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Ma Fulu

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Ma Fulu

Ma Fulu
Born 馬福綠 1854
Linxia County, Gansu
Died 1900
Beijing
Allegiance Flag of the Qing dynasty Qing dynasty
Years of service 1889–1900
Unit Kansu braves
Battles/wars Dungan revolt (1895–1896), Boxer Rebellion
Ma Fulu
Traditional Chinese 馬福綠
Simplified Chinese 马福绿

Ma Fulu (Chinese: 马福禄; Pinyin: Mǎ Fúlù; 1854–1900), a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fuxiang.

In 1880 Ma Fulu went to Beijing to take advanced military exams when he had an audience before the Emperor. He accidentally committed a faux pas since he did not know proper palace etiquiette, and subsequently served as a guard for the Emperor to make up for this incident.[1]

He studied at a martial arts hall and military school. In 1895, he served under general Dong Fuxiang, leading loyalist Chinese Muslims to crush a revolt by rebel Muslims in the Dungan revolt (1895–1896). His loyalist Muslim troops slaughtered and beheaded the rebel Muslims and his commanding officers received the heads of the rebels from Ma. In 1897 a military Jinshi degree was awarded to Ma Fulu.[2][3][4][5]

Ma was transferred along with his brother Ma Fuxiang and several cousins to serve as officers under General Dong Fuxiang to Beijing in 1898. During the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898 Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang, and Ma Haiyan were called to Beijing and helped put an end to the reform movement along with Ma Fulu and Ma Fuxiang.[6] During the Boxer Rebellion, the Muslim troops came to be known as the "Kansu Braves", and fought against the Eight Nation Alliance. Ma Fulu and Ma Fuxiang both participated in ambushing and driving back the Alliance forces at the Battle of Langfang during the Seymour Expedition, leading a force of Hui, Dongxiang, and Baoan Muslims to drive the Alliance back to Tianjin and personally leading a cavalry charge, cutting down enemy troops with his sword.[7] Ma Fulu and four cousins of his were killed in action during the battle against the foreigners in Beijing,[8] in 1900 during the Battle of Peking (1900)[9] during a bloody battle at Zhengyang Gate.[10][11][12] 100 of his fellow Hui and Dongxiang soldiers from his home village died in that battle at Zhengyang Gate in Beijing.[13][14] He had commanded a brigade, his brother Ma Fuxiang took over his position after his death.[15][16] Ma Fuxiang inherited Ma Fulu's army.[17]

He had a son, Ma Hongbin, who later became a General in charge of the 84th Army Corps.[18]

Ma Fuxing, a Hui who played an important part in the history of Xinjiang, served under Ma Fulu during the Boxer Rebellion.[19]

In the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Japanese asked the Muslim General Ma Hongkui to defect and become head of a Muslim puppet state under the Japanese, Ma responded through Zhou Baihuang, the Ningxia Secretary of the Nationalist Party to remind the Japanese military chief of staff Itagaki Seishiro that many of his relatives fought and died in battle against Eight Nation Alliance forces during the Battle of Peking, including his uncle Ma Fulu, and that Japanese troops made up the majority of the Alliance forces so there would be no cooperation with the Japanese.[20]

Originally buried at a Hui cemetery in Beijing, in 1995 Ma Fulu's remains were moved by his descendants to Yangzhushan in Linxia County.[21]

References

  1. ^ 抗击八国联军的清军将领——马福禄 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  2. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168.  
  3. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168.  
  4. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 137.  
  5. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 223.  
  6. ^ 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  7. ^ 抗击八国联军的清军将领——马福禄 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  8. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 169.  
  9. ^ Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) (1987). Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20-24, 1987, Volume 3. p. 20. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ 马福祥--"戎马书生" - 新华网甘肃频道
  11. ^ 缅怀中国近代史上的回族将领马福祥将军戎马一生
  12. ^ 清末民国间爱国将领马福祥__中国甘肃网
  13. ^ 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  14. ^ 抗击八国联军的清军将领——马福禄 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  15. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  16. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 224.  
  17. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Southeast Conference (1979). Annals, Volumes 1-5. The Conference. p. 52. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  18. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  19. ^ Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals". Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University). p. 106. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  20. ^ LEI, Wan (February 2010). "The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" During the Anti-Japanese War". DÎVÂN DİSİPLİNLERARASI ÇALIŞMALAR DERGİSİ. cilt 15 (sayı 29): 133–170. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  21. ^ "临夏旅游" (Linxia Tourism), published by Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture Tourist Board, 2003. 146 pages. No ISBN. Page 91


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