World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Margaret Sanger

Article Id: WHEBN0000020707
Reproduction Date:

Title: Margaret Sanger  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Birth control movement in the United States, No gods, no masters, Abortion in the United States, Norman Thomas, First-wave feminism
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Margaret Sanger

tudied_medicine_and_,_but_ultimately_chose_to_become_a_stonecutter,_making_stone_angels,_saints,_and_tombstones.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Publications,_pp._1-3._Michael_H._Higgins_was_a_Catholic_who_became_an_atheist_and_an_activist_for_women's_suffrage_and_free_public_education.;_Rosalind_Rosenberg,_''Divided_lives:_American_women_in_the_twentieth_century'',_p._82.__Anne_Higgins__went_through_18_pregnancies_(with_11_live_births)_in_22_years_before_dying_at_the_age_of_49._Sanger_was_the_sixth_of_eleven_children,_and_spent_much_of_her_youth_assisting_with_household_chores_and_caring_for_her_younger_siblings._Supported_by_her_two_older_sisters,_Margaret_Higgins_attended_,_and_then_in_1900_enrolled_in_White_Plains_Hospital_as_a_nurse_probationer._Her_1902_marriage_to_dashing_architect_William_Sanger_ended_her_formal_training.Sanger,_Margaret._''Autobiography''_(New_York:_Norton,_1938),_p._13;_Katz,_Esther,_et_al.,_eds,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1:_The_"Woman_Rebel"_1900-1928''_(Urbana:_Illinois_University_Press,_2003),_pp._4-5._Though_Margaret_Sanger_was_plagued_by_a_recurring_active__condition,_she_bore_three_children_and_the_couple_settled_down_to_a_quiet_life_in_. ===Social_activism=== In_1911,_after_a_fire_destroyed_their_home_in_,_the_Sangers_abandoned_the_suburbs_for_a_new_life_in_._Margaret_Sanger_worked_as_a_visiting_nurse_in_the_slums_of_the_,_while_her_husband_worked_as_an_architect_and_a_painter._Already_imbued_with_William_Sanger's_leftist_politics,_Margaret_Sanger_also_threw_herself_into_the_radical_politics_and_modernist_values_of_pre-__bohemia,_where_she_joined_the_Women's_Committee_of_the_New_York_Socialist_party._She_took_part_in_the_labor_actions_of_the_,_including_the_notable__and_the__and_she_became_involved_with_local_intellectuals,_artists,_socialists,_and_social_activists__including_,_,_,_and_. Her_political_interests,_emerging_feminism_and_nursing_experience_led_to_her_1912_column_on_sexual_education_entitled_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know"_for_the__magazine_the_''''.Sanger_wrote_two_series_of_articles_for_the_''New_York_Call'':_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_(1911–1912)_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know'"_(1912–1913)._By_her_days'_standards,_the_articles_were_extremely_frank_in_their_discussion_of_sexuality,_and_many_''New_York_Call''_readers_were_outraged_by_them._Other_readers,_however,_praised_the_series_for_its_candor,_one_stated_that_the_series_contained_"a_purer_morality_than_whole_libraries_full_of_hypocritical_cant_about_modesty.Chesler,_''Woman_of_Valor,''_pp._65-66.
_Both_were_later_published_in_book_form_in_1916.[http://www.utexas.edu/opa/blogs/culturalcompass/2010/11/04/what-every-girl-should-know-the-birth-control-movement-in-the-1910s_"‘What_Every_Girl_Should_Know’:_The_birth_control_movement_in_the_1910s"];_Engelman,_Peter._''A_History_of_Birth_Control_in_America''_(New_York:_Prager,_2010),_p._32;_Blanchard,_''Revolutionary_Sparks:_|Freedom_of_Expression_in_Modern_America_'',_p._50;_Coates_p._49. During_Margaret_Sanger's_work_among_the_working_class_of_immigrant_women_she_was_exposed_to_graphic_examples_of_women_forced_into_frequent_childbirth,_miscarriage,_and_self-induced_abortion_for_lack_of_information_on_how_to_avoid_unwanted_pregnancy._Access_to_contraceptive_information_was_prohibited_on_grounds_of_obscenity_by_the_1873_federal__and_a_host_of_state_laws._Searching_for_something_that_would_help_these_women,_Sanger_visited_public_libraries,_but_was_unable_to_find_information_on_contraception.Endres,_Kathleen_L.,_''Women's_Periodicals_in_the_United_States:_social_and_political_issues'',_p._448;_Endres_cites_Sanger,_''An_Autobiography'',_pp._95–96._Endres_cites_Kennedy,_p._19,_as_pointing_out_that_some_materials_on_birth_control_were_available_in_1913._These_problems_were_epitomized_in_a_story_that_Sanger_would_later_recount_in_her_speeches:_while_Sanger_was_working_as_a_nurse,_she_was_called_to_Sadie_Sachs'_apartment_after_Sachs_had_become_extremely_ill_due_to_a_self-induced_abortion._Afterward,_Sadie_begged_the_attending_doctor_to_tell_her_how_she_could_prevent_this_from_happening_again,_to_which_the_doctor_simply_gave_the_advice_to_remain_abstinent._A_few_months_later,_Sanger_was_called_back_to_the_Sachs'_apartment—only_this_time,_Sadie_died_shortly_after_Sanger_arrived_because_of_another_self-induced_abortion.Lader_(1955),_pp._44–50.
Baker,_pp._49–51.
Kennedy,_pp._16–18._Sanger_would_sometimes_end_the_story_by_saying,_"I_threw_my_nursing_bag_in_the_corner_and_announced ..._that_I_would_never_take_another_case_until_I_had_made_it_possible_for_working_women_in_America_to_have_the_knowledge_to_control_birth."_Although_Sadie_Sachs_was_possibly_a_fictional_composite_of_several_women_Sanger_had_known,_this_story_marks_the_time_when_Sanger_began_to_devote_her_life_to_help_desperate_women_before_they_were_driven_to_pursue_dangerous_and_illegal_abortions.Composite_story:_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._185._This_source_identifies_the_source_of_Sanger's_quote_as:_"Birth_Control",_Library_of_Congress_collection_of_Sanger's_papers:_microfilm:_reel_129:_frame_12,_April_1916. Awakened_to_the_connection_between_contraception_and_working-class_empowerment_by_radicals_like_,_Sanger_came_to_believe_that_only_by_liberating_women_from_the_risk_of_unwanted_pregnancy_would_the_fundamental_social_change_take_place,_she_then_proceeded_to_launch_a_campaign_to_challenge_governmental_censorship_of_contraceptive_information._She_would_set_up_a_series_confrontational_actions_designed_to_challenge_the_law_and_force_birth_control_to_become_a_topic_of_public_debate._Sanger's_trip_to_France_in_1913_exposed_her_to_what_Goldman_had_been_saying._Sanger's_experience_during_her_trip_to_France_directly_influence_''The_Women_Rebel''_newsletter._The_trip_to_France_was_also_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_her_marriage_with_William_Sanger. In_1914,_Sanger_launched_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_an_eight-page_monthly_newsletter_which_promoted_contraception_using_the_slogan_"".Kennedy,_pp._1,_22.The_slogan_"No_Gods,_No_Masters"_originated_in_a_flyer_distributed_by_the__in_the_.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Printing_Publications_Inc.,_2004,_pp._111-112._Sanger,_collaborating_with_anarchist_friends,_popularized_the_term_"birth_control"_as_a_more_candid_alternative_to_euphemisms_such_as_"family_limitation"The_term_"birth_control"_was_suggested_in_1914_by_a_young_friend_called_Otto_Bobstein –_Chesler,_p._97.
Katz,_''The_selected_papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._70.
Galvin,_Rachel._[http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/1998-09/sanger.html_Margaret_Sanger's_"Deeds_of_Terrible_Virtue"]_''Humanities'',_,_September/October_1998,_Vol._19/Number_5._and_proclaimed_that_each_woman_should_be_"the_absolute_mistress_of_her_own_body."Engelman,_Peter_C.,_"Margaret_Sanger",_article_in_''Encyclopedia_of_Leadership,_Volume_4'',_George_R._Goethals,_et_al_(eds),_''SAGE'',_2004,_p._1382.
Engelman_cites_facsimile_edited_by_Alex_Baskin,_''Woman_Rebel'',_New_York:_Archives_of_Social_History,_1976._Facsimile_of_original._In_these_early_years_of_Sanger's_activism,_she_viewed_birth_control_as_a_free-speech_issue,_and_when_she_started_publishing_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_one_of_her_goals_was_to_provoke_a_legal_challenge_to_the__which_banned_dissemination_of_information_about_contraception.Katz,_''Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1''.McCann_2010,_pp._750–51._Though_postal_authorities_suppressed_five_of_its_seven_issues,_Sanger_continuing_publication,_all_the_while_preparing,_''Family_Limitation'',_an_even_more_blatant_challenge_to_anti-birth_control_laws._This_16-page_pamphlet_contained_detailed_and_precise_information_and_graphic_descriptions_of_various_contraceptive_methods._In_August_1914_Margaret_Sanger_was_indicted_for_violating_postal_obscenity_laws_by_sending_the_''The_Woman_Rebel''_through_the_postal_system._Instead_of_standing_trial,_she_jumped_bail_and_fled_to_Canada._Then,_under_the_alias_"Bertha_Watson",_sailed_for_England._En_route_she_ordered_her_labor_associates_to_release_copies_of_the_''Family_Limitation''. Margaret_Sanger_spent_much_of_her_1914_exile_in_England,_where_contact_with_British_neo-Malthusianists_helped_refine_her_socioeconomic_justifications_for_birth_control._She_was_also_profoundly_influenced_by_the_liberation_theories_of_British_sexual_theorist_._Under_his_tutelage_she_formulated_a_new_rationale_that_would_liberate_women_not_just_by_making_sexual_intercourse_safe,_but_also_pleasurable._It_would,_in_effect,_free_women_from_the_inequality_of_sexual_experience._Early_in_1915,_Margaret_Sanger's_estranged_husband,_William_Sanger,_was_entrapped_into_giving_a_copy_of_''Family_Limitation''_to_a_representative_of_anti-vice_crusader_._William_Sanger_was_tried_and_convicted,_he_spent_thirty_days_in_jail,_while_also_escalating_interest_in_birth_control_as_a_civil_liberties_issue.|location=New_York|url=http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3921312?urlappend=%3Bseq=81|page=65}}|location=Reading,_Pennsylvania|date=1915-09-22|page=6}} ===Birth_control_movement=== Main_article:_ .]] Some_countries_in_northwestern_Europe_had_more_liberal_policies_towards_contraception_than_the_United_States_at_the_time,_and_when_Sanger_visited_a_Dutch_birth_control_clinic_in_1915,_she_learned_about_s_and_became_convinced_that_they_were_a_more_effective_means_of_contraception_than_the_suppositories_and_s_that_she_had_been_distributing_back_in_the_United_States._Diaphragms_were_generally_unavailable_in_the_United_States,_so_Sanger_and_others_began_importing_them_from_Europe,_in_defiance_of_United_States_law. In_1917,_she_started_publishing_the_monthly_periodical_''''.The_first_issue_of_''Birth_Control_Review''_was_published_in_February_1917. On_October_16,_1916,_Sanger_opened_a_family_planning_and_birth_control_clinic_at_46_Amboy_St._in_the__of_,_the_first_of_its_kind_in_the_United_States.''Selected_Papers,_vol_1'',_p._199._
Baker,_p._115._Nine_days_after_the_clinic_opened,_Sanger_was_arrested._Sanger's_bail_was_set_at_$500_and_she_went_back_home._Sanger_continued_seeing_some_women_in_the_clinic_until_the_police_came_a_second_time._This_time_Sanger_and_her_sister,_,_were_arrested_for_breaking_a_New_York_state_law_that_prohibited_distribution_of_contraceptives,_Sanger_was_also_charged_with_running_a_public_nuisance.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_to_the_Future,_p._109._Sanger_and_Ethel_went_to_trial_in_January_1917.Engelman,_p._101._Byrne_was_convicted_and_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse_but_went_on_hunger_strike._She_was_the_first_woman_in_the_US_to_be_force_fed._Only_when_Sanger_pledged_that_Byrne_would_never_break_the_law,_she_was_pardoned_after_ten_days.,_Sanger_was_convicted;_the_trial_judge_held_that_women_did_not_have_"the_right_to_copulate_with_a_feeling_of_security_that_there_will_be_no_resulting_conception."_|first_=_Jill_|_last_=_Lepore|_authorlink_=_Jill_Lepore_|_date_=_November_14,_2011_|_accessdate_=_November_13,_2011_|_title=_Birthright:_What's_next_for_Planned_Parenthood?_|_url_=_http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/14/111114fa_fact_lepore}}_Sanger_was_offered_a_more_lenient_sentence_if_she_promised_to_not_break_the_law_again,_but_she_replied:_"I_cannot_respect_the_law_as_it_exists_today."Cox,_p._65._For_this,_she_was_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse._An_initial_appeal_was_rejected,_but_in_a_subsequent_court_proceeding_in_1918,_the_birth_control_movement_won_a_victory_when_Judge__of_the__issued_a_ruling_which_allowed_doctors_to_prescribe_contraception.Engelman,_pp._101–3._The_publicity_surrounding_Sanger's_arrest,_trial,_and_appeal_sparked_birth_control_activism_across_the_United_States,_and_earned_the_support_of_numerous_donors,_who_would_provide_her_with_funding_and_support_for_future_endeavors.McCann,_2010,_p._751. Sanger_became_estranged_from_her_husband_in_1913,_and_the_couple's_divorce_was_finalized_in_1921.Cox,_p._76._Sanger's_second_husband_was_Noah_Slee._He_followed_Sanger_around_the_world_and_provided_much_of_Sanger's_financial_assistance._The_couple_got_married_in_September_1922,_but_the_public_did_not_know_about_it_until_February_1924._They_supported_each_other_with_their_pre-commitments.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_of_the_Future_pp._178-80. ===American_Birth_Control_League=== After_,_Sanger_shifted_away_from_radical_politics,_and_she_founded_the__(ABCL)_in_1921_to_enlarge_her_base_of_supporters_to_include_the_middle_class.Freedman,_Estelle_B.,_''The_essential_feminist_reader'',_Random_House_Digital,_Inc.,_2007,_p._211._The_founding_principles_of_the_ABCL_were_as_follows:"Birth_control:_What_it_is,_How_it_works,_What_it_will_do",_''The_Proceedings_of_the_First_American_Birth_Control_Conference'',_November_11,_12,_1921,_pp._207–8.
''The_Birth_Control_Review'',_Vol._V,_No._12,_December_1921,_Margaret_Sanger_(ed.),_p._18.
Sanger,_''Pivot_of_Civilization'',_2001_reprint_edited_by_Michael_W._Perry,_p._409.
These_principles_were_adopted_at_the_first_meeting_of_the_ABCL_in_late_1921.
We_hold_that_children_should_be_(1)_Conceived_in_love;_(2)_Born_of_the_mother's_conscious_desire;_(3)_And_only_begotten_under_conditions_which_render_possible_the_heritage_of_health._Therefore_we_hold_that_every_woman_must_possess_the_power_and_freedom_to_prevent_conception_except_when_these_conditions_can_be_satisfied.
Sanger's_appeal_of_her_conviction_for_the_Brownsville_clinic_secured_a_1918_court_ruling_that_exempted_physicians_from_the_law_that_prohibited_the_distribution_of_contraceptive_information_to_women—provided_it_was_prescribed_for_medical_reasons—she_established_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(CRB)_in_1923_to_exploit_this_loophole.Baker,_p._196._The_CRB_was_the_first_legal_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_it_was_staffed_entirely_by_female_doctors_and_social_workers.Baker,_pp._196–97.
''The_Selected_Papers,_Vol_2'',_p._54._The_clinic_received_a_large_amount_of_funding_from__and_his_family,_which_continued_to_make_donations_to_Sanger's_causes_in_future_decades,_but_generally_made_them_anonymously_to_avoid_public_exposure_of_the_family_name,Chesler,_pp._277,_293,_558.
_|location=New_York_|year=1988_|pages=191,_461–62 }}—crucial,_anonymous_Rockefeller_grants_to_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_and_support_for_population_control_and_to_protect_family_member_'s_political_career_since_openly_advocating_birth_control_could_have_led_to_the_Catholic_Church_opposing_him_politically.Chesler,_Ellen_''Woman_of_Valor:_Margaret_Sanger_and_the_Birth_Control_Movement_in_America'',_New_York:_Simon_and_Schuster,_1992,_p._425. John_D._Rockefeller_Jr._donated_five_thousand_dollars_to_her_American_Birth_Control_League_in_1924_and_a_second_time_in_1925.Katz,_Esther;_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel'',_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._430. In_1922,_she_traveled_to_China,_Korea,_and_Japan._In_China_she_observed_that_the_primary_method_of_family_planning_was_female_infanticide,_and_she_later_worked_with__to_establish_a_family_planning_clinic_in_Shanghai.Cohen,_pp._64–5._Sanger_visited_Japan_six_times,_working_with_Japanese_feminist__to_promote_birth_control.Baker,_p._275.
_Katō,_Shidzue,_''Facing_Two_Ways:_the_story_of_my_life'',_Stanford_University_Press,_1984,_p._xxviii.
D'Itri,_Patricia_Ward,_''Cross_Currents_in_the_International_Women's_Movement,_1848–1948'',_Popular_Press,_1999,_pp._163–67._This_was_ironic_since_ten_years_earlier_Sanger_had_accused_Katō_of_murder_and_praised_an_attempt_to_kill_her.Katz,_Esther_(ed.);_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel_1900-1928'',_Urbana_and_Chicago:_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._421. In_1926,_Sanger_gave_a_lecture_on_birth_control_to_the__in_Silver_Lake,_._She_described_it_as_"one_of_the_weirdest_experiences_I_had_in_lecturing,"_and_added_that_she_had_to_use_only_"the_most_elementary_terms,_as_though_I_were_trying_to_make_children_understand."_Sanger's_talk_was_well_received_by_the_group,_and_as_a_result,_"a_dozen_invitations_to_similar_groups_were_proffered." In_1928,_conflict_within_the_birth_control_movement_leadership_led_Sanger_to_resign_as_the_president_of_the_ABCL_and_take_full_control_of_the_CRB,_renaming_it_the_Birth_Control_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(BCCRB),_marking_the_beginning_of_a_schism_in_the_movement_that_would_last_until_1938.McCann__(1994),_pp._177–8.
Sanger_invested_a_great_deal_of_effort_communicating_with_the_general_public._From_1916_onward,_she_frequently_lectured—in_churches,_women's_clubs,_homes,_and_theaters—to_workers,_churchmen,_liberals,_socialists,_scientists,_and_upper-class_women._She_wrote_several_books_in_the_1920s_which_had_a_nationwide_impact_in_promoting_the_cause_of_birth_control._Between_1920_and_1926,_567,000_copies_of_''Woman_and_the_New_Race''_and_''The_Pivot_of_Civilization''_were_sold.Baker,_p._161._She_also_wrote_two_autobiographies_designed_to_promote_the_cause._The_first,_''My_Fight_for_Birth_Control'',_was_published_in_1931_and_the_second,_more_promotional_version,_''Margaret_Sanger:_An_Autobiography'',_was_published_in_1938. During_the_1920s,_Sanger_received_hundreds_of_thousands_of_letters,_many_of_them_written_in_desperation_by_women_begging_for_information_on_how_to_prevent_unwanted_pregnancies. The_number_of_letters_is_reported_as_"a_quarter_million",_"over_a_million",_or_"hundreds_of_thousands"_in_various_sources_Five_hundred_of_these_letters_were_compiled_into_the_1928_book,_''Motherhood_in_Bondage.''500_letters:_Cohen,_p._65. ===Planned_Parenthood_era=== Main_article:_ _from_1930_to_1973.]] In_1929,_Sanger_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control_in_order_to_lobby_for_legislation_to_overturn_restrictions_on_contraception.NYU_Margaret_Sanger_Papers_Project_[http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/aboutms/organization_ncflbc.php_"National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_on_Birth_Control"]_That_effort_failed_to_achieve_success,_so_Sanger_ordered_a__from_Japan_in_1932,_in_order_to_provoke_a_decisive_battle_in_the_courts._The_diaphragm_was_confiscated_by_the_United_States_government,_and_Sanger's_subsequent_legal_challenge_led_to__which_overturned_an_important_provision_of_the_Comstock_laws_which_prohibited_physicians_from_obtaining_contraceptives.Rose,_Melody,_''Abortion:_a_documentary_and_reference_guide'',_ABC-CLIO,_2008,_p._29._This_court_victory_motivated_the__in_1937_to_adopt_contraception_as_a_normal_medical_service_and_a_key_component_of_medical_school_curriculums. This_1936_contraception_court_victory_was_the_culmination_of_Sanger's_birth_control_efforts,_and_she_took_the_opportunity,_now_in_her_late_50s,_to_move_to_Tucson,_Arizona,_intending_to_play_a_less_critical_role_in_the_birth_control_movement._In_spite_of_her_original_intentions,_she_remained_active_in_the_movement_through_the_1950s.Occupation,_,_
Spouse(s)
William_Sanger_(1902–1921)They_became_estranged_in_1913,_but_the_divorce_was_not_finalized_until_1921._James_Noah_H._Slee_(1922–1943).
'''Margaret_Higgins_Sanger'''_(September_14,_1879 –_September_6,_1966)_was_an_American__activist,_,_and_._Sanger_popularized_the_term_''birth_control'',_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_established_organizations_that_evolved_into_the_._Sanger's_efforts_contributed_to_several_judicial_cases_that_helped_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._Sanger_is_a_frequent_target_of_criticism_by_opponents_of_birth_control_and_has_also_been_criticized_for_supporting_,_but_remains_an_iconic_figure_in_the_American__movement.Katz,_Esther_"Margaret_Sanger,"_''American_National_Biography''_(New_York:_Oxford_University_Press,_2000). In_1916,_Sanger_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_which_led_to_her_arrest_for_distributing_information_on_._Her_subsequent_trial_and_appeal_generated_enormous_support_for_her_cause._Sanger_felt_that_in_order_for_women_to_have_a_more_equal_footing_in_society_and_to_lead_healthier_lives,_they_needed_to_be_able_to_determine_when_to_bear_children._She_also_wanted_to_prevent_s,_so-called_back-alley_abortions,_which_were_common_at_the_time_because_abortions_were_usually_illegal._She_believed_that_while_abortion_was_sometimes_justified_it_should_generally_be_avoided,_and_she_considered_contraception_the_only_practical_way_to_avoid_the_use_of_abortions. In_1921,_Sanger_founded_the_,_which_later_became_the_._In_New_York_City,_she_organized_the_first_birth_control_clinic_staffed_by_all-female_doctors,_as_well_as_a_clinic_in__with_an_entirely_African-American_staff._In_1929,_she_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control,_which_served_as_the_focal_point_of_her_lobbying_efforts_to_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._From_1952_to_1959,_Sanger_served_as_president_of_the_._She_died_in_1966,_and_is_widely_regarded_as_a_founder_of_the_modern_birth_control_movement. ==Life== ===Early_life=== Sanger_was_born_Margaret_Louise_Higgins_in_1879_in_Corning,_New_York,History_of_the_Corning-Painted_Post_Area,_p. 240_to_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins,_an_Irish-born_stonemason_and_free-thinker,_and_Anne_Purcell_Higgins,_a_hard-working,_Roman_Catholic_Irish-American._Both_Anne_and_her_parents_immigrated_to_Canada_when_she_was_a_child,_due_to_the_._At_14_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins_immigrated_to_the_USA_and_when_Michael_turned_15_he_served_in_the__during_the_Civil_War,_where_he_was_a_drummer._After_leaving_the_army_he_studied_medicine_and_,_but_ultimately_chose_to_become_a_stonecutter,_making_stone_angels,_saints,_and_tombstones.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Publications,_pp._1-3._Michael_H._Higgins_was_a_Catholic_who_became_an_atheist_and_an_activist_for_women's_suffrage_and_free_public_education.;_Rosalind_Rosenberg,_''Divided_lives:_American_women_in_the_twentieth_century'',_p._82.__Anne_Higgins__went_through_18_pregnancies_(with_11_live_births)_in_22_years_before_dying_at_the_age_of_49._Sanger_was_the_sixth_of_eleven_children,_and_spent_much_of_her_youth_assisting_with_household_chores_and_caring_for_her_younger_siblings._Supported_by_her_two_older_sisters,_Margaret_Higgins_attended_,_and_then_in_1900_enrolled_in_White_Plains_Hospital_as_a_nurse_probationer._Her_1902_marriage_to_dashing_architect_William_Sanger_ended_her_formal_training.Sanger,_Margaret._''Autobiography''_(New_York:_Norton,_1938),_p._13;_Katz,_Esther,_et_al.,_eds,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1:_The_"Woman_Rebel"_1900-1928''_(Urbana:_Illinois_University_Press,_2003),_pp._4-5._Though_Margaret_Sanger_was_plagued_by_a_recurring_active__condition,_she_bore_three_children_and_the_couple_settled_down_to_a_quiet_life_in_. ===Social_activism=== In_1911,_after_a_fire_destroyed_their_home_in_,_the_Sangers_abandoned_the_suburbs_for_a_new_life_in_._Margaret_Sanger_worked_as_a_visiting_nurse_in_the_slums_of_the_,_while_her_husband_worked_as_an_architect_and_a_painter._Already_imbued_with_William_Sanger's_leftist_politics,_Margaret_Sanger_also_threw_herself_into_the_radical_politics_and_modernist_values_of_pre-__bohemia,_where_she_joined_the_Women's_Committee_of_the_New_York_Socialist_party._She_took_part_in_the_labor_actions_of_the_,_including_the_notable__and_the__and_she_became_involved_with_local_intellectuals,_artists,_socialists,_and_social_activists__including_,_,_,_and_. Her_political_interests,_emerging_feminism_and_nursing_experience_led_to_her_1912_column_on_sexual_education_entitled_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know"_for_the__magazine_the_''''.Sanger_wrote_two_series_of_articles_for_the_''New_York_Call'':_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_(1911–1912)_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know'"_(1912–1913)._By_her_days'_standards,_the_articles_were_extremely_frank_in_their_discussion_of_sexuality,_and_many_''New_York_Call''_readers_were_outraged_by_them._Other_readers,_however,_praised_the_series_for_its_candor,_one_stated_that_the_series_contained_"a_purer_morality_than_whole_libraries_full_of_hypocritical_cant_about_modesty.Chesler,_''Woman_of_Valor,''_pp._65-66.
_Both_were_later_published_in_book_form_in_1916.[http://www.utexas.edu/opa/blogs/culturalcompass/2010/11/04/what-every-girl-should-know-the-birth-control-movement-in-the-1910s_"‘What_Every_Girl_Should_Know’:_The_birth_control_movement_in_the_1910s"];_Engelman,_Peter._''A_History_of_Birth_Control_in_America''_(New_York:_Prager,_2010),_p._32;_Blanchard,_''Revolutionary_Sparks:_|Freedom_of_Expression_in_Modern_America_'',_p._50;_Coates_p._49. During_Margaret_Sanger's_work_among_the_working_class_of_immigrant_women_she_was_exposed_to_graphic_examples_of_women_forced_into_frequent_childbirth,_miscarriage,_and_self-induced_abortion_for_lack_of_information_on_how_to_avoid_unwanted_pregnancy._Access_to_contraceptive_information_was_prohibited_on_grounds_of_obscenity_by_the_1873_federal__and_a_host_of_state_laws._Searching_for_something_that_would_help_these_women,_Sanger_visited_public_libraries,_but_was_unable_to_find_information_on_contraception.Endres,_Kathleen_L.,_''Women's_Periodicals_in_the_United_States:_social_and_political_issues'',_p._448;_Endres_cites_Sanger,_''An_Autobiography'',_pp._95–96._Endres_cites_Kennedy,_p._19,_as_pointing_out_that_some_materials_on_birth_control_were_available_in_1913._These_problems_were_epitomized_in_a_story_that_Sanger_would_later_recount_in_her_speeches:_while_Sanger_was_working_as_a_nurse,_she_was_called_to_Sadie_Sachs'_apartment_after_Sachs_had_become_extremely_ill_due_to_a_self-induced_abortion._Afterward,_Sadie_begged_the_attending_doctor_to_tell_her_how_she_could_prevent_this_from_happening_again,_to_which_the_doctor_simply_gave_the_advice_to_remain_abstinent._A_few_months_later,_Sanger_was_called_back_to_the_Sachs'_apartment—only_this_time,_Sadie_died_shortly_after_Sanger_arrived_because_of_another_self-induced_abortion.Lader_(1955),_pp._44–50.
Baker,_pp._49–51.
Kennedy,_pp._16–18._Sanger_would_sometimes_end_the_story_by_saying,_"I_threw_my_nursing_bag_in_the_corner_and_announced ..._that_I_would_never_take_another_case_until_I_had_made_it_possible_for_working_women_in_America_to_have_the_knowledge_to_control_birth."_Although_Sadie_Sachs_was_possibly_a_fictional_composite_of_several_women_Sanger_had_known,_this_story_marks_the_time_when_Sanger_began_to_devote_her_life_to_help_desperate_women_before_they_were_driven_to_pursue_dangerous_and_illegal_abortions.Composite_story:_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._185._This_source_identifies_the_source_of_Sanger's_quote_as:_"Birth_Control",_Library_of_Congress_collection_of_Sanger's_papers:_microfilm:_reel_129:_frame_12,_April_1916. Awakened_to_the_connection_between_contraception_and_working-class_empowerment_by_radicals_like_,_Sanger_came_to_believe_that_only_by_liberating_women_from_the_risk_of_unwanted_pregnancy_would_the_fundamental_social_change_take_place,_she_then_proceeded_to_launch_a_campaign_to_challenge_governmental_censorship_of_contraceptive_information._She_would_set_up_a_series_confrontational_actions_designed_to_challenge_the_law_and_force_birth_control_to_become_a_topic_of_public_debate._Sanger's_trip_to_France_in_1913_exposed_her_to_what_Goldman_had_been_saying._Sanger's_experience_during_her_trip_to_France_directly_influence_''The_Women_Rebel''_newsletter._The_trip_to_France_was_also_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_her_marriage_with_William_Sanger. In_1914,_Sanger_launched_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_an_eight-page_monthly_newsletter_which_promoted_contraception_using_the_slogan_"".Kennedy,_pp._1,_22.The_slogan_"No_Gods,_No_Masters"_originated_in_a_flyer_distributed_by_the__in_the_.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Printing_Publications_Inc.,_2004,_pp._111-112._Sanger,_collaborating_with_anarchist_friends,_popularized_the_term_"birth_control"_as_a_more_candid_alternative_to_euphemisms_such_as_"family_limitation"The_term_"birth_control"_was_suggested_in_1914_by_a_young_friend_called_Otto_Bobstein –_Chesler,_p._97.
Katz,_''The_selected_papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._70.
Galvin,_Rachel._[http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/1998-09/sanger.html_Margaret_Sanger's_"Deeds_of_Terrible_Virtue"]_''Humanities'',_,_September/October_1998,_Vol._19/Number_5._and_proclaimed_that_each_woman_should_be_"the_absolute_mistress_of_her_own_body."Engelman,_Peter_C.,_"Margaret_Sanger",_article_in_''Encyclopedia_of_Leadership,_Volume_4'',_George_R._Goethals,_et_al_(eds),_''SAGE'',_2004,_p._1382.
Engelman_cites_facsimile_edited_by_Alex_Baskin,_''Woman_Rebel'',_New_York:_Archives_of_Social_History,_1976._Facsimile_of_original._In_these_early_years_of_Sanger's_activism,_she_viewed_birth_control_as_a_free-speech_issue,_and_when_she_started_publishing_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_one_of_her_goals_was_to_provoke_a_legal_challenge_to_the__which_banned_dissemination_of_information_about_contraception.Katz,_''Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1''.McCann_2010,_pp._750–51._Though_postal_authorities_suppressed_five_of_its_seven_issues,_Sanger_continuing_publication,_all_the_while_preparing,_''Family_Limitation'',_an_even_more_blatant_challenge_to_anti-birth_control_laws._This_16-page_pamphlet_contained_detailed_and_precise_information_and_graphic_descriptions_of_various_contraceptive_methods._In_August_1914_Margaret_Sanger_was_indicted_for_violating_postal_obscenity_laws_by_sending_the_''The_Woman_Rebel''_through_the_postal_system._Instead_of_standing_trial,_she_jumped_bail_and_fled_to_Canada._Then,_under_the_alias_"Bertha_Watson",_sailed_for_England._En_route_she_ordered_her_labor_associates_to_release_copies_of_the_''Family_Limitation''. Margaret_Sanger_spent_much_of_her_1914_exile_in_England,_where_contact_with_British_neo-Malthusianists_helped_refine_her_socioeconomic_justifications_for_birth_control._She_was_also_profoundly_influenced_by_the_liberation_theories_of_British_sexual_theorist_._Under_his_tutelage_she_formulated_a_new_rationale_that_would_liberate_women_not_just_by_making_sexual_intercourse_safe,_but_also_pleasurable._It_would,_in_effect,_free_women_from_the_inequality_of_sexual_experience._Early_in_1915,_Margaret_Sanger's_estranged_husband,_William_Sanger,_was_entrapped_into_giving_a_copy_of_''Family_Limitation''_to_a_representative_of_anti-vice_crusader_._William_Sanger_was_tried_and_convicted,_he_spent_thirty_days_in_jail,_while_also_escalating_interest_in_birth_control_as_a_civil_liberties_issue.|location=New_York|url=http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3921312?urlappend=%3Bseq=81|page=65}}|location=Reading,_Pennsylvania|date=1915-09-22|page=6}} ===Birth_control_movement=== Main_article:_ .]] Some_countries_in_northwestern_Europe_had_more_liberal_policies_towards_contraception_than_the_United_States_at_the_time,_and_when_Sanger_visited_a_Dutch_birth_control_clinic_in_1915,_she_learned_about_s_and_became_convinced_that_they_were_a_more_effective_means_of_contraception_than_the_suppositories_and_s_that_she_had_been_distributing_back_in_the_United_States._Diaphragms_were_generally_unavailable_in_the_United_States,_so_Sanger_and_others_began_importing_them_from_Europe,_in_defiance_of_United_States_law. In_1917,_she_started_publishing_the_monthly_periodical_''''.The_first_issue_of_''Birth_Control_Review''_was_published_in_February_1917. On_October_16,_1916,_Sanger_opened_a_family_planning_and_birth_control_clinic_at_46_Amboy_St._in_the__of_,_the_first_of_its_kind_in_the_United_States.''Selected_Papers,_vol_1'',_p._199._
Baker,_p._115._Nine_days_after_the_clinic_opened,_Sanger_was_arrested._Sanger's_bail_was_set_at_$500_and_she_went_back_home._Sanger_continued_seeing_some_women_in_the_clinic_until_the_police_came_a_second_time._This_time_Sanger_and_her_sister,_,_were_arrested_for_breaking_a_New_York_state_law_that_prohibited_distribution_of_contraceptives,_Sanger_was_also_charged_with_running_a_public_nuisance.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_to_the_Future,_p._109._Sanger_and_Ethel_went_to_trial_in_January_1917.Engelman,_p._101._Byrne_was_convicted_and_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse_but_went_on_hunger_strike._She_was_the_first_woman_in_the_US_to_be_force_fed._Only_when_Sanger_pledged_that_Byrne_would_never_break_the_law,_she_was_pardoned_after_ten_days.,_Sanger_was_convicted;_the_trial_judge_held_that_women_did_not_have_"the_right_to_copulate_with_a_feeling_of_security_that_there_will_be_no_resulting_conception."_|first_=_Jill_|_last_=_Lepore|_authorlink_=_Jill_Lepore_|_date_=_November_14,_2011_|_accessdate_=_November_13,_2011_|_title=_Birthright:_What's_next_for_Planned_Parenthood?_|_url_=_http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/14/111114fa_fact_lepore}}_Sanger_was_offered_a_more_lenient_sentence_if_she_promised_to_not_break_the_law_again,_but_she_replied:_"I_cannot_respect_the_law_as_it_exists_today."Cox,_p._65._For_this,_she_was_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse._An_initial_appeal_was_rejected,_but_in_a_subsequent_court_proceeding_in_1918,_the_birth_control_movement_won_a_victory_when_Judge__of_the__issued_a_ruling_which_allowed_doctors_to_prescribe_contraception.Engelman,_pp._101–3._The_publicity_surrounding_Sanger's_arrest,_trial,_and_appeal_sparked_birth_control_activism_across_the_United_States,_and_earned_the_support_of_numerous_donors,_who_would_provide_her_with_funding_and_support_for_future_endeavors.McCann,_2010,_p._751. Sanger_became_estranged_from_her_husband_in_1913,_and_the_couple's_divorce_was_finalized_in_1921.Cox,_p._76._Sanger's_second_husband_was_Noah_Slee._He_followed_Sanger_around_the_world_and_provided_much_of_Sanger's_financial_assistance._The_couple_got_married_in_September_1922,_but_the_public_did_not_know_about_it_until_February_1924._They_supported_each_other_with_their_pre-commitments.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_of_the_Future_pp._178-80. ===American_Birth_Control_League=== After_,_Sanger_shifted_away_from_radical_politics,_and_she_founded_the__(ABCL)_in_1921_to_enlarge_her_base_of_supporters_to_include_the_middle_class.Freedman,_Estelle_B.,_''The_essential_feminist_reader'',_Random_House_Digital,_Inc.,_2007,_p._211._The_founding_principles_of_the_ABCL_were_as_follows:"Birth_control:_What_it_is,_How_it_works,_What_it_will_do",_''The_Proceedings_of_the_First_American_Birth_Control_Conference'',_November_11,_12,_1921,_pp._207–8.
''The_Birth_Control_Review'',_Vol._V,_No._12,_December_1921,_Margaret_Sanger_(ed.),_p._18.
Sanger,_''Pivot_of_Civilization'',_2001_reprint_edited_by_Michael_W._Perry,_p._409.
These_principles_were_adopted_at_the_first_meeting_of_the_ABCL_in_late_1921.
We_hold_that_children_should_be_(1)_Conceived_in_love;_(2)_Born_of_the_mother's_conscious_desire;_(3)_And_only_begotten_under_conditions_which_render_possible_the_heritage_of_health._Therefore_we_hold_that_every_woman_must_possess_the_power_and_freedom_to_prevent_conception_except_when_these_conditions_can_be_satisfied.
Sanger's_appeal_of_her_conviction_for_the_Brownsville_clinic_secured_a_1918_court_ruling_that_exempted_physicians_from_the_law_that_prohibited_the_distribution_of_contraceptive_information_to_women—provided_it_was_prescribed_for_medical_reasons—she_established_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(CRB)_in_1923_to_exploit_this_loophole.Baker,_p._196._The_CRB_was_the_first_legal_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_it_was_staffed_entirely_by_female_doctors_and_social_workers.Baker,_pp._196–97.
''The_Selected_Papers,_Vol_2'',_p._54._The_clinic_received_a_large_amount_of_funding_from__and_his_family,_which_continued_to_make_donations_to_Sanger's_causes_in_future_decades,_but_generally_made_them_anonymously_to_avoid_public_exposure_of_the_family_name,Chesler,_pp._277,_293,_558.
_|location=New_York_|year=1988_|pages=191,_461–62 }}—crucial,_anonymous_Rockefeller_grants_to_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_and_support_for_population_control_and_to_protect_family_member_'s_political_career_since_openly_advocating_birth_control_could_have_led_to_the_Catholic_Church_opposing_him_politically.Chesler,_Ellen_''Woman_of_Valor:_Margaret_Sanger_and_the_Birth_Control_Movement_in_America'',_New_York:_Simon_and_Schuster,_1992,_p._425. John_D._Rockefeller_Jr._donated_five_thousand_dollars_to_her_American_Birth_Control_League_in_1924_and_a_second_time_in_1925.Katz,_Esther;_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel'',_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._430. In_1922,_she_traveled_to_China,_Korea,_and_Japan._In_China_she_observed_that_the_primary_method_of_family_planning_was_female_infanticide,_and_she_later_worked_with__to_establish_a_family_planning_clinic_in_Shanghai.Cohen,_pp._64–5._Sanger_visited_Japan_six_times,_working_with_Japanese_feminist__to_promote_birth_control.Baker,_p._275.
_Katō,_Shidzue,_''Facing_Two_Ways:_the_story_of_my_life'',_Stanford_University_Press,_1984,_p._xxviii.
D'Itri,_Patricia_Ward,_''Cross_Currents_in_the_International_Women's_Movement,_1848–1948'',_Popular_Press,_1999,_pp._163–67._This_was_ironic_since_ten_years_earlier_Sanger_had_accused_Katō_of_murder_and_praised_an_attempt_to_kill_her.Katz,_Esther_(ed.);_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel_1900-1928'',_Urbana_and_Chicago:_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._421. In_1926,_Sanger_gave_a_lecture_on_birth_control_to_the__in_Silver_Lake,_._She_described_it_as_"one_of_the_weirdest_experiences_I_had_in_lecturing,"_and_added_that_she_had_to_use_only_"the_most_elementary_terms,_as_though_I_were_trying_to_make_children_understand."_Sanger's_talk_was_well_received_by_the_group,_and_as_a_result,_"a_dozen_invitations_to_similar_groups_were_proffered." In_1928,_conflict_within_the_birth_control_movement_leadership_led_Sanger_to_resign_as_the_president_of_the_ABCL_and_take_full_control_of_the_CRB,_renaming_it_the_Birth_Control_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(BCCRB),_marking_the_beginning_of_a_schism_in_the_movement_that_would_last_until_1938.McCann__(1994),_pp._177–8.
Sanger_invested_a_great_deal_of_effort_communicating_with_the_general_public._From_1916_onward,_she_frequently_lectured—in_churches,_women's_clubs,_homes,_and_theaters—to_workers,_churchmen,_liberals,_socialists,_scientists,_and_upper-class_women._She_wrote_several_books_in_the_1920s_which_had_a_nationwide_impact_in_promoting_the_cause_of_birth_control._Between_1920_and_1926,_567,000_copies_of_''Woman_and_the_New_Race''_and_''The_Pivot_of_Civilization''_were_sold.Baker,_p._161._She_also_wrote_two_autobiographies_designed_to_promote_the_cause._The_first,_''My_Fight_for_Birth_Control'',_was_published_in_1931_and_the_second,_more_promotional_version,_''Margaret_Sanger:_An_Autobiography'',_was_published_in_1938. During_the_1920s,_Sanger_received_hundreds_of_thousands_of_letters,_many_of_them_written_in_desperation_by_women_begging_for_information_on_how_to_prevent_unwanted_pregnancies. The_number_of_letters_is_reported_as_"a_quarter_million",_"over_a_million",_or_"hundreds_of_thousands"_in_various_sources_Five_hundred_of_these_letters_were_compiled_into_the_1928_book,_''Motherhood_in_Bondage.''500_letters:_Cohen,_p._65. ===Planned_Parenthood_era=== Main_article:_ _from_1930_to_1973.]] In_1929,_Sanger_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control_in_order_to_lobby_for_legislation_to_overturn_restrictions_on_contraception.NYU_Margaret_Sanger_Papers_Project_[http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/aboutms/organization_ncflbc.php_"National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_on_Birth_Control"]_That_effort_failed_to_achieve_success,_so_Sanger_ordered_a__from_Japan_in_1932,_in_order_to_provoke_a_decisive_battle_in_the_courts._The_diaphragm_was_confiscated_by_the_United_States_government,_and_Sanger's_subsequent_legal_challenge_led_to__which_overturned_an_important_provision_of_the_Comstock_laws_which_prohibited_physicians_from_obtaining_contraceptives.Rose,_Melody,_''Abortion:_a_documentary_and_reference_guide'',_ABC-CLIO,_2008,_p._29._This_court_victory_motivated_the__in_1937_to_adopt_contraception_as_a_normal_medical_service_and_a_key_component_of_medical_school_curriculums. This_1936_contraception_court_victory_was_the_culmination_of_Sanger's_birth_control_efforts,_and_she_took_the_opportunity,_now_in_her_late_50s,_to_move_to_Tucson,_Arizona,_intending_to_play_a_less_critical_role_in_the_birth_control_movement._In_spite_of_her_original_intentions,_she_remained_active_in_the_movement_through_the_1950s.[58]

In 1937, Sanger became chairman of the newly formed Birth Control Council of America, and attempted to resolve the schism between the ABCL and the BCCRB.[59] Her efforts were successful, and the two organizations merged in 1939 as the Birth Control Federation of America.[60][note 6] Although Sanger continued in the role of president, she no longer wielded the same power as she had in the early years of the movement, and in 1942, more conservative forces within the organization changed the name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, a name Sanger objected to because she considered it too euphemistic.[61]

In 1946, Sanger helped found the International Committee on Planned Parenthood, which evolved into the [62] In the early 1950s, Sanger encouraged philanthropist Katharine McCormick to provide funding for biologist Gregory Pincus to develop the birth control pill which was eventually sold under the name Enovid.[63]

Death

Margaret Sanger Square, at the intersection of Mott Street and Bleecker Street in Manhattan

Sanger died of congestive heart failure in 1966 in Tucson, Arizona, aged 86, about a year after the event that marked the climax of her 50-year career: the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Griswold v. Connecticut, which legalized birth control in the United States.[note 7] Sanger is buried in Fishkill, New York, next to her sister, Nan Higgins, and her second husband, Noah Slee.[64] One of her surviving brothers was College Football Hall of Fame player and coach Bob Higgins.[65]

Legacy

Long after her death, Sanger has continued to be regarded as a leading figure in the battle for American women's rights. Sanger's story has been the subject of several biographies, including an award-winning biography published in 1970 by David Kennedy, and is also the subject of several films, including Choices of the Heart: The Margaret Sanger Story.[66] Sanger's writings are curated by two universities: New York University's history department maintains the Margaret Sanger Papers Project,[67] and Smith College's Sophia Smith Collection maintains the Margaret Sanger Papers collection.[68]

Sanger has been recognized with many important honors. In 1957, the American Humanist Association named her Humanist of the Year. Government authorities and other institutions have memorialized Sanger by dedicating several landmarks in her name, including a residential building on the Stony Brook University campus, a room in Wellesley College's library,[69] and Margaret Sanger Square in New York City's Greenwich Village.[70] In 1993, the Margaret Sanger Clinic—where she provided birth control services in New York in the mid twentieth century—was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.[71] In 1966, Planned Parenthood began issuing its Margaret Sanger Awards annually to honor "individuals of distinction in recognition of excellence and leadership in furthering reproductive health and reproductive rights."[72]

Many who are opposed to the legalization of abortion frequently condemn Sanger by questioning her fitness as a mother and criticizing her views on race, abortion, and eugenics.[73][74][note 8] In spite of such attacks, Sanger continues to be regarded as an icon for the American reproductive rights movement and woman's rights movement.

Controversies

Sexuality

While researching information on contraception Sanger read various treatises on sexuality in order to find information about birth control. She read The Psychology of Sex by the English psychologist Havelock Ellis and was heavily influenced by it.[75] While traveling in Europe in 1914, Sanger met Ellis.[76] Influenced by Ellis, Sanger adopted his view of sexuality as a powerful, liberating force.[77] This view provided another argument in favor of birth control, as it would enable women to fully enjoy sexual relations without the fear of an unwanted pregnancy.[78] Sanger also believed that sexuality, along with birth control, should be discussed with more candor.[77]

However, Sanger was opposed to excessive sexual indulgence. She stated "every normal man and woman has the power to control and direct his sexual impulse. Men and women who have it in control and constantly use their brain cells thinking deeply, are never sensual."[79][80] Sanger said that birth control would elevate women away from a position of being an object of lust and elevate sex away from purely being for satisfying lust, saying that birth control "denies that sex should be reduced to the position of sensual lust, or that woman should permit herself to be the instrument of its satisfaction."[81] Sanger wrote that masturbation was dangerous. She stated: "In my personal experience as a trained nurse while attending persons afflicted with various and often revolting diseases, no matter what their ailments, I never found any one so repulsive as the chronic masturbator. It would not be difficult to fill page upon page of heart-rending confessions made by young girls, whose lives were blighted by this pernicious habit, always begun so innocently."[82] She believed that women had the ability to control their sexual impulses, and should utilize that control to avoid sex outside of relationships marked by "confidence and respect." She believed that exercising such control would lead to the "strongest and most sacred passion."[83] However, Sanger was not opposed to homosexuality and praised Ellis for clarifying "the question of homosexuals... making the thing a—not exactly a perverted thing, but a thing that a person is born with different kinds of eyes, different kinds of structures and so forth... that he didn't make all homosexuals perverts—and I thought he helped clarify that to the medical profession and to the scientists of the world as perhaps one of the first ones to do that."[84] Sanger believed sex should be discussed with more candor, and praised Ellis for his efforts in this direction. She also blamed the suppression of discussion about it on Christianity.[84]

Eugenics

An advertisement for a book entitled
Sanger's 1920 book endorsed eugenics.

As part of her efforts to promote birth control, Sanger found common cause with proponents of eugenics, believing that they both sought to "assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit."[85] Sanger was a proponent of negative eugenics, which aims to improve human hereditary traits through social intervention by reducing the reproduction of those who were considered unfit.[86] Sanger's eugenic policies included an exclusionary immigration policy, free access to birth control methods and full family planning autonomy for the able-minded, and compulsory segregation or sterilization for the profoundly retarded.[87][88] In her book The Pivot of Civilization, she advocated coercion to prevent the "undeniably feeble-minded" from procreating.[89] Although Sanger supported negative eugenics, she asserted that eugenics alone was not sufficient, and that birth control was essential to achieve her goals.[90][91][92]

In contrast with eugenicist William Robinson, who advocated euthanasia for the unfit,[note 9] Sanger wrote, "we [do not] believe that the community could or should send to the lethal chamber the defective progeny resulting from irresponsible and unintelligent breeding."[93] Similarly, Sanger denounced the aggressive and lethal Nazi eugenics program.[88] In addition, Sanger believed the responsibility for birth control should remain in the hands of able-minded individual parents rather than the state, and that self-determining motherhood was the only unshakable foundation for racial betterment.[90][94]

Sanger also supported restrictive immigration policies. In "A Plan for Peace", a 1932 essay, she proposed a congressional department to address population problems. She also recommended that immigration exclude those "whose condition is known to be detrimental to the stamina of the race," and that sterilization and segregation be applied to those with incurable, hereditary disabilities.[87][88][95]

Race

W. E. B. Du Bois served on the board of Sanger's Harlem clinic.[96]

Sanger's writings echoed ideas about inferiority and loose morals of particular races that were widespread in the contemporary United States.[86] In one "What Every Girl Should Know" commentary, she observed that Aboriginal Australians were "just a step higher than the chimpanzee" with "little sexual control," as compared to the "normal man and Woman."[97] Elsewhere she bemoaned that traditional sexual ethics "... have in the past revealed their woeful inability to prevent the sexual and racial chaos into which the world has today drifted."[98]

Such attitudes did not keep her from collaborating with African-American leaders and professionals who saw a need for birth control in their communities. In 1929, James H. Hubert, a black social worker and leader of New York's Urban League, asked Sanger to open a clinic in Harlem.[99] Sanger secured funding from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and opened the clinic, staffed with black doctors, in 1930. The clinic was directed by a 15-member advisory board consisting of black doctors, nurses, clergy, journalists, and social workers. The clinic was publicized in the African-American press and in black churches, and it received the approval of W. E. B. Du Bois, founder of the NAACP.[100] She did not tolerate bigotry among her staff, nor would she tolerate any refusal to work within interracial projects.[101] Sanger's work with minorities earned praise from Martin Luther King, Jr., in his 1966 acceptance speech for the Margaret Sanger award.[102]

From 1939 to 1942 Sanger was an honorary delegate of the Birth Control Federation of America, which included a supervisory role—alongside Mary Lasker and Clarence Gamble—in the Negro Project, an effort to deliver birth control to poor black people.[103] Sanger wanted the Negro Project to include black ministers in leadership roles, but other supervisors did not. To emphasize the benefits of involving black community leaders, she wrote to Gamble "we do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members." This quote has been cited by Angela Davis to support her claims that Sanger wanted to exterminate black people.[104] However, New York University's Margaret Sanger Papers Project, argues that in writing that letter, "Sanger recognized that elements within the black community might mistakenly associate the Negro Project with racist sterilization campaigns in the Jim Crow South, unless clergy and other community leaders spread the word that the Project had a humanitarian aim."[105]

Freedom of speech

Sanger opposed censorship throughout her career, with a zeal comparable to her support for birth control. Sanger grew up in a home where iconoclastic orator Robert Ingersoll was admired.[106] During the early years of her activism, Sanger viewed birth control primarily as a free-speech issue, rather than as a feminist issue, and when she started publishing The Woman Rebel in 1914, she did so with the express goal of provoking a legal challenge to the Comstock laws banning dissemination of information about contraception.[21] In New York, Emma Goldman introduced Sanger to members of the Free Speech League, such as Edward Bliss Foote and Theodore Schroeder, and subsequently the League provided funding and advice to help Sanger with legal battles.[107]

Over the course of her career, Sanger was arrested at least eight times for expressing her views during an era in which speaking publicly about contraception was illegal.[108] Numerous times in her career, local government officials prevented Sanger from speaking by shuttering a facility or threatening her hosts.[109] In Boston in 1929, city officials under the leadership of James Curley threatened to arrest her if she spoke—so she turned the threat to her advantage and stood on stage, silent, with a gag over her mouth, while her speech was read by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr.[110]

Abortion

Sanger's family planning advocacy always focused on contraception, rather than abortion.[111][note 10] It was not until the mid-1960s, after Sanger's death, that the reproductive rights movement expanded its scope to include abortion rights as well as contraception.[note 11] Sanger was opposed to abortions, both because they were dangerous for the mother in the early 20th century and because she believed that life should not be terminated after conception. In her book Woman and the New Race, she wrote: "while there are cases where even the law recognizes an abortion as justifiable if recommended by a physician, I assert that the hundreds of thousands of abortions performed in America each year are a disgrace to civilization."[114]

Historian Rodger Streitmatter concluded that Sanger's opposition to abortion stemmed from concerns for the dangers to the mother, rather than moral concerns.[115] However, in her 1938 autobiography, Sanger noted that her opposition to abortion was based on the taking of life: "[In 1916] we explained what contraception was; that abortion was the wrong way no matter how early it was performed it was taking life; that contraception was the better way, the safer way—it took a little time, a little trouble, but was well worth while in the long run, because life had not yet begun."[116] And in her book Family Limitation, Sanger wrote that "no one can doubt that there are times when an abortion is justifiable but they will become unnecessary when care is taken to prevent conception. This is the only cure for abortions."[117]

Works

Books and pamphlets
  • What Every Mother Should Know – Originally published in 1911 or 1912, based on a series of articles Sanger published in 1911 in the New York Call, which were, in turn, based on a set of lectures Sanger gave to groups of Socialist party women in 1910–1911.[118] Multiple editions published through the 1920s, by Max N. Maisel and Sincere Publishing, with the title What Every Mother Should Know, or how six little children were taught the truth ... Online (1921 edition, Michigan State University)
  • Family Limitation – Originally published 1914 as a 16-page pamphlet; also published in several later editions. Online (1917, 6th edition, Michigan State University)
  • What Every Girl Should Know – Originally published 1916 by Max N. Maisel; 91 pages; also published in several later editions. Online (1920 edition); Online (1922 ed., Michigan State University)
  • The Case for Birth Control: A Supplementary Brief and Statement of Facts – May 1917, published to provide information to the court in a legal proceeding. Online (Google Books)
  • Woman and the New Race, 1920, Truth Publishing, foreword by Havelock Ellis. Online (Harvard University); Online (Project Gutenberg); Online (Google Books)
  • Debate on Birth Control – 1921, text of a debate between Sanger, Little Blue Book series by Haldeman-Julius Co. Online (1921, Michigan State University)
  • The Pivot of Civilization, 1922, Brentanos. Online (1922, Project Gutenberg); Online (1922, Google Books)
  • Motherhood in Bondage, 1928, Brentanos. Online (Google Books).
  • My Fight for Birth Control, 1931, New York: Farrar & Rinehart
  • An Autobiography. New York, NY: Cooper Square Press. 1938.  
  • Fight for Birth Control, 1916, New York] [1] (The Library of Congress)
  • Birth Control A Parent's Problem or Women's?" The Birth Control Review, Mar. 1919, 6-7.
Periodicals
Collections and anthologies
  • Sanger, Margaret, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1: The Woman Rebel, 1900–1928, Esther Katz, Cathy Moran Hajo, Peter Engelman (eds), University of Illinois Press, 2003
  • Sanger, Margaret, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 2: Birth Control Comes of Age, 1928–1939, Esther Katz, Cathy Moran Hajo, Peter Engelman (eds), University of Illinois Press, 2007
  • Sanger, Margaret, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 3: The Politics of Planned Parenthood, 1939–1966, Esther Katz, Cathy Moran Hajo, Peter Engelman (eds), University of Illinois Press, 2010
  • Works by Margaret Sanger at Project Gutenberg
  • The Margaret Sanger Papers at Smith College
  • The Margaret Sanger Papers Project at New York University
  • McElderry, Michael J. (1976). "Margaret Sanger: A Register of Her Papers in the Library of Congress". Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  • Correspondence between Sanger and McCormick, from The Pill documentary movie; supplementary material, PBS, American Experience (producers). online.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ They became estranged in 1913, but the divorce was not finalized until 1921.[1]
  2. ^ Sanger wrote two series of articles for the New York Call: "What Every Mother Should Know" (1911–1912) and "What Every Girl Should Know'" (1912–1913). By her days' standards, the articles were extremely frank in their discussion of sexuality, and many New York Call readers were outraged by them. Other readers, however, praised the series for its candor, one stated that the series contained "a purer morality than whole libraries full of hypocritical cant about modesty.[9]
    Both were later published in book form in 1916.[10]
  3. ^ The slogan "No Gods, No Masters" originated in a flyer distributed by the IWW in the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike.
  4. ^ The first issue of Birth Control Review was published in February 1917.
  5. ^ Caption at the bottom of this 1919 issue reads: "Must She Always Plead in Vain? 'You are a nurse—can you tell me? For the children's sake—help me!'"
  6. ^ Date of merger recorded as 1938 (not 1939) in: O'Conner, Karen, Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook, p. 743. O'Conner cites Gordon (1976).
  7. ^ In 1965, the case had struck down one of the remaining contraception-related Comstock laws in Connecticut and Massachusetts. However, Griswold only applied to marital relationships. A later case, Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), extended the Griswold holding to unmarried persons as well.
  8. ^ A typical pro-life publication critical of Sanger is: Franks, Angela, Margaret Sanger's Eugenic Legacy: The Control of Female Fertility, McFarland, 2005.
  9. ^ For example, in his book, Eugenics, Marriage and Birth Control (Practical Eugenics), Robinson wrote: "The best thing would be to gently chloroform these [unfit] children or give them a dose of potassium cyanide."
  10. ^ For a discussion of Sanger in relation to abortion see: Hitchcock, Susan Tyler, Roe v. Wade: Protecting a Woman's Right to Choose[112]
  11. ^ Sanger died in 1966, the same year the Roe v Wade Supreme Court decision.[113]

References

  1. ^ Baker, Jean H. Margaret Sanger: a life of passion. p. 126.  
  2. ^ Katz, Esther "Margaret Sanger," American National Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  3. ^ History of the Corning-Painted Post Area, p. 240
  4. ^ Sanger, Margaret, The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger, Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, pp. 1-3.
  5. ^ "Margaret Sanger". Infidels.org. Retrieved 2012-03-12. ; Rosalind Rosenberg, Divided lives: American women in the twentieth century, p. 82.
  6. ^ Cooper, James L.; Cooper, Sheila M. (1973). The Roots of American Feminist Thought. Alvin and Bacon. p. 219.  
  7. ^ Sanger, Margaret. Autobiography (New York: Norton, 1938), p. 13; Katz, Esther, et al., eds, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Vol. 1: The "Woman Rebel" 1900-1928 (Urbana: Illinois University Press, 2003), pp. 4-5.
  8. ^ a b c Chesler, Ellen (1992). Woman of valor: Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement in America. New York: Simon Schuster.  
  9. ^ Chesler, Woman of Valor, pp. 65-66.
  10. ^ "‘What Every Girl Should Know’: The birth control movement in the 1910s"; Engelman, Peter. A History of Birth Control in America (New York: Prager, 2010), p. 32; Blanchard, Revolutionary Sparks: |Freedom of Expression in Modern America , p. 50; Coates p. 49.
  11. ^ Endres, Kathleen L., Women's Periodicals in the United States: social and political issues, p. 448; Endres cites Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 95–96. Endres cites Kennedy, p. 19, as pointing out that some materials on birth control were available in 1913.
  12. ^ Lader (1955), pp. 44–50.
    Baker, pp. 49–51.
    Kennedy, pp. 16–18.
  13. ^ a b Viney, Wayne; King, D. A. (2003). A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  
  14. ^ Composite story: The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1, p. 185. This source identifies the source of Sanger's quote as: "Birth Control", Library of Congress collection of Sanger's papers: microfilm: reel 129: frame 12, April 1916.
  15. ^ Franks, Angela (2005). Margaret Sanger's Eugenic Legacy: the control of female fertility. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 28–29.  
  16. ^ Kennedy, pp. 1, 22.
  17. ^ Sanger, Margaret, The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger, Mineola, New York: Dover Printing Publications Inc., 2004, pp. 111-112.
  18. ^ The term "birth control" was suggested in 1914 by a young friend called Otto Bobstein – Chesler, p. 97.
    Katz, The selected papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1, p. 70.
    Galvin, Rachel. Margaret Sanger's "Deeds of Terrible Virtue" Humanities, National Endowment for the Humanities, September/October 1998, Vol. 19/Number 5.
  19. ^ Engelman, Peter C., "Margaret Sanger", article in Encyclopedia of Leadership, Volume 4, George R. Goethals, et al (eds), SAGE, 2004, p. 1382.
    Engelman cites facsimile edited by Alex Baskin, Woman Rebel, New York: Archives of Social History, 1976. Facsimile of original.
  20. ^ Katz, Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Vol. 1.
  21. ^ a b McCann 2010, pp. 750–51.
  22. ^ Douglas, Emily (1970). Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of the Future. Canada: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 57. 
  23. ^ Douglas, Emily (1970). Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of the Future. Canada: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 80. 
  24. ^ Haight, Anne Lyon (1935). Banned books: informal notes on some books banned for various reasons at various times and in various places. New York:  
  25. ^ "Anthony Comstock Dies In His Crusade".  
  26. ^ Selected Papers, vol 1, p. 199.
    Baker, p. 115.
  27. ^ Margaret Sanger: Pioneer to the Future, p. 109.
  28. ^ Engelman, p. 101.
  29. ^ "First woman in US given English dose". The Seattle Star. 27 Jan 1917. p. 1. Retrieved 16 Nov 2014. 
  30. ^ "Mrs. Byrne pardoned; pledged to obey law;". New York Times. 2 Feb 1917. Retrieved 16 Nov 2014. 
  31. ^  
  32. ^ a b Cox, p. 65.
  33. ^ Engelman, pp. 101–3.
  34. ^ McCann, 2010, p. 751.
  35. ^ Cox, p. 76.
  36. ^ Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of the Future pp. 178-80.
  37. ^ Freedman, Estelle B., The essential feminist reader, Random House Digital, Inc., 2007, p. 211.
  38. ^ "Birth control: What it is, How it works, What it will do", The Proceedings of the First American Birth Control Conference, November 11, 12, 1921, pp. 207–8.
    The Birth Control Review, Vol. V, No. 12, December 1921, Margaret Sanger (ed.), p. 18.
    Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, 2001 reprint edited by Michael W. Perry, p. 409.
    These principles were adopted at the first meeting of the ABCL in late 1921.
  39. ^ Baker, p. 196.
  40. ^ Baker, pp. 196–97.
    The Selected Papers, Vol 2, p. 54.
  41. ^ Chesler, pp. 277, 293, 558.
    Harr, John Ensor; Johnson, Peter J. (1988). The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family. New York:  —crucial, anonymous Rockefeller grants to the Clinical Research Bureau and support for population control
  42. ^ Chesler, Ellen Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992, p. 425.
  43. ^ Katz, Esther; Sanger, Margaret, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 1: The Woman Rebel, University of Illinois Press, 2003, p. 430.
  44. ^ Cohen, pp. 64–5.
  45. ^ Baker, p. 275.
    Katō, Shidzue, Facing Two Ways: the story of my life, Stanford University Press, 1984, p. xxviii.
    D'Itri, Patricia Ward, Cross Currents in the International Women's Movement, 1848–1948, Popular Press, 1999, pp. 163–67.
  46. ^ Katz, Esther (ed.); Sanger, Margaret, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 1: The Woman Rebel 1900-1928, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003, p. 421.
  47. ^ a b c
  48. ^ McCann (1994), pp. 177–8.
    "MSPP > About > Birth Control Organizations > Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau". Nyu.edu. 2005-10-18. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  49. ^ Sanger, Margaret (1938). The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger. W. W. Norton. p. 366.  
  50. ^ Baker, p. 161.
  51. ^ Motherhood in Bondage," #6, Winter 1993/4""". Margaret Sanger Papers Project. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  52. ^ The number of letters is reported as "a quarter million", "over a million", or "hundreds of thousands" in various sources
  53. ^ 500 letters: Cohen, p. 65.
  54. ^ Sanger, Margaret (2000). Motherhood in bondage. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press.  
  55. ^ NYU Margaret Sanger Papers Project "National Committee on Federal Legislation on Birth Control"
  56. ^ Rose, Melody, Abortion: a documentary and reference guide, ABC-CLIO, 2008, p. 29.
  57. ^ Biographical Note', Smith College, Margaret Sangers Papers"'". Asteria.fivecolleges.edu. 1966-09-06. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  58. Occupation,_,_Spouse(s)
    William_Sanger_(1902–1921)They_became_estranged_in_1913,_but_the_divorce_was_not_finalized_until_1921._James_Noah_H._Slee_(1922–1943).
    '''Margaret_Higgins_Sanger'''_(September_14,_1879 –_September_6,_1966)_was_an_American__activist,_,_and_._Sanger_popularized_the_term_''birth_control'',_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_established_organizations_that_evolved_into_the_._Sanger's_efforts_contributed_to_several_judicial_cases_that_helped_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._Sanger_is_a_frequent_target_of_criticism_by_opponents_of_birth_control_and_has_also_been_criticized_for_supporting_,_but_remains_an_iconic_figure_in_the_American__movement.Katz,_Esther_"Margaret_Sanger,"_''American_National_Biography''_(New_York:_Oxford_University_Press,_2000). In_1916,_Sanger_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_which_led_to_her_arrest_for_distributing_information_on_._Her_subsequent_trial_and_appeal_generated_enormous_support_for_her_cause._Sanger_felt_that_in_order_for_women_to_have_a_more_equal_footing_in_society_and_to_lead_healthier_lives,_they_needed_to_be_able_to_determine_when_to_bear_children._She_also_wanted_to_prevent_s,_so-called_back-alley_abortions,_which_were_common_at_the_time_because_abortions_were_usually_illegal._She_believed_that_while_abortion_was_sometimes_justified_it_should_generally_be_avoided,_and_she_considered_contraception_the_only_practical_way_to_avoid_the_use_of_abortions. In_1921,_Sanger_founded_the_,_which_later_became_the_._In_New_York_City,_she_organized_the_first_birth_control_clinic_staffed_by_all-female_doctors,_as_well_as_a_clinic_in__with_an_entirely_African-American_staff._In_1929,_she_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control,_which_served_as_the_focal_point_of_her_lobbying_efforts_to_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._From_1952_to_1959,_Sanger_served_as_president_of_the_._She_died_in_1966,_and_is_widely_regarded_as_a_founder_of_the_modern_birth_control_movement. ==Life== ===Early_life=== Sanger_was_born_Margaret_Louise_Higgins_in_1879_in_Corning,_New_York,History_of_the_Corning-Painted_Post_Area,_p. 240_to_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins,_an_Irish-born_stonemason_and_free-thinker,_and_Anne_Purcell_Higgins,_a_hard-working,_Roman_Catholic_Irish-American._Both_Anne_and_her_parents_immigrated_to_Canada_when_she_was_a_child,_due_to_the_._At_14_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins_immigrated_to_the_USA_and_when_Michael_turned_15_he_served_in_the__during_the_Civil_War,_where_he_was_a_drummer._After_leaving_the_army_he_studied_medicine_and_,_but_ultimately_chose_to_become_a_stonecutter,_making_stone_angels,_saints,_and_tombstones.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Publications,_pp._1-3._Michael_H._Higgins_was_a_Catholic_who_became_an_atheist_and_an_activist_for_women's_suffrage_and_free_public_education.;_Rosalind_Rosenberg,_''Divided_lives:_American_women_in_the_twentieth_century'',_p._82.__Anne_Higgins__went_through_18_pregnancies_(with_11_live_births)_in_22_years_before_dying_at_the_age_of_49._Sanger_was_the_sixth_of_eleven_children,_and_spent_much_of_her_youth_assisting_with_household_chores_and_caring_for_her_younger_siblings._Supported_by_her_two_older_sisters,_Margaret_Higgins_attended_,_and_then_in_1900_enrolled_in_White_Plains_Hospital_as_a_nurse_probationer._Her_1902_marriage_to_dashing_architect_William_Sanger_ended_her_formal_training.Sanger,_Margaret._''Autobiography''_(New_York:_Norton,_1938),_p._13;_Katz,_Esther,_et_al.,_eds,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1:_The_"Woman_Rebel"_1900-1928''_(Urbana:_Illinois_University_Press,_2003),_pp._4-5._Though_Margaret_Sanger_was_plagued_by_a_recurring_active__condition,_she_bore_three_children_and_the_couple_settled_down_to_a_quiet_life_in_. ===Social_activism=== In_1911,_after_a_fire_destroyed_their_home_in_,_the_Sangers_abandoned_the_suburbs_for_a_new_life_in_._Margaret_Sanger_worked_as_a_visiting_nurse_in_the_slums_of_the_,_while_her_husband_worked_as_an_architect_and_a_painter._Already_imbued_with_William_Sanger's_leftist_politics,_Margaret_Sanger_also_threw_herself_into_the_radical_politics_and_modernist_values_of_pre-__bohemia,_where_she_joined_the_Women's_Committee_of_the_New_York_Socialist_party._She_took_part_in_the_labor_actions_of_the_,_including_the_notable__and_the__and_she_became_involved_with_local_intellectuals,_artists,_socialists,_and_social_activists__including_,_,_,_and_. Her_political_interests,_emerging_feminism_and_nursing_experience_led_to_her_1912_column_on_sexual_education_entitled_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know"_for_the__magazine_the_''''.Sanger_wrote_two_series_of_articles_for_the_''New_York_Call'':_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_(1911–1912)_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know'"_(1912–1913)._By_her_days'_standards,_the_articles_were_extremely_frank_in_their_discussion_of_sexuality,_and_many_''New_York_Call''_readers_were_outraged_by_them._Other_readers,_however,_praised_the_series_for_its_candor,_one_stated_that_the_series_contained_"a_purer_morality_than_whole_libraries_full_of_hypocritical_cant_about_modesty.Chesler,_''Woman_of_Valor,''_pp._65-66.
    _Both_were_later_published_in_book_form_in_1916.[http://www.utexas.edu/opa/blogs/culturalcompass/2010/11/04/what-every-girl-should-know-the-birth-control-movement-in-the-1910s_"‘What_Every_Girl_Should_Know’:_The_birth_control_movement_in_the_1910s"];_Engelman,_Peter._''A_History_of_Birth_Control_in_America''_(New_York:_Prager,_2010),_p._32;_Blanchard,_''Revolutionary_Sparks:_|Freedom_of_Expression_in_Modern_America_'',_p._50;_Coates_p._49. During_Margaret_Sanger's_work_among_the_working_class_of_immigrant_women_she_was_exposed_to_graphic_examples_of_women_forced_into_frequent_childbirth,_miscarriage,_and_self-induced_abortion_for_lack_of_information_on_how_to_avoid_unwanted_pregnancy._Access_to_contraceptive_information_was_prohibited_on_grounds_of_obscenity_by_the_1873_federal__and_a_host_of_state_laws._Searching_for_something_that_would_help_these_women,_Sanger_visited_public_libraries,_but_was_unable_to_find_information_on_contraception.Endres,_Kathleen_L.,_''Women's_Periodicals_in_the_United_States:_social_and_political_issues'',_p._448;_Endres_cites_Sanger,_''An_Autobiography'',_pp._95–96._Endres_cites_Kennedy,_p._19,_as_pointing_out_that_some_materials_on_birth_control_were_available_in_1913._These_problems_were_epitomized_in_a_story_that_Sanger_would_later_recount_in_her_speeches:_while_Sanger_was_working_as_a_nurse,_she_was_called_to_Sadie_Sachs'_apartment_after_Sachs_had_become_extremely_ill_due_to_a_self-induced_abortion._Afterward,_Sadie_begged_the_attending_doctor_to_tell_her_how_she_could_prevent_this_from_happening_again,_to_which_the_doctor_simply_gave_the_advice_to_remain_abstinent._A_few_months_later,_Sanger_was_called_back_to_the_Sachs'_apartment—only_this_time,_Sadie_died_shortly_after_Sanger_arrived_because_of_another_self-induced_abortion.Lader_(1955),_pp._44–50.
    Baker,_pp._49–51.
    Kennedy,_pp._16–18._Sanger_would_sometimes_end_the_story_by_saying,_"I_threw_my_nursing_bag_in_the_corner_and_announced ..._that_I_would_never_take_another_case_until_I_had_made_it_possible_for_working_women_in_America_to_have_the_knowledge_to_control_birth."_Although_Sadie_Sachs_was_possibly_a_fictional_composite_of_several_women_Sanger_had_known,_this_story_marks_the_time_when_Sanger_began_to_devote_her_life_to_help_desperate_women_before_they_were_driven_to_pursue_dangerous_and_illegal_abortions.Composite_story:_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._185._This_source_identifies_the_source_of_Sanger's_quote_as:_"Birth_Control",_Library_of_Congress_collection_of_Sanger's_papers:_microfilm:_reel_129:_frame_12,_April_1916. Awakened_to_the_connection_between_contraception_and_working-class_empowerment_by_radicals_like_,_Sanger_came_to_believe_that_only_by_liberating_women_from_the_risk_of_unwanted_pregnancy_would_the_fundamental_social_change_take_place,_she_then_proceeded_to_launch_a_campaign_to_challenge_governmental_censorship_of_contraceptive_information._She_would_set_up_a_series_confrontational_actions_designed_to_challenge_the_law_and_force_birth_control_to_become_a_topic_of_public_debate._Sanger's_trip_to_France_in_1913_exposed_her_to_what_Goldman_had_been_saying._Sanger's_experience_during_her_trip_to_France_directly_influence_''The_Women_Rebel''_newsletter._The_trip_to_France_was_also_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_her_marriage_with_William_Sanger. In_1914,_Sanger_launched_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_an_eight-page_monthly_newsletter_which_promoted_contraception_using_the_slogan_"".Kennedy,_pp._1,_22.The_slogan_"No_Gods,_No_Masters"_originated_in_a_flyer_distributed_by_the__in_the_.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Printing_Publications_Inc.,_2004,_pp._111-112._Sanger,_collaborating_with_anarchist_friends,_popularized_the_term_"birth_control"_as_a_more_candid_alternative_to_euphemisms_such_as_"family_limitation"The_term_"birth_control"_was_suggested_in_1914_by_a_young_friend_called_Otto_Bobstein –_Chesler,_p._97.
    Katz,_''The_selected_papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._70.
    Galvin,_Rachel._[http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/1998-09/sanger.html_Margaret_Sanger's_"Deeds_of_Terrible_Virtue"]_''Humanities'',_,_September/October_1998,_Vol._19/Number_5._and_proclaimed_that_each_woman_should_be_"the_absolute_mistress_of_her_own_body."Engelman,_Peter_C.,_"Margaret_Sanger",_article_in_''Encyclopedia_of_Leadership,_Volume_4'',_George_R._Goethals,_et_al_(eds),_''SAGE'',_2004,_p._1382.
    Engelman_cites_facsimile_edited_by_Alex_Baskin,_''Woman_Rebel'',_New_York:_Archives_of_Social_History,_1976._Facsimile_of_original._In_these_early_years_of_Sanger's_activism,_she_viewed_birth_control_as_a_free-speech_issue,_and_when_she_started_publishing_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_one_of_her_goals_was_to_provoke_a_legal_challenge_to_the__which_banned_dissemination_of_information_about_contraception.Katz,_''Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1''.McCann_2010,_pp._750–51._Though_postal_authorities_suppressed_five_of_its_seven_issues,_Sanger_continuing_publication,_all_the_while_preparing,_''Family_Limitation'',_an_even_more_blatant_challenge_to_anti-birth_control_laws._This_16-page_pamphlet_contained_detailed_and_precise_information_and_graphic_descriptions_of_various_contraceptive_methods._In_August_1914_Margaret_Sanger_was_indicted_for_violating_postal_obscenity_laws_by_sending_the_''The_Woman_Rebel''_through_the_postal_system._Instead_of_standing_trial,_she_jumped_bail_and_fled_to_Canada._Then,_under_the_alias_"Bertha_Watson",_sailed_for_England._En_route_she_ordered_her_labor_associates_to_release_copies_of_the_''Family_Limitation''. Margaret_Sanger_spent_much_of_her_1914_exile_in_England,_where_contact_with_British_neo-Malthusianists_helped_refine_her_socioeconomic_justifications_for_birth_control._She_was_also_profoundly_influenced_by_the_liberation_theories_of_British_sexual_theorist_._Under_his_tutelage_she_formulated_a_new_rationale_that_would_liberate_women_not_just_by_making_sexual_intercourse_safe,_but_also_pleasurable._It_would,_in_effect,_free_women_from_the_inequality_of_sexual_experience._Early_in_1915,_Margaret_Sanger's_estranged_husband,_William_Sanger,_was_entrapped_into_giving_a_copy_of_''Family_Limitation''_to_a_representative_of_anti-vice_crusader_._William_Sanger_was_tried_and_convicted,_he_spent_thirty_days_in_jail,_while_also_escalating_interest_in_birth_control_as_a_civil_liberties_issue.|location=New_York|url=http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3921312?urlappend=%3Bseq=81|page=65}}|location=Reading,_Pennsylvania|date=1915-09-22|page=6}} ===Birth_control_movement=== Main_article:_
.]] Some_countries_in_northwestern_Europe_had_more_liberal_policies_towards_contraception_than_the_United_States_at_the_time,_and_when_Sanger_visited_a_Dutch_birth_control_clinic_in_1915,_she_learned_about_s_and_became_convinced_that_they_were_a_more_effective_means_of_contraception_than_the_suppositories_and_s_that_she_had_been_distributing_back_in_the_United_States._Diaphragms_were_generally_unavailable_in_the_United_States,_so_Sanger_and_others_began_importing_them_from_Europe,_in_defiance_of_United_States_law. In_1917,_she_started_publishing_the_monthly_periodical_''''.The_first_issue_of_''Birth_Control_Review''_was_published_in_February_1917. On_October_16,_1916,_Sanger_opened_a_family_planning_and_birth_control_clinic_at_46_Amboy_St._in_the__of_,_the_first_of_its_kind_in_the_United_States.''Selected_Papers,_vol_1'',_p._199._
Baker,_p._115._Nine_days_after_the_clinic_opened,_Sanger_was_arrested._Sanger's_bail_was_set_at_$500_and_she_went_back_home._Sanger_continued_seeing_some_women_in_the_clinic_until_the_police_came_a_second_time._This_time_Sanger_and_her_sister,_,_were_arrested_for_breaking_a_New_York_state_law_that_prohibited_distribution_of_contraceptives,_Sanger_was_also_charged_with_running_a_public_nuisance.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_to_the_Future,_p._109._Sanger_and_Ethel_went_to_trial_in_January_1917.Engelman,_p._101._Byrne_was_convicted_and_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse_but_went_on_hunger_strike._She_was_the_first_woman_in_the_US_to_be_force_fed._Only_when_Sanger_pledged_that_Byrne_would_never_break_the_law,_she_was_pardoned_after_ten_days.,_Sanger_was_convicted;_the_trial_judge_held_that_women_did_not_have_"the_right_to_copulate_with_a_feeling_of_security_that_there_will_be_no_resulting_conception."_|first_=_Jill_|_last_=_Lepore|_authorlink_=_Jill_Lepore_|_date_=_November_14,_2011_|_accessdate_=_November_13,_2011_|_title=_Birthright:_What's_next_for_Planned_Parenthood?_|_url_=_http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/14/111114fa_fact_lepore}}_Sanger_was_offered_a_more_lenient_sentence_if_she_promised_to_not_break_the_law_again,_but_she_replied:_"I_cannot_respect_the_law_as_it_exists_today."Cox,_p._65._For_this,_she_was_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse._An_initial_appeal_was_rejected,_but_in_a_subsequent_court_proceeding_in_1918,_the_birth_control_movement_won_a_victory_when_Judge__of_the__issued_a_ruling_which_allowed_doctors_to_prescribe_contraception.Engelman,_pp._101–3._The_publicity_surrounding_Sanger's_arrest,_trial,_and_appeal_sparked_birth_control_activism_across_the_United_States,_and_earned_the_support_of_numerous_donors,_who_would_provide_her_with_funding_and_support_for_future_endeavors.McCann,_2010,_p._751. Sanger_became_estranged_from_her_husband_in_1913,_and_the_couple's_divorce_was_finalized_in_1921.Cox,_p._76._Sanger's_second_husband_was_Noah_Slee._He_followed_Sanger_around_the_world_and_provided_much_of_Sanger's_financial_assistance._The_couple_got_married_in_September_1922,_but_the_public_did_not_know_about_it_until_February_1924._They_supported_each_other_with_their_pre-commitments.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_of_the_Future_pp._178-80. ===American_Birth_Control_League=== After_,_Sanger_shifted_away_from_radical_politics,_and_she_founded_the__(ABCL)_in_1921_to_enlarge_her_base_of_supporters_to_include_the_middle_class.Freedman,_Estelle_B.,_''The_essential_feminist_reader'',_Random_House_Digital,_Inc.,_2007,_p._211._The_founding_principles_of_the_ABCL_were_as_follows:"Birth_control:_What_it_is,_How_it_works,_What_it_will_do",_''The_Proceedings_of_the_First_American_Birth_Control_Conference'',_November_11,_12,_1921,_pp._207–8.
''The_Birth_Control_Review'',_Vol._V,_No._12,_December_1921,_Margaret_Sanger_(ed.),_p._18.
Sanger,_''Pivot_of_Civilization'',_2001_reprint_edited_by_Michael_W._Perry,_p._409.
These_principles_were_adopted_at_the_first_meeting_of_the_ABCL_in_late_1921.
We_hold_that_children_should_be_(1)_Conceived_in_love;_(2)_Born_of_the_mother's_conscious_desire;_(3)_And_only_begotten_under_conditions_which_render_possible_the_heritage_of_health._Therefore_we_hold_that_every_woman_must_possess_the_power_and_freedom_to_prevent_conception_except_when_these_conditions_can_be_satisfied.
Sanger's_appeal_of_her_conviction_for_the_Brownsville_clinic_secured_a_1918_court_ruling_that_exempted_physicians_from_the_law_that_prohibited_the_distribution_of_contraceptive_information_to_women—provided_it_was_prescribed_for_medical_reasons—she_established_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(CRB)_in_1923_to_exploit_this_loophole.Baker,_p._196._The_CRB_was_the_first_legal_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_it_was_staffed_entirely_by_female_doctors_and_social_workers.Baker,_pp._196–97.
''The_Selected_Papers,_Vol_2'',_p._54._The_clinic_received_a_large_amount_of_funding_from__and_his_family,_which_continued_to_make_donations_to_Sanger's_causes_in_future_decades,_but_generally_made_them_anonymously_to_avoid_public_exposure_of_the_family_name,Chesler,_pp._277,_293,_558.
_|location=New_York_|year=1988_|pages=191,_461–62 }}—crucial,_anonymous_Rockefeller_grants_to_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_and_support_for_population_control_and_to_protect_family_member_'s_political_career_since_openly_advocating_birth_control_could_have_led_to_the_Catholic_Church_opposing_him_politically.Chesler,_Ellen_''Woman_of_Valor:_Margaret_Sanger_and_the_Birth_Control_Movement_in_America'',_New_York:_Simon_and_Schuster,_1992,_p._425. John_D._Rockefeller_Jr._donated_five_thousand_dollars_to_her_American_Birth_Control_League_in_1924_and_a_second_time_in_1925.Katz,_Esther;_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel'',_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._430. In_1922,_she_traveled_to_China,_Korea,_and_Japan._In_China_she_observed_that_the_primary_method_of_family_planning_was_female_infanticide,_and_she_later_worked_with__to_establish_a_family_planning_clinic_in_Shanghai.Cohen,_pp._64–5._Sanger_visited_Japan_six_times,_working_with_Japanese_feminist__to_promote_birth_control.Baker,_p._275.
_Katō,_Shidzue,_''Facing_Two_Ways:_the_story_of_my_life'',_Stanford_University_Press,_1984,_p._xxviii.
D'Itri,_Patricia_Ward,_''Cross_Currents_in_the_International_Women's_Movement,_1848–1948'',_Popular_Press,_1999,_pp._163–67._This_was_ironic_since_ten_years_earlier_Sanger_had_accused_Katō_of_murder_and_praised_an_attempt_to_kill_her.Katz,_Esther_(ed.);_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel_1900-1928'',_Urbana_and_Chicago:_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._421. In_1926,_Sanger_gave_a_lecture_on_birth_control_to_the__in_Silver_Lake,_._She_described_it_as_"one_of_the_weirdest_experiences_I_had_in_lecturing,"_and_added_that_she_had_to_use_only_"the_most_elementary_terms,_as_though_I_were_trying_to_make_children_understand."_Sanger's_talk_was_well_received_by_the_group,_and_as_a_result,_"a_dozen_invitations_to_similar_groups_were_proffered." In_1928,_conflict_within_the_birth_control_movement_leadership_led_Sanger_to_resign_as_the_president_of_the_ABCL_and_take_full_control_of_the_CRB,_renaming_it_the_Birth_Control_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(BCCRB),_marking_the_beginning_of_a_schism_in_the_movement_that_would_last_until_1938.McCann__(1994),_pp._177–8.
Sanger_invested_a_great_deal_of_effort_communicating_with_the_general_public._From_1916_onward,_she_frequently_lectured—in_churches,_women's_clubs,_homes,_and_theaters—to_workers,_churchmen,_liberals,_socialists,_scientists,_and_upper-class_women._She_wrote_several_books_in_the_1920s_which_had_a_nationwide_impact_in_promoting_the_cause_of_birth_control._Between_1920_and_1926,_567,000_copies_of_''Woman_and_the_New_Race''_and_''The_Pivot_of_Civilization''_were_sold.Baker,_p._161._She_also_wrote_two_autobiographies_designed_to_promote_the_cause._The_first,_''My_Fight_for_Birth_Control'',_was_published_in_1931_and_the_second,_more_promotional_version,_''Margaret_Sanger:_An_Autobiography'',_was_published_in_1938. During_the_1920s,_Sanger_received_hundreds_of_thousands_of_letters,_many_of_them_written_in_desperation_by_women_begging_for_information_on_how_to_prevent_unwanted_pregnancies. The_number_of_letters_is_reported_as_"a_quarter_million",_"over_a_million",_or_"hundreds_of_thousands"_in_various_sources_Five_hundred_of_these_letters_were_compiled_into_the_1928_book,_''Motherhood_in_Bondage.''500_letters:_Cohen,_p._65. ===Planned_Parenthood_era=== Main_article:_ _from_1930_to_1973.]] In_1929,_Sanger_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control_in_order_to_lobby_for_legislation_to_overturn_restrictions_on_contraception.NYU_Margaret_Sanger_Papers_Project_[http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/aboutms/organization_ncflbc.php_"National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_on_Birth_Control"]_That_effort_failed_to_achieve_success,_so_Sanger_ordered_a__from_Japan_in_1932,_in_order_to_provoke_a_decisive_battle_in_the_courts._The_diaphragm_was_confiscated_by_the_United_States_government,_and_Sanger's_subsequent_legal_challenge_led_to__which_overturned_an_important_provision_of_the_Comstock_laws_which_prohibited_physicians_from_obtaining_contraceptives.Rose,_Melody,_''Abortion:_a_documentary_and_reference_guide'',_ABC-CLIO,_2008,_p._29._This_court_victory_motivated_the__in_1937_to_adopt_contraception_as_a_normal_medical_service_and_a_key_component_of_medical_school_curriculums. This_1936_contraception_court_victory_was_the_culmination_of_Sanger's_birth_control_efforts,_and_she_took_the_opportunity,_now_in_her_late_50s,_to_move_to_Tucson,_Arizona,_intending_to_play_a_less_critical_role_in_the_birth_control_movement._In_spite_of_her_original_intentions,_she_remained_active_in_the_movement_through_the_1950s.Occupation,_,_Spouse(s)
William_Sanger_(1902–1921)They_became_estranged_in_1913,_but_the_divorce_was_not_finalized_until_1921._James_Noah_H._Slee_(1922–1943).
'''Margaret_Higgins_Sanger'''_(September_14,_1879 –_September_6,_1966)_was_an_American__activist,_,_and_._Sanger_popularized_the_term_''birth_control'',_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_established_organizations_that_evolved_into_the_._Sanger's_efforts_contributed_to_several_judicial_cases_that_helped_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._Sanger_is_a_frequent_target_of_criticism_by_opponents_of_birth_control_and_has_also_been_criticized_for_supporting_,_but_remains_an_iconic_figure_in_the_American__movement.Katz,_Esther_"Margaret_Sanger,"_''American_National_Biography''_(New_York:_Oxford_University_Press,_2000). In_1916,_Sanger_opened_the_first_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_which_led_to_her_arrest_for_distributing_information_on_._Her_subsequent_trial_and_appeal_generated_enormous_support_for_her_cause._Sanger_felt_that_in_order_for_women_to_have_a_more_equal_footing_in_society_and_to_lead_healthier_lives,_they_needed_to_be_able_to_determine_when_to_bear_children._She_also_wanted_to_prevent_s,_so-called_back-alley_abortions,_which_were_common_at_the_time_because_abortions_were_usually_illegal._She_believed_that_while_abortion_was_sometimes_justified_it_should_generally_be_avoided,_and_she_considered_contraception_the_only_practical_way_to_avoid_the_use_of_abortions. In_1921,_Sanger_founded_the_,_which_later_became_the_._In_New_York_City,_she_organized_the_first_birth_control_clinic_staffed_by_all-female_doctors,_as_well_as_a_clinic_in__with_an_entirely_African-American_staff._In_1929,_she_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control,_which_served_as_the_focal_point_of_her_lobbying_efforts_to_legalize_contraception_in_the_United_States._From_1952_to_1959,_Sanger_served_as_president_of_the_._She_died_in_1966,_and_is_widely_regarded_as_a_founder_of_the_modern_birth_control_movement. ==Life== ===Early_life=== Sanger_was_born_Margaret_Louise_Higgins_in_1879_in_Corning,_New_York,History_of_the_Corning-Painted_Post_Area,_p. 240_to_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins,_an_Irish-born_stonemason_and_free-thinker,_and_Anne_Purcell_Higgins,_a_hard-working,_Roman_Catholic_Irish-American._Both_Anne_and_her_parents_immigrated_to_Canada_when_she_was_a_child,_due_to_the_._At_14_Michael_Hennessey_Higgins_immigrated_to_the_USA_and_when_Michael_turned_15_he_served_in_the__during_the_Civil_War,_where_he_was_a_drummer._After_leaving_the_army_he_studied_medicine_and_,_but_ultimately_chose_to_become_a_stonecutter,_making_stone_angels,_saints,_and_tombstones.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Publications,_pp._1-3._Michael_H._Higgins_was_a_Catholic_who_became_an_atheist_and_an_activist_for_women's_suffrage_and_free_public_education.;_Rosalind_Rosenberg,_''Divided_lives:_American_women_in_the_twentieth_century'',_p._82.__Anne_Higgins__went_through_18_pregnancies_(with_11_live_births)_in_22_years_before_dying_at_the_age_of_49._Sanger_was_the_sixth_of_eleven_children,_and_spent_much_of_her_youth_assisting_with_household_chores_and_caring_for_her_younger_siblings._Supported_by_her_two_older_sisters,_Margaret_Higgins_attended_,_and_then_in_1900_enrolled_in_White_Plains_Hospital_as_a_nurse_probationer._Her_1902_marriage_to_dashing_architect_William_Sanger_ended_her_formal_training.Sanger,_Margaret._''Autobiography''_(New_York:_Norton,_1938),_p._13;_Katz,_Esther,_et_al.,_eds,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1:_The_"Woman_Rebel"_1900-1928''_(Urbana:_Illinois_University_Press,_2003),_pp._4-5._Though_Margaret_Sanger_was_plagued_by_a_recurring_active__condition,_she_bore_three_children_and_the_couple_settled_down_to_a_quiet_life_in_. ===Social_activism=== In_1911,_after_a_fire_destroyed_their_home_in_,_the_Sangers_abandoned_the_suburbs_for_a_new_life_in_._Margaret_Sanger_worked_as_a_visiting_nurse_in_the_slums_of_the_,_while_her_husband_worked_as_an_architect_and_a_painter._Already_imbued_with_William_Sanger's_leftist_politics,_Margaret_Sanger_also_threw_herself_into_the_radical_politics_and_modernist_values_of_pre-__bohemia,_where_she_joined_the_Women's_Committee_of_the_New_York_Socialist_party._She_took_part_in_the_labor_actions_of_the_,_including_the_notable__and_the__and_she_became_involved_with_local_intellectuals,_artists,_socialists,_and_social_activists__including_,_,_,_and_. Her_political_interests,_emerging_feminism_and_nursing_experience_led_to_her_1912_column_on_sexual_education_entitled_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know"_for_the__magazine_the_''''.Sanger_wrote_two_series_of_articles_for_the_''New_York_Call'':_"What_Every_Mother_Should_Know"_(1911–1912)_and_"What_Every_Girl_Should_Know'"_(1912–1913)._By_her_days'_standards,_the_articles_were_extremely_frank_in_their_discussion_of_sexuality,_and_many_''New_York_Call''_readers_were_outraged_by_them._Other_readers,_however,_praised_the_series_for_its_candor,_one_stated_that_the_series_contained_"a_purer_morality_than_whole_libraries_full_of_hypocritical_cant_about_modesty.Chesler,_''Woman_of_Valor,''_pp._65-66.
_Both_were_later_published_in_book_form_in_1916.[http://www.utexas.edu/opa/blogs/culturalcompass/2010/11/04/what-every-girl-should-know-the-birth-control-movement-in-the-1910s_"‘What_Every_Girl_Should_Know’:_The_birth_control_movement_in_the_1910s"];_Engelman,_Peter._''A_History_of_Birth_Control_in_America''_(New_York:_Prager,_2010),_p._32;_Blanchard,_''Revolutionary_Sparks:_|Freedom_of_Expression_in_Modern_America_'',_p._50;_Coates_p._49. During_Margaret_Sanger's_work_among_the_working_class_of_immigrant_women_she_was_exposed_to_graphic_examples_of_women_forced_into_frequent_childbirth,_miscarriage,_and_self-induced_abortion_for_lack_of_information_on_how_to_avoid_unwanted_pregnancy._Access_to_contraceptive_information_was_prohibited_on_grounds_of_obscenity_by_the_1873_federal__and_a_host_of_state_laws._Searching_for_something_that_would_help_these_women,_Sanger_visited_public_libraries,_but_was_unable_to_find_information_on_contraception.Endres,_Kathleen_L.,_''Women's_Periodicals_in_the_United_States:_social_and_political_issues'',_p._448;_Endres_cites_Sanger,_''An_Autobiography'',_pp._95–96._Endres_cites_Kennedy,_p._19,_as_pointing_out_that_some_materials_on_birth_control_were_available_in_1913._These_problems_were_epitomized_in_a_story_that_Sanger_would_later_recount_in_her_speeches:_while_Sanger_was_working_as_a_nurse,_she_was_called_to_Sadie_Sachs'_apartment_after_Sachs_had_become_extremely_ill_due_to_a_self-induced_abortion._Afterward,_Sadie_begged_the_attending_doctor_to_tell_her_how_she_could_prevent_this_from_happening_again,_to_which_the_doctor_simply_gave_the_advice_to_remain_abstinent._A_few_months_later,_Sanger_was_called_back_to_the_Sachs'_apartment—only_this_time,_Sadie_died_shortly_after_Sanger_arrived_because_of_another_self-induced_abortion.Lader_(1955),_pp._44–50.
Baker,_pp._49–51.
Kennedy,_pp._16–18._Sanger_would_sometimes_end_the_story_by_saying,_"I_threw_my_nursing_bag_in_the_corner_and_announced ..._that_I_would_never_take_another_case_until_I_had_made_it_possible_for_working_women_in_America_to_have_the_knowledge_to_control_birth."_Although_Sadie_Sachs_was_possibly_a_fictional_composite_of_several_women_Sanger_had_known,_this_story_marks_the_time_when_Sanger_began_to_devote_her_life_to_help_desperate_women_before_they_were_driven_to_pursue_dangerous_and_illegal_abortions.Composite_story:_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._185._This_source_identifies_the_source_of_Sanger's_quote_as:_"Birth_Control",_Library_of_Congress_collection_of_Sanger's_papers:_microfilm:_reel_129:_frame_12,_April_1916. Awakened_to_the_connection_between_contraception_and_working-class_empowerment_by_radicals_like_,_Sanger_came_to_believe_that_only_by_liberating_women_from_the_risk_of_unwanted_pregnancy_would_the_fundamental_social_change_take_place,_she_then_proceeded_to_launch_a_campaign_to_challenge_governmental_censorship_of_contraceptive_information._She_would_set_up_a_series_confrontational_actions_designed_to_challenge_the_law_and_force_birth_control_to_become_a_topic_of_public_debate._Sanger's_trip_to_France_in_1913_exposed_her_to_what_Goldman_had_been_saying._Sanger's_experience_during_her_trip_to_France_directly_influence_''The_Women_Rebel''_newsletter._The_trip_to_France_was_also_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_her_marriage_with_William_Sanger. In_1914,_Sanger_launched_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_an_eight-page_monthly_newsletter_which_promoted_contraception_using_the_slogan_"".Kennedy,_pp._1,_22.The_slogan_"No_Gods,_No_Masters"_originated_in_a_flyer_distributed_by_the__in_the_.Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Autobiography_of_Margaret_Sanger'',_Mineola,_New_York:_Dover_Printing_Publications_Inc.,_2004,_pp._111-112._Sanger,_collaborating_with_anarchist_friends,_popularized_the_term_"birth_control"_as_a_more_candid_alternative_to_euphemisms_such_as_"family_limitation"The_term_"birth_control"_was_suggested_in_1914_by_a_young_friend_called_Otto_Bobstein –_Chesler,_p._97.
Katz,_''The_selected_papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Volume_1'',_p._70.
Galvin,_Rachel._[http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/1998-09/sanger.html_Margaret_Sanger's_"Deeds_of_Terrible_Virtue"]_''Humanities'',_,_September/October_1998,_Vol._19/Number_5._and_proclaimed_that_each_woman_should_be_"the_absolute_mistress_of_her_own_body."Engelman,_Peter_C.,_"Margaret_Sanger",_article_in_''Encyclopedia_of_Leadership,_Volume_4'',_George_R._Goethals,_et_al_(eds),_''SAGE'',_2004,_p._1382.
Engelman_cites_facsimile_edited_by_Alex_Baskin,_''Woman_Rebel'',_New_York:_Archives_of_Social_History,_1976._Facsimile_of_original._In_these_early_years_of_Sanger's_activism,_she_viewed_birth_control_as_a_free-speech_issue,_and_when_she_started_publishing_''The_Woman_Rebel'',_one_of_her_goals_was_to_provoke_a_legal_challenge_to_the__which_banned_dissemination_of_information_about_contraception.Katz,_''Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger,_Vol._1''.McCann_2010,_pp._750–51._Though_postal_authorities_suppressed_five_of_its_seven_issues,_Sanger_continuing_publication,_all_the_while_preparing,_''Family_Limitation'',_an_even_more_blatant_challenge_to_anti-birth_control_laws._This_16-page_pamphlet_contained_detailed_and_precise_information_and_graphic_descriptions_of_various_contraceptive_methods._In_August_1914_Margaret_Sanger_was_indicted_for_violating_postal_obscenity_laws_by_sending_the_''The_Woman_Rebel''_through_the_postal_system._Instead_of_standing_trial,_she_jumped_bail_and_fled_to_Canada._Then,_under_the_alias_"Bertha_Watson",_sailed_for_England._En_route_she_ordered_her_labor_associates_to_release_copies_of_the_''Family_Limitation''. Margaret_Sanger_spent_much_of_her_1914_exile_in_England,_where_contact_with_British_neo-Malthusianists_helped_refine_her_socioeconomic_justifications_for_birth_control._She_was_also_profoundly_influenced_by_the_liberation_theories_of_British_sexual_theorist_._Under_his_tutelage_she_formulated_a_new_rationale_that_would_liberate_women_not_just_by_making_sexual_intercourse_safe,_but_also_pleasurable._It_would,_in_effect,_free_women_from_the_inequality_of_sexual_experience._Early_in_1915,_Margaret_Sanger's_estranged_husband,_William_Sanger,_was_entrapped_into_giving_a_copy_of_''Family_Limitation''_to_a_representative_of_anti-vice_crusader_._William_Sanger_was_tried_and_convicted,_he_spent_thirty_days_in_jail,_while_also_escalating_interest_in_birth_control_as_a_civil_liberties_issue.|location=New_York|url=http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3921312?urlappend=%3Bseq=81|page=65}}|location=Reading,_Pennsylvania|date=1915-09-22|page=6}} ===Birth_control_movement=== Main_article:_ .]] Some_countries_in_northwestern_Europe_had_more_liberal_policies_towards_contraception_than_the_United_States_at_the_time,_and_when_Sanger_visited_a_Dutch_birth_control_clinic_in_1915,_she_learned_about_s_and_became_convinced_that_they_were_a_more_effective_means_of_contraception_than_the_suppositories_and_s_that_she_had_been_distributing_back_in_the_United_States._Diaphragms_were_generally_unavailable_in_the_United_States,_so_Sanger_and_others_began_importing_them_from_Europe,_in_defiance_of_United_States_law. In_1917,_she_started_publishing_the_monthly_periodical_''''.The_first_issue_of_''Birth_Control_Review''_was_published_in_February_1917. On_October_16,_1916,_Sanger_opened_a_family_planning_and_birth_control_clinic_at_46_Amboy_St._in_the__of_,_the_first_of_its_kind_in_the_United_States.''Selected_Papers,_vol_1'',_p._199._
Baker,_p._115._Nine_days_after_the_clinic_opened,_Sanger_was_arrested._Sanger's_bail_was_set_at_$500_and_she_went_back_home._Sanger_continued_seeing_some_women_in_the_clinic_until_the_police_came_a_second_time._This_time_Sanger_and_her_sister,_,_were_arrested_for_breaking_a_New_York_state_law_that_prohibited_distribution_of_contraceptives,_Sanger_was_also_charged_with_running_a_public_nuisance.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_to_the_Future,_p._109._Sanger_and_Ethel_went_to_trial_in_January_1917.Engelman,_p._101._Byrne_was_convicted_and_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse_but_went_on_hunger_strike._She_was_the_first_woman_in_the_US_to_be_force_fed._Only_when_Sanger_pledged_that_Byrne_would_never_break_the_law,_she_was_pardoned_after_ten_days.,_Sanger_was_convicted;_the_trial_judge_held_that_women_did_not_have_"the_right_to_copulate_with_a_feeling_of_security_that_there_will_be_no_resulting_conception."_|first_=_Jill_|_last_=_Lepore|_authorlink_=_Jill_Lepore_|_date_=_November_14,_2011_|_accessdate_=_November_13,_2011_|_title=_Birthright:_What's_next_for_Planned_Parenthood?_|_url_=_http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/14/111114fa_fact_lepore}}_Sanger_was_offered_a_more_lenient_sentence_if_she_promised_to_not_break_the_law_again,_but_she_replied:_"I_cannot_respect_the_law_as_it_exists_today."Cox,_p._65._For_this,_she_was_sentenced_to_30_days_in_a_workhouse._An_initial_appeal_was_rejected,_but_in_a_subsequent_court_proceeding_in_1918,_the_birth_control_movement_won_a_victory_when_Judge__of_the__issued_a_ruling_which_allowed_doctors_to_prescribe_contraception.Engelman,_pp._101–3._The_publicity_surrounding_Sanger's_arrest,_trial,_and_appeal_sparked_birth_control_activism_across_the_United_States,_and_earned_the_support_of_numerous_donors,_who_would_provide_her_with_funding_and_support_for_future_endeavors.McCann,_2010,_p._751. Sanger_became_estranged_from_her_husband_in_1913,_and_the_couple's_divorce_was_finalized_in_1921.Cox,_p._76._Sanger's_second_husband_was_Noah_Slee._He_followed_Sanger_around_the_world_and_provided_much_of_Sanger's_financial_assistance._The_couple_got_married_in_September_1922,_but_the_public_did_not_know_about_it_until_February_1924._They_supported_each_other_with_their_pre-commitments.Margaret_Sanger:_Pioneer_of_the_Future_pp._178-80. ===American_Birth_Control_League=== After_,_Sanger_shifted_away_from_radical_politics,_and_she_founded_the__(ABCL)_in_1921_to_enlarge_her_base_of_supporters_to_include_the_middle_class.Freedman,_Estelle_B.,_''The_essential_feminist_reader'',_Random_House_Digital,_Inc.,_2007,_p._211._The_founding_principles_of_the_ABCL_were_as_follows:"Birth_control:_What_it_is,_How_it_works,_What_it_will_do",_''The_Proceedings_of_the_First_American_Birth_Control_Conference'',_November_11,_12,_1921,_pp._207–8.
''The_Birth_Control_Review'',_Vol._V,_No._12,_December_1921,_Margaret_Sanger_(ed.),_p._18.
Sanger,_''Pivot_of_Civilization'',_2001_reprint_edited_by_Michael_W._Perry,_p._409.
These_principles_were_adopted_at_the_first_meeting_of_the_ABCL_in_late_1921.
We_hold_that_children_should_be_(1)_Conceived_in_love;_(2)_Born_of_the_mother's_conscious_desire;_(3)_And_only_begotten_under_conditions_which_render_possible_the_heritage_of_health._Therefore_we_hold_that_every_woman_must_possess_the_power_and_freedom_to_prevent_conception_except_when_these_conditions_can_be_satisfied.
Sanger's_appeal_of_her_conviction_for_the_Brownsville_clinic_secured_a_1918_court_ruling_that_exempted_physicians_from_the_law_that_prohibited_the_distribution_of_contraceptive_information_to_women—provided_it_was_prescribed_for_medical_reasons—she_established_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(CRB)_in_1923_to_exploit_this_loophole.Baker,_p._196._The_CRB_was_the_first_legal_birth_control_clinic_in_the_United_States,_and_it_was_staffed_entirely_by_female_doctors_and_social_workers.Baker,_pp._196–97.
''The_Selected_Papers,_Vol_2'',_p._54._The_clinic_received_a_large_amount_of_funding_from__and_his_family,_which_continued_to_make_donations_to_Sanger's_causes_in_future_decades,_but_generally_made_them_anonymously_to_avoid_public_exposure_of_the_family_name,Chesler,_pp._277,_293,_558.
_|location=New_York_|year=1988_|pages=191,_461–62 }}—crucial,_anonymous_Rockefeller_grants_to_the_Clinical_Research_Bureau_and_support_for_population_control_and_to_protect_family_member_'s_political_career_since_openly_advocating_birth_control_could_have_led_to_the_Catholic_Church_opposing_him_politically.Chesler,_Ellen_''Woman_of_Valor:_Margaret_Sanger_and_the_Birth_Control_Movement_in_America'',_New_York:_Simon_and_Schuster,_1992,_p._425. John_D._Rockefeller_Jr._donated_five_thousand_dollars_to_her_American_Birth_Control_League_in_1924_and_a_second_time_in_1925.Katz,_Esther;_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel'',_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._430. In_1922,_she_traveled_to_China,_Korea,_and_Japan._In_China_she_observed_that_the_primary_method_of_family_planning_was_female_infanticide,_and_she_later_worked_with__to_establish_a_family_planning_clinic_in_Shanghai.Cohen,_pp._64–5._Sanger_visited_Japan_six_times,_working_with_Japanese_feminist__to_promote_birth_control.Baker,_p._275.
_Katō,_Shidzue,_''Facing_Two_Ways:_the_story_of_my_life'',_Stanford_University_Press,_1984,_p._xxviii.
D'Itri,_Patricia_Ward,_''Cross_Currents_in_the_International_Women's_Movement,_1848–1948'',_Popular_Press,_1999,_pp._163–67._This_was_ironic_since_ten_years_earlier_Sanger_had_accused_Katō_of_murder_and_praised_an_attempt_to_kill_her.Katz,_Esther_(ed.);_Sanger,_Margaret,_''The_Selected_Papers_of_Margaret_Sanger_Volume_1:_The_Woman_Rebel_1900-1928'',_Urbana_and_Chicago:_University_of_Illinois_Press,_2003,_p._421. In_1926,_Sanger_gave_a_lecture_on_birth_control_to_the__in_Silver_Lake,_._She_described_it_as_"one_of_the_weirdest_experiences_I_had_in_lecturing,"_and_added_that_she_had_to_use_only_"the_most_elementary_terms,_as_though_I_were_trying_to_make_children_understand."_Sanger's_talk_was_well_received_by_the_group,_and_as_a_result,_"a_dozen_invitations_to_similar_groups_were_proffered." In_1928,_conflict_within_the_birth_control_movement_leadership_led_Sanger_to_resign_as_the_president_of_the_ABCL_and_take_full_control_of_the_CRB,_renaming_it_the_Birth_Control_Clinical_Research_Bureau_(BCCRB),_marking_the_beginning_of_a_schism_in_the_movement_that_would_last_until_1938.McCann__(1994),_pp._177–8.
Sanger_invested_a_great_deal_of_effort_communicating_with_the_general_public._From_1916_onward,_she_frequently_lectured—in_churches,_women's_clubs,_homes,_and_theaters—to_workers,_churchmen,_liberals,_socialists,_scientists,_and_upper-class_women._She_wrote_several_books_in_the_1920s_which_had_a_nationwide_impact_in_promoting_the_cause_of_birth_control._Between_1920_and_1926,_567,000_copies_of_''Woman_and_the_New_Race''_and_''The_Pivot_of_Civilization''_were_sold.Baker,_p._161._She_also_wrote_two_autobiographies_designed_to_promote_the_cause._The_first,_''My_Fight_for_Birth_Control'',_was_published_in_1931_and_the_second,_more_promotional_version,_''Margaret_Sanger:_An_Autobiography'',_was_published_in_1938. During_the_1920s,_Sanger_received_hundreds_of_thousands_of_letters,_many_of_them_written_in_desperation_by_women_begging_for_information_on_how_to_prevent_unwanted_pregnancies. The_number_of_letters_is_reported_as_"a_quarter_million",_"over_a_million",_or_"hundreds_of_thousands"_in_various_sources_Five_hundred_of_these_letters_were_compiled_into_the_1928_book,_''Motherhood_in_Bondage.''500_letters:_Cohen,_p._65. ===Planned_Parenthood_era=== Main_article:_ _from_1930_to_1973.]] In_1929,_Sanger_formed_the_National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_for_Birth_Control_in_order_to_lobby_for_legislation_to_overturn_restrictions_on_contraception.NYU_Margaret_Sanger_Papers_Project_[http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/aboutms/organization_ncflbc.php_"National_Committee_on_Federal_Legislation_on_Birth_Control"]_That_effort_failed_to_achieve_success,_so_Sanger_ordered_a__from_Japan_in_1932,_in_order_to_provoke_a_decisive_battle_in_the_courts._The_diaphragm_was_confiscated_by_the_United_States_government,_and_Sanger's_subsequent_legal_challenge_led_to__which_overturned_an_important_provision_of_the_Comstock_laws_which_prohibited_physicians_from_obtaining_contraceptives.Rose,_Melody,_''Abortion:_a_documentary_and_reference_guide'',_ABC-CLIO,_2008,_p._29._This_court_victory_motivated_the__in_1937_to_adopt_contraception_as_a_normal_medical_service_and_a_key_component_of_medical_school_curriculums. This_1936_contraception_court_victory_was_the_culmination_of_Sanger's_birth_control_efforts,_and_she_took_the_opportunity,_now_in_her_late_50s,_to_move_to_Tucson,_Arizona,_intending_to_play_a_less_critical_role_in_the_birth_control_movement._In_spite_of_her_original_intentions,_she_remained_active_in_the_movement_through_the_1950s.^
  • ^ NYU Margaret Sanger Papers Project "Birth Control Council of America"
  • ^ The Margaret Sanger Papers (2010). "MSPP > About > Birth Control Organizations > PPFA". nyu.edu. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Chesler, p. 393.
    NYU
  • ^ Ford, Lynne E., Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics, p. 406.
    Esser-Stuart, Joan E., "Margaret Higgins Sanger", in Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America, Herrick, John and Stuart, Paul (eds), SAGE, 2005, p. 323.
  • ^ Engelman, Peter, "McCormick, Katharine Dexter", in Encyclopedia of Birth Control, Vern L. Bullough (ed.), ABC-CLIO, 2001, pp. 170–1.
    Marc A. Fritz, Leon Speroff, Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010, pp. 959–960.
  • ^ Baker, p. 307.
  • ^ "Margaret Sanger obituary".  
  • ^ Choices of the Heart—1995, starring  
    Portrait of a Rebel: The Remarkable Mrs. Sanger, TV movie, 1980, starring Bonnie Franklin as Sanger; IMDB
  • ^ "NYU Sanger Papers Project web site". Nyu.edu. 2007-02-07. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  • ^ "Smith College collection web site". Asteria.fivecolleges.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  • ^ "Friends of the Library Newsletter". Wellesley.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  • ^ Kayton, Bruce (2003). Radical Walking Tours of New York City. New York: Seven Stories Press. p. 111.  
  • ^ "National Historic Landmark Program". Tps.cr.nps.gov. 1993-09-14. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  • ^ "Rockefeller 3d Wins Sanger Award".  
    "Planned Parenthood Salutes Visionary Leaders in the Fight for Reproductive Freedom." Press release in Business Wire, March 29, 2003: 5006. General OneFile. Web. February 11, 2011.
    Lozano, Juan (March 27, 2009). "Clinton champions women's rights worldwide".
     
  • ^  
  • ^ "Minority Anti-Abortion Movement Gains Steam". NPR. September 24, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  • ^ Sanger, Margaret, The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger, Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc., 2004, p. 94.
  • ^ Cox, p. 55.
  • ^ a b Chesler, pp. 13–14.
  • ^ Chesler
    Kennedy, p. 127.
  • ^ Margaret Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know: SexualImpulses - Part II", December 29, 1912.
  • ^ Bronski, Michael, A Queer History of the United States, Beacon Press, 2011, p. 100.
  • ^ Sanger, Margaret, The Pivot of Civilization, Amherst, New York: Humanity Books, 2003, p. 204.
  • ^ Margaret Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know: Sexual Impulse - Part I", December 22, 1912.
  • ^ Bronski, Michael, A Queer History of the United States, Beacon Press, 2011.
    Quotes from Sanger, "What Every Girl should know: Sexual Impulses Part II", in New York Call, December 29, 1912; also in the subsequent book What Every Girl Should Know, pp. 40–48; reprinted in The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1, pp. 41–5 (quotes on p. 45).
  • ^ a b The Mike Wallace Interview, Guest: Margaret Sanger, 9/21/57.
  • ^ Engelman, p. 132.
  • ^ a b http://www.chesterton.org/lecture-36/
  • ^ a b Porter, Nicole S.; Bothne Nancy; Leonard, Jason (2008-02-01). Evans, Sophie J., ed. Public Policy Issues Research Trends. Nova Science. p. 126.  
  • ^ a b c "The Sanger-Hitler Equation", Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter, #32, Winter 2002/3. New York University Department of History
  • ^ Sanger, Pivot, p. 181; quoted in Charles Valenza: "Was Margaret Sanger a Racist?" Family Planning Perspectives, January–February 1985, p. 44.
  • ^ a b Sanger, Margaret, "Birth Control and Racial Betterment", Birth Control Review, February 1919, pp. 11–12, Online
  • ^ Franks, Angela (2005). Margaret Sanger's Eugenic Legacy: The Control of Female Fertility. p. 49.  
  • ^ Freedman, Estelle B. (2007). The Essential Feminist Reader. Modern Library. p. 211. 
  • ^  , p. 251.
    Sanger's quote from The Pivot of Civilization, p. 100.
  • ^ Margaret Sanger. "The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda." Birth Control Review, October 1921, p. 5.
  • ^ Sanger, "A Plan For Peace", Birth Control Review, April 1932, p. 106. Online
  • ^ Baker, p. 200.
  • ^ New York Call (29 December 1912)
  • ^ http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/webedition/app/documents/show.php?sangerDoc=238946.xml
  • ^ Hajo, p. 85.
  • ^ Hajo, p. 85.
    From Planned Parenthood: "The Truth about Margaret Sanger". Planned Parenthood Federation of America. :
In 1930, Sanger opened a family planning clinic in Harlem that sought to enlist support for contraceptive use and to bring the benefits of family planning to women who were denied access to their city's health and social services. Staffed by a black physician and a black social worker, the clinic was endorsed by The Amsterdam News (the powerful local newspaper), the Abyssinian Baptist Church, the Urban League, and the black community's elder statesman, W. E. B. Du Bois.
  • ^ McCann (1994), pp. 150–4. Bigotry: p. 153.
    See also p. 45, The selected papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1
  • ^ Planned Parenthood Federation of America (2004). "The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Upon Accepting the Planned Parenthood Sanger Award". 
  • ^ Engelman, p. 175.
    Birth Control Federation of America, The Margaret Sanger Papers Project
    "Birth Control or Race Control? Sanger and the Negro Project". Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter (Margaret Sanger Papers Project) (28). 2002-11-14. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  • ^ "Birth Control or Race Control? Sanger and the Negro Project". Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter (Margaret Sanger Papers Project) (28). 2002-11-14. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  • ^ "Smear n Fear", New York University, History Department, Margaret Sanger Papers Project, 2010
  • ^ "The Child Who Was Mother to a Woman" from The New Yorker, April 11, 1925, p. 11.
  • ^ Wood, Janice Ruth (2008), The Struggle for Free Speech in the United States, 1872–1915: Edward Bliss Foote, Edward Bond Foote, and anti-Comstock operations, Psychology Press, 2008, pp. 100–102.
  • ^ "Every Child a Wanted Child", Time, September 16, 1966, p. 96.
  • ^ Kennedy, p. 149.
  • ^ Melody, Michael Edward (1999), Teaching America about sex: marriage guides and sex manuals from the late Victorians to Dr. Ruth, NYU Press, 1999, p. 53 (citing Halberstam, David, The Fifties, Villard. 1993, p. 285).
    Davis, Tom, Sacred work: Planned Parenthood and its clergy alliances Rutgers University Press, 2005, p. 213 (citing A Tradition of Choice, Planned Parenthood, 1991, p. 18).
  • ^ Baker, p. 3.
  • ^ Infobase Publishing, 2006, pp. 29–35.
  • ^ Engelman, pp. 181–5.
  • ^ Margaret Sanger (1920). "Contraceptives or Abortion?". Woman and the New Race. 
  • ^ Streitmatter, Rodger (2001). Voices of Revolution: The Dissident Press in America. New York:  
  • ^ Sanger, Margaret (1938). Margaret Sanger, An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 217. 
  • ^ Gray, p. 280, citing 1916 edition: Sanger, Margaret (1917). Family Limitation. p. 5. 
  • ^ Coates, p. 48.
    Hoolihan, Christopher (2004), An Annotated Catalogue of the Edward C. Atwater Collection of American Popular Medicine and Health Reform, Vol. 2 (M–Z), University Rochester Press, p. 299.
  • ^ Birth Control Review", Margaret Sanger Papers Project, NYU""". Nyu.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 

Bibliography

External links

  • Quotations related to Margaret Sanger at Wikiquote
  • Works by Margaret Sanger at Project Gutenberg
  • Margaret Sanger Papers at the Sophia Smith Collection
  • Interview conducted by Mike Wallace, Sept. 21, 1957. Hosted at the Harry Ransom Center.
  • , April 26, 2004; AlexanderSanger.comMarch for Women's Lives – Alexander Sanger, grandson of Margaret Sanger)
  • Margaret Sanger; findagrave.com
  • 1922 passport photo of Margaret Sanger and her son Grant
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.