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Open-mid front unrounded vowel

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Open-mid front unrounded vowel

Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA number 303
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɛ
Unicode (hex) U+025B
X-SAMPA E
Kirshenbaum E
Braille ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Sound
 ·

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ɛ.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Akan pɛ [pʰɛ] 'to like'
Albanian tre [tɾɛ] 'three'
Arabic كريب [kɾɛp] 'crêpe' Only in loanwords and used by a small number of speakers, depending on country of origin. See Arabic phonology.
Armenian Eastern[1] էջ [ɛd͡ʒ] 'page'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mes [mɛːs] 'table' Used predominantly in the Tyari, Barwari and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects. Corresponds to [i] in other varieties.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] May be transcribed in IPA as æ.[2]
Catalan[3] mel [mɛɫ] 'honey' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /se4 [sɛː˩] 'snake' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /xié [ɕjɛ˧˥] 'tilted' See Mandarin phonology
Wu / ngae [ŋɛ˥˨] 'face'
Czech Amerika [ˈämɛrɪkä] 'America' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7] frisk [ˈfʁ̞ɛsɡ̊] 'fresh' Most often transcribed in IPA as æ. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[8] bed     'bed' See Dutch phonology
The Hague[9] jij     'you' Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
English General American[10] bed     'bed'
Northern English[11] May be somewhat lowered.[12]
Received Pronunciation[13][14] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
Scottish[15]
Cockney[16] fat [fɛt] 'fat'
Singaporean[17]
New Zealand[18]
Some Broad South African speakers[19] Other speakers realize this vowel as [æ] or [a].
Belfast[20] days [dɛːz] 'days' Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[21] mate [mɛt] 'mate' Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Estonian[22] sule [ˈsulɛˑ] 'feather (gen. sg.)' Common word-final allophone of /e/.[23] See Estonian phonology
Faroese elska [ɛlska] 'love'
French[24] bête     'beast' See French phonology
Galician pé [pɛ] 'foot'
[25] გედი [ɡɛdɪ] 'swan'
German Standard[26] Bett     'bed' Also described as mid near-front [ɛ̝̈].[27] See Standard German phonology
Hindustani شَہَر / शहर [ʃɛɦɛr] 'city' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian nem [nɛm] 'no' See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[28][29][30] kenna [ˈcʰɛnːa] 'to teach' Often diphthongized to [eɛ] when long.[31] See Icelandic phonology
Italian[32] bene     'good' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[33] [ˈᵐbɾɛ] 'with'
Korean 태도 [tʰɛː.do] 'attitude' See Korean phonology
Lithuanian mane [mɐˈnʲɛ] 'me' (acc.)
Luxembourgish[34] drécken [ˈdʀɛkən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [e].
Macedonian елен [ˈɛl̪ɛn̪] 'deer' See Macedonian phonology
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
North Frisian tech [tɛx] 'closed'
Polish[35] ten     'this one' (masc. nom.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[36][37] meleca [mɛˈl̪ɛ̞kə] 'goo' Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪ i ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[38] tempo [ˈt̪ɛ̃pu] 'time' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[39] vede [vɛɟe] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[40] это     'this' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic aig [ɛk] 'at' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Seri me [mɛ] 'you'
Shiwiar[41] Allophone of /a/.
Slovak[42] behať [ˈbɛɦäc̟] 'to run' Rare realization of /e/; most commonly realized as mid [].[42] See Slovak phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[43] las madres [læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː] 'the mothers' Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[43]
Swedish Central Standard[44] ät [ɛ̠ːt̪] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted. See Swedish phonology
Turkish süre [syɾɛ] 'duration' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian береза     'birch' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese e [ɛ] 'to fear' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian têd [tɛːt] 'languid'
Yoruba[45] sẹ̀ [ɛ̄sɛ] 'leg'

The vowel transcribed /ɛ/ in Standard Eastern Norwegian is actually mid.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:136)
  10. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  11. ^ Lodge (2009:163), Watson (2007:357), Watt & Allen (2003:268)
  12. ^ Lodge (2009:163)
  13. ^ Schmitt (2007:322–323)
  14. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  15. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  16. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979:35)
  17. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000)
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  19. ^ Lanham (1967:9)
  20. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  21. ^ Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English at the Wayback Machine (archived May 17, 2008)
  22. ^ Asu & Teras (2009:368–369)
  23. ^ Asu & Teras (2009:369)
  24. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  25. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  26. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  27. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  28. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  29. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  30. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  31. ^ Árnason (2011:57–60)
  32. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  33. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  34. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  35. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  36. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  37. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira
  38. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  39. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  40. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  41. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  42. ^ a b Kráľ (1988:92)
  43. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  44. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  45. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969:166)
  46. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)

Bibliography

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  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372,  
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  •  
  • Bet Hashim, Suzanna; Brown, Adam (2000), "The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Ling, Low Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 84–92,  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140,  
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  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74,  
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  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
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  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  •  
  • Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter (1979), English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English, Baltimore: University Park Press 
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  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
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