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New Zealand flag debate


New Zealand flag debate

New Zealand flag debate
The current flag of New Zealand

New Zealand has a history of debate about whether the national flag should be changed. For several decades, alternative designs have been proposed - with varying degrees of support. There is no consensus among proponents of changing the flag as to which design should replace the flag. Unlike in Australia, the flag debate in New Zealand occurs independently of debate about becoming a republic.[1][2]

The New Zealand Parliament has scheduled a two-stage binding referendum on potential flag change to take place in 2015 and 2016.[3]


  • Arguments 1
    • Arguments for change 1.1
    • Arguments against change 1.2
  • History of debate 2
    • World War II 2.1
    • 1970s 2.2
    • 1980s 2.3
    • 1990s 2.4
    • 2000s 2.5
    • 2010s 2.6
  • 2015/16 referenda 3
    • First stage 3.1
    • Second stage 3.2
    • Results and implications 3.3
  • Opinion polling 4
    • Two-option polls 4.1
    • Three-option polls 4.2
    • Four-option polls 4.3
    • Other 4.4
  • Proposals 5
    • Silver fern flag 5.1
    • 2015 Referendum shortlist 5.2
    • Others 5.3
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


Arguments for change

Flag of New Zealand
Flag of Australia

Proponents for change argue that:

  • The national flag is too similar to the flag of Australia and the two are often confused.[4] While this is not unique among world flags (e.g. the flags of Romania and Chad, Indonesia and Poland, and Ivory Coast and Ireland are often confused with each other), it is exacerbated by Australia and New Zealand's close ties. For example, in 1984 the Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke was greeted by New Zealand flags when visiting Ottawa,[5][6] and the current New Zealand prime minister John Key says he has been seated under the Australian flag in several international meetings.[7]
  • As a derivative of the Blue Ensign, it does not represent New Zealand's current status as an independent, sovereign nation. Instead it alludes to New Zealand being a colony or sub-part of the United Kingdom, which is anachronistic.[8][9]
  • The national flag exclusively acknowledges those of British heritage whilst ignoring New Zealand's Māori population and other ethnic groups.[10] Some have called this inappropriate because the Treaty of Waitangi and Māori heritage are significant parts of New Zealand's history, and because New Zealand is a multi-ethnic society with increasingly diverse demographics.[9] For example, the 1961 census reported that 92% of the population had European ancestry,[11] but by the 2013 census it had changed to 74%; the figure is as low as 59.3% in Auckland.[12]

Arguments against change

Opponents to change argue that:

  • The financial cost of changing the flag outweighs any possible advantages in changing it.[13][14][15][16]
  • The national flag has "stood the test of time".[17] Some New Zealanders feel attached to the flag as it has been part of the country's history; these events are what give the flag its symbolic and emotional value rather than the intrinsic design itself.[9][18] For example, all poll results from 2014 show that a large majority of the public are opposed to changing the flag or at least do not see it as a pressing issue (see section below).
  • The flag is already representative of New Zealand. The Union Jack in the flag represents New Zealand's strong past and present ties to the United Kingdom[19] and its history as a part of the British Empire, and the Southern Cross represents its location in the South Pacific.[9][20]
  • Generations of New Zealanders have fought and died under the current flag during many battles,[5] and changing the flag would therefore be disrespectful to their efforts and sacrifice. The first time the current flag was officially flown in battle was from the HMS Achilles during the Battle of the River Plate in 1939,[21] however, the New Zealand national Blue Ensign flag was flown at Quinn's Post during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915.[22] Rhys Jones, former chief of the New Zealand Defence Force, noted that the flag had already been changed during New Zealand's history, and a salient legacy of the Gallipoli campaign is representational of the nation's independent identity.[23]

History of debate

World War II

During World War II, Prime Minister Peter Fraser received suggestions to include a Māori emblem on the flag. He deferred the matter until after the war, but never brought it up again.[24]


Debate on keeping or changing the New Zealand Flag started before May 1973, when a remit to change the flag was voted down by the Labour Party at their national conference.[25] In November 1979, the Minister of Internal Affairs, Allan Highet, suggested that the design of the flag should be changed, and sought an artist to design a new flag with a silver fern on the fly. The proposal attracted little support.[26]


In 1988, Minister of Foreign Affairs Russell Marshall made a call for a flag change, which also had little effect.[5]

The New Zealand Listener magazine held a flag design contest in 1989, attracting nearly 600 entries. Out of the seven semi-finalists, which included the national flag and the United Tribes Flag, the national flag won with a minority vote of 45.6%.[5]


In February 1992, the former Minister of Māori Affairs, Matiu Rata, called for a flag change "to re-establish our national identity".

In 1998, Prime Minister Jenny Shipley backed Cultural Affairs Minister Marie Hasler's call for the flag to be changed. Shipley, along with the New Zealand Tourism Board, supported the quasi-national silver fern flag, by using a white silver fern on a black background, along the lines of the Canadian maple leaf flag.[19]

Both of these events were met with opposition from the Returned Services' Association.


In 2004, the NZ Trust was founded by Lloyd Morrison with the aim of bringing about a non-binding referendum on the subject. Under New Zealand law, a referendum may be held on any issue if 10% of electors sign a petition which is presented to Parliament. The Trust launched their petition for such a referendum in 2005. Their campaign used a stylised silver fern flag designed by Cameron Sanders.

In response to the petition, the [27]

The petition attracted 100,000 signatures out of the required approximately 270,000 and was withdrawn in July 2005, well before the general election in September. The NZ Trust cited public apathy to change as the main reason for withdrawing the petition.[28]


In 2012, the NZ Transport Agency flew the Tino Rangatiratanga flag alongside the New Zealand flag on the Auckland Harbour Bridge on Waitangi Day.

On 5 August 2010, Labour list MP Charles Chauvel introduced a member's bill for a consultative commission followed by a referendum on the New Zealand flag.[29]

In January 2014, Prime Minister John Key floated the idea of a referendum on a new flag at the 2014 general election.[30] The proposal was met with mixed response.[31][32]

Later in March, Key announced that New Zealand would hold a referendum within the next three years asking whether or not to change the flag design should the National party be re-elected for a third term.[33] Following National's re-election the details of the referendum were announced.[3]

2015/16 referenda

A two-stage binding referendum is planned to take place in 2015 and 2016. Each stage will be a postal referendum with a voting period of three weeks.[34] The process is expected to cost $25.7 million.[35]

Shortly after announcing the referenda, party leaders were invited to a cross-party group. The purpose of the cross-party group was to review draft legislation allowing for the referenda to take place, and to nominate candidates for a Flag Consideration Panel by mid February 2015.

The Flag Consideration Panel was a separate group of "respected New Zealanders" with representative age, regional, gender and ethnic demographics. Their purpose was to publicise the process, seek flag submissions and suggestions from the public, and decide on a final shortlist of four suitable options for the first referendum. Public consultation took place between May and June 2015.[36][37]

As part of the public engagement process, flag designs and symbolism/value suggestions were solicited until 16 July, which resulted in a total of 10,292 design suggestions.[38] From the submitted designs, the Flag Consideration Panel selected an initial longlist of 40 (publicly revealed on 10 August),[39] then a final shortlist of 4 (publicly revealed on 1 September)[40] to contend in the first referendum.

After public disappointment with the official shortlist, a social media campaign aimed to add the Red Peak flag design to the referendum options became successful on 23 September 2015 when Prime Minister John Key announced that his government had agreed to pick-up legislation that was put forward by the Green Party on the same day, which means the Red Peak design will join the four flag alternatives already selected.[41][42]

First stage

If the New Zealand flag changes, which flag would you prefer?[43]

The first referendum is planned to take place from 20 November to 11 December 2015. It will ask voters to rank the five shortlisted flag alternatives in order of preference. The most popular design will contend with the current national flag in the second referendum.[35][44][38][45][46]

Second stage

What is your choice for the New Zealand flag?[47]

The second referendum is planned for 3–24 March 2016. It will ask voters to choose between the current New Zealand Flag and the preferred alternative design selected in the first referendum.[38][48]

Results and implications

The results of both referenda will be binding, meaning the flag with the most votes in the second referendum will be the official flag of New Zealand. If a new flag is chosen, it will come into effect six months after the second referendum result is declared, or earlier through an Order in Council declared by the Governor-General. Until then the current flag will remain the sole official flag of New Zealand.[49] In the unlikely event of a tied vote, an assumption for the status quo will apply and the current flag will prevail.[50]

Opinion polling

Two-option polls

Date Conducted by For change Against change Undecided Notes
8–16 September 2015 Reid Research 25% 69% 6% This poll was conducted after the referendum shortlist had been revealed. Sample included 1000 eligible voters with a 3.1% margin of error.[51]
14–24 August 2015 New Zealand Herald 23% 53% 24% This polled 750 eligible voters with a 3.6% margin of error.[52]
April 2015 The New Zealand Herald 25% 70% 5% 80% agreed that the referenda should first ask if the public wants a change before presenting other designs.

Out of alternative designs, 45% preferred the Silver Fern and 18% preferred the Southern Cross. Sample size was 750.[53]

September 2014 Television New Zealand 35% 65% 0% [54]
March 2014 New Zealand Herald 40.6% 52.6% 6.8% Sample size was 750. When presented with specific design options, a plurality of 42.9% preferred the silver fern.[55]
February 2014 Television New Zealand 28% 72% 0% The poll also found that only 2% thought that changing the flag was an important issue in the 2014 general election.[56]
July 2013 TV3 61% 39% 0% [57]
January/February 2010 New Zealand Herald 52.3% 44.4% 3.3% When presented with specific design options, a majority of 52.5% preferred the silver fern.[58]
2009 New Zealand Herald 25% 62% 13% [59]
August 1999 National Business Review 24% 64% 12% When presented with the silver fern flag, the numbers changed to 33% supporting change and 60% against.[19]

Three-option polls

Date Conducted by For change Neutral Against change Don't know/Refused Notes
October 2015 Auckland University 12% 27% 61% 0% Support for changing the flag was positively correlated with education, household income, age and right-wing political affiliation.[60]
September/October 2014 Research New Zealand 19% 37% 43% 1% Sample size was 1001. Younger respondents were significantly against change compared to older respondents, but no other differences existed between demographic groups.[61]
March 2014 Research New Zealand 18% 43% 37% 2% [61]
February 2014 Research New Zealand 22% 39% 37% 1% [61]
August 2011 Research New Zealand 19% 30% 52% 1% [61]

Four-option polls

Date Conducted by Yes, change, to the silver fern Yes, change, but to something else Not bothered either way No, we should not change Don't know Notes
February 2014 Fairfax Media/Ipsos Poll 17.9% 23.7% 18.7% 38.6% 1.1% Sample size was 1018. Total 'change vote' was 41.6%.[62]


In 2009, The New Zealand Herald surveyed various political party leaders and the twenty two members of the Order of New Zealand, with the results showing an even split.[5]


Silver fern flag

The silver fern flag

The silver fern flag is a popular unofficial flag of New Zealand. The silver fern itself is a quasi-national emblem with current and historic usage including:

The proposal of replacing the national flag of New Zealand with the silver fern flag has been supported by Cultural Affairs Minister Marie Hasler, Prime Minister Jenny Shipley and the New Zealand Tourism Board in 1998,[19] and current Prime Minister John Key in 2010.[70] Key later changed his preference to Kyle Lockwood's Silver Fern (Red, White & Blue) design, due to the similarity of the silver fern flag with the Jihadist black flag, used by Islamic extremist groups such as ISIL.[7] Amongst the public, polls have shown that the silver fern is the most preferred alternative design for a new national flag.[53][55][58]

However, the New Zealand Flag Institute criticises the silver fern as the logo of some of New Zealand's sporting teams rather than the country itself.[18] For example, the black and white silver fern design is employed by New Zealand's national netball ("Silver Ferns"), rugby union ("All Blacks"), rugby sevens ("All Blacks Sevens"), rugby league ("Kiwis"), men's hockey, women's hockey, association football ("All Whites"), cricket ("Black Caps"), Futsal ("Futsal White") and wheelchair rugby ("Wheel Blacks") teams.

2015 Referendum shortlist

On 1 September 2015, the Flag Consideration Panel announced the final four designs to be included in the first referendum.[40] On 23 September, Prime Minister John Key confirmed the Red Peak flag would be added as a fifth option in the flag referendum after growing popular support for the design to be added to the referendum options.[42]

Image Designer(s) Name Notes
Alofi Kanter Silver Fern (Black and White) Variation of the silver fern flag which has the unique silver fern and black and white colour scheme.[46] This design uses counterchanging and the fern design from the New Zealand government's Masterbrand logo.[71]
Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Red, White and Blue) The fern represents the people of New Zealand and the Southern Cross represents the location of New Zealand. The blue represents the ocean, the red represents the Māori and wartime sacrifices, and white represents the "land of the long white cloud" epithet.[72]

This proposal won a Wellington newspaper flag competition in July 2004 and appeared on TV3 in 2005 after winning a poll which included the present national flag.[73] In 2014 a similar design won a DesignCrowd competition.[74]

Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Black, White and Blue) Variation of the above with black instead of red. This general design is currently John Key's preferred proposal but has been criticised on aesthetic grounds by Hamish Keith, Paul Henry and John Oliver.[7][75] NZ Herald writer Karl Puschmann called it a design for those "sitting on the fence" who didn't want much change.[76] Members of the public have compared it unfavourably to Weet-Bix packaging, "Kiwi Party Ware" plastic plate packaging, the National Basketball Association logo, or a merger of the Labour and National party logos.[77]
Andrew Fyfe Koru (Black) Features a Maori koru pattern depicting an unfurling fern frond, traditionally representing new life, growth, strength and peace. In this flag it is meant to also resemble a wave, cloud and ram's horn.[46]
When this design was revealed on the shortlist, the public immediately nicknamed it "Hypnoflag" via social media.[78]
Aaron Dustin Red Peak Red Peak flag also called "First to the Light", the design was inspired by the story of Rangi and Papa (a Māori creation myth) and the geography of New Zealand. It is reminiscent of tāniko patterns, tukutuku panelling and the flag of the United Kingdom.[79] After public disappointment with the official shortlist, a social media campaign aimed to add the Red Peak flag design to the referendum options became successful on 23 September 2015 when Prime Minister John Key announced that his government had agreed to pick-up legislation that was put forward by the Green Party on the same day, which means the Red Peak design will join the four flag alternatives already selected.[80][42]


Image Designer Date Notes
James Busby 1834 The United Tribes Flag was the national flag of New Zealand when it first declared independence in 1835, until the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.
Clark Titman 1967 Tricolour (red white and blue)[19]
D.A. Bale Early 1980s Blue with a double koru on a broad white vertical band.[19] The double koru was established as the logo of Air New Zealand in 1973.
Friedensreich Hundertwasser 1983 The koru flag represents an uncurling fern frond in the form of a stylised koru, a traditional Māori carving pattern. This flag is occasionally seen around the country.[81]
John Ansell, Kenneth Wang, Grant McLachlan 1986, 2015 The Black & Silver flag is based on a stylized version of the original silver ferns used in the emblems of the military and sports representative teams of the 1880s. John Ansell’s silver fern flag designs won him a Colenso Scholarship to New York in 1986 and in 1990 came second out of 600 alternative flag designs in The Listener contest to mark New Zealand’s sesquicentennial.[82]
James Dignan 2002 This proposal was displayed in the New Zealand Herald on 9 May 2002, at the time of the centenary of the current flag. It combines elements from the national flag, the Tino rangatiratanga flag and the silver fern flag. This combination looks to links with both the United Kingdom and Polynesia.[83][84]
Helen Clark 2007 Helen Clark made her proposal while Prime Minister of New Zealand. She said that deleting the Union Jack from the New Zealand flag was a possibility if people wanted to redesign the flag, leaving it as a "rather attractive Southern Cross."[85]
Studio Alexander (Grant Alexander, Alice Murray, Thomas Lawlor, Jared McDowell) 2015 The Wā kāinga / Home flag won the $20,000 top prize in the [86]

See also


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  48. ^ New Zealand Flag Referendums Act 2015, sec. 2
  49. ^ New Zealand Flag Referendums Act 2015, sec. 39
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  67. ^ 1980 Moscow Olympics boycott NZ
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External links

  • Official referendum and flag submission site
  • NZHistory – Calls for a New Flag
  • New Zealand Herald flag debate article archive
For change
  • Change the NZ Flag (older website)
Against change
  • NZ Flag Institute
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