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Three Mergids
Мэргид, Гурван Мэргид
nomadic confederacy


11th century–1200
Mongol Empire c.1207
Capital Not specified
Languages Middle Mongol
Religion Shamanism
Government Elective monarchy
Togtoa (2nd)
Historical era Post-classical North Asia
 •  Established 11th century
 •  Disestablished 1200
Today part of  Mongolia
 Russia (Buryatia)

The Merkit (Mongolian: Мэргид, lit. "skillful/wise ones") was one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) of the Mongols in the 12th century Mongolian Plateau.

The Merkits lived in the basins of the Selenga and lower Orkhon River (modern south Buryatia and Selenge Province).[1] After a struggle that took over two decades, they were defeated in 1200 and incorporated into the Mongol Empire formed by Genghis Khan.


  • Etymology 1
  • Three Merkits 2
  • Ethnic relations 3
  • Conflict with Genghis Khan 4
  • Late Mergids 5
  • References 6


The word Merged (мэргэд) is a plural form derived from the Mongolian word mergen (мэргэн), the latter of which means both "wise" as in smart and "skillful marksperson" as in adept in the use of bow and arrow. The word is also used in many phrases in which it connotes magic, oracles, divination, augury, or religious power. Note that the Mongolian language does not make a clear morphological or grammatical distinction between nouns and adjectives, so mergen may mean "a sage, a wise one" just as much as "wise" or "skillful, adept" just as much as "a master, a skillful marksperson." Merged becomes people as in "wise ones" or "skillful markspeople." But in the general sense, mergen usually denotes someone who is skillful and wise in their affairs.

Three Merkits

The Mergids were a confederation of three tribes, inhabiting the basin of the Selenga and Orkhon Rivers.

  • The Uduyid Merkits lived in Buur-kheer, near the lower Orkhon River;
  • The Uvas Merkits lived in Tar, between the Orkhon and Selenge Rivers;
  • The Khaad Merkits ("Kings" Merkits) lived in Kharaji-kheer, on the Selenge River.

Ethnic relations

The Merkits were related to the Mongols, Naimans, Khereid, and Khitan people.[2]

Conflict with Genghis Khan

Temüjin's mother Hoelun, originally from the Olkhonud, had been engaged to the Merkit chief Yehe Chiledu by 1153. She was abducted by Temüjin's father Yesugei, while being escorted home by Yehe Chiledu.

In turn, Temüjin's new wife Börte was kidnapped by Merkit raiders from their campsite by the Onon river around 1181 and given to one of their warriors. Temüjin, supported by his blood brother Jamukha and his foster-father Tooril Khan of the Khereit, attacked the Merkit and rescued Börte within the year. The Merkits were dispersed after this attack. Shortly thereafter she gave birth to a son named Jochi. Temüjin accepted paternity but the question kept lingering throughout Jochi's life. Those incidents resulted in a strong animosity between Temüjin and his family and the Merkits. Over the following two decades, he attacked them several times.

By the time he had united the other Mongol tribes and was given the title "Chinggis Khan" in 1206, the Merkits seem to have disappeared as a separate ethnic group. Those who survived were most likely absorbed by other Mongol tribes (Oirats, Buryats, Khalkhas) and others who fled to the Kipchaks mixed with them. In 1215-1218, Jochi and Subutai crushed the remnants of them under their former leader Toghta Beki's family. The Mongols clashed with the Kankalis or the Kipchakss because they had given shelter to the Merged.

Genghis Khan had a Merged khatun named Khulan. Khulgen died while Mongol forces laid siege to a Kievan Rus' settlement in Ryazan in 1236. During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, a body of the Merkit was found in the Bulgar- and Kipchak-dominated areas in 1236.

Late Mergids

Few Mergids achieved prominent position among the Mongols. But they were classified as Mongols in Mongolian society. Great Khan Guyuk's beloved khatun Oghul Qaimish, who was a regent from 1248-1251, was a Mergid woman. The traditionalist Bayan and his cousin Toghta served as Grand councilors of the Yuan Dynasty in China and Mongolia. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, they were a clan of a banner in Northern Yuan dynasty.


  1. ^ History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
  2. ^ Weatherford, Jack. Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. p. 12. 


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