of the disputed areas have fallen under Oromia administration, though there were allegations of voting irregularities in many of them.[9] The results led over the following weeks to minorities in these kebeles being pressured to leave. In Oromya, estimates based on figures given by local woreda and kebele authorities suggest that 21,520 people have been displaced in border woredas, namely Mieso, Doba, and Erer in the Mirab and Misraq Hararghe Zones. Federal authorities believe that this number may be overstated by as much as 11,000. In Doba, the Ministry of Federal Affairs put the number of IDPs at 6,000. There are also more than 2,500 displaced persons in Mieso.[10] In addition, there were reports of people being displaced in the border area of Moyale and Borena zones due to this conflict.[11]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.