Ismail Haniya

Ismail Haniyeh
إسماعيل هنية
Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
Disputed
Incumbent
Assumed office
29 March 2006*
President Mahmoud Abbas
Aziz Duwaik
Preceded by Ahmed Qurei
Personal details
Born (1963-01-29) 29 January 1963 (age 51)
Al-Shati, Gaza Strip
Political party Hamas
Alma mater Islamic University of Gaza
Religion Sunni Islam
*Haniyeh was dismissed on 14 June 2007 by Abbas, who appointed Salam Fayyad instead. This has been deemed illegal by the Legislative Council, which continues to recognise Haniyeh. Fayyad governs in Fatah-controlled West Bank, while Haniyeh continues to govern in Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip.

Ismail Abdel Salam Ahmed Haniyeh ( The Palestinian Legislative Council also continues to recognise his authority.

Early life and education

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Haniyeh was born in the Al-Shati refugee camp in the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. His parents became refugees, after they fled their homes near what is now Ashkelon, Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[2] He attended United Nations-run schools and in 1987, graduated from the Islamic University of Gaza with a degree in Arabic literature.[3][2] While at university he had became involved with Hamas.[2] From 1985 to 1986 he was head of the students' council representing the Muslim Brotherhood.[3] He also played as a midfielder in the Islamic Association football team.[3] He graduated at about the same time as the First Intifada against the Israeli occupation started in the Gaza Strip.[2] He participated in protests and was given a short prison sentence by Israeli authorities.[2] He was detained by Israel again in 1988 and imprisoned for six months.[2] In 1989, he was imprisoned for three years by Israeli authorities unable to put an end to Palestinian resistance.[2] Following his release in 1992, Israel deported him to Lebanon with senior Hamas leaders Abdel-Aziz al-Rantissi, Mahmoud Zahhar and 400 other activists.[2] The activists stayed at Marj al-Zahour in Southern Lebanon for over a year where according to the BBC, Hamas "received unprecedented media exposure and became known throughout the world".[2] A year later, he returned to Gaza and was appointed as Dean of the Islamic University.[2]

Positions in Hamas

After Israel released Ahmed Yassin from prison in 1997, Haniyeh was appointed to head his office.[2] His prominence within Hamas grew due to his relationship with Yassin and he was appointed as the representative to the Palestinian Authority.[2] He was targeted by the Israel Defense Forces for his alleged involvement in attacks against Israeli citizens. Following a suicide bombing in Jerusalem in 2003, he was slightly injured on his hand by an Israeli Air Force bomb attack attempting to eliminate the Hamas leadership. His position within Hamas continued to strengthen during the Second Intifada due to his relationship with Yassin, and because of the assassinations of much of the Hamas leadership by the Israeli security forces. In December 2005, Haniyeh was elected to head the Hamas list, which won the Legislative Council elections the following month.

Prime minister

Haniyeh was nominated as prime minister on 16 February 2006 following the Hamas "List of Change and Reform" victory 25 January 2006. He was formally presented to Mahmoud Abbas on 20 February and was sworn on 29 March 2006.

Western reaction

Israel implemented a series of punitive measures, including economic sanctions, against the Palestinian Authority following the election. Acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, announced that Israel would not transfer to the Palestinian Authority an estimated $50 million per month in tax receipts that were collected by Israel on behalf of the Palestinian Authority. Haniyeh dismissed the sanctions, stating that Hamas would neither disarm nor would it recognise Israel.

Haniyeh expressed regret that Hamas was subjected to punitive measures, adding that "it [Israel] should have responded differently to the democracy expressed by the Palestinian people".

The United States demanded that $50 million in unexpended foreign aid funds for the Palestinian Authority be returned to the United States, which Palestinian Economic Minister Mazen Sonokrot agreed to do.[4] On the loss of foreign aid from the United States and the European Union, Haniyeh commented that: "The West is always using its donations to apply pressure on the Palestinian people." [5]

Several months after Hamas' 2006 election victory, Haniyeh sent a letter to US president Bush, in which he called on the "American government to have direct negotiations with the elected government", offered a longterm truce with Israel, while accepting a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders and urged an end the international boycott, claiming that it would "encourage violence and chaos". The U.S. government did not respond and maintained its boycott.[6]

Disputed dismissal

On 14 June 2007, Abbas dismissed Haniyeh and appointed Salam Fayyad in his place. This followed action by Hamas armed forces to take control of Palestinian Authority positions that were under the control of Fatah militias armed and supported by the United States and Israel.[7] The appointment of Fayyad to replace Haniyeh has been challenged as illegal, because under the Palestinian Basic Law, the President of the Palestinian Authority may dismiss a sitting prime minister, but may not appoint a replacement without the approval of the Palestinian Legislative Council. According to the law, until a new prime minister is thus appointed, the outgoing prime minister heads a caretaker government. Fayyad's appointment was never placed before, or approved, by the Legislative Council. For this reason, Haniyeh has continued to operate in Gaza, and been recognised by a large number of Palestinians as the legitimate acting prime minister. Anis al-Qasem, the Palestinian constitutional lawyer who drafted the Basic Law, is among those who publicly declared the appointment of Fayyad to be illegal.[8]

Dispute with Abbas

An agreement with Abbas was to have been reached to stop Abbas's call for new elections. On 20 October 2006, on the eve of this deal to end factional fighting between Fatah and Hamas, Haniyeh's convoy came under gunfire in Gaza and one of the cars was set on fire.[9] Haniyeh was not hurt in the attack. Hamas sources said that this was not an assassination attempt. Palestinian Authority security sources reported that the attackers were the relatives of a Fatah man killed by clashes with Hamas.[10]

Denied reentry to Gaza

On 14 December 2006, Haniyeh was denied entry to Gaza from Egypt at the Rafah border crossing. The border crossing was closed by European Union monitors by order of Israeli Minister of Defence, Amir Peretz. Haniyeh was returning to Gaza from his first official trip abroad as prime minister. He was reported to have an estimated 30 million USD in cash in international donations on hand, meant for the Palestinian Authority. Israeli authorities later stated that they would allow Haniyeh to cross the border provided he leave the money in Egypt, which would reportedly be transferred to an Arab League bank account. A gun battle between Hamas militants and the Palestinian Presidential Guard was reported at the Rafah border crossing in response to the incident. The EU monitors who operated the crossing were reportedly evacuated safely.[11] When Haniyeh later attempted to cross the border, an exchange of gunfire left one bodyguard dead and Haniyeh's eldest son wounded. Hamas denounced the incident as an attempt by rival Fatah on Haniyeh's life, prompting firefights in the West Bank and Gaza Strip between Hamas and Fatah forces. Haniyeh was quoted as saying that he knew who the alleged perpetrators were, but declined to identify them and appealed for Palestinian unity. Egypt has since offered to mediate the situation.[12]

Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy

During the Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy, he condemned the Pope's remarks: "In the name of the Palestinian people, we condemn the Pope’s remarks on Islam. These remarks go against the truth and touch the heart of our faith." He also denounced the Palestinian attacks on churches in the West Bank and Gaza.[13]

Attempt to form unity government

He resigned on 15 February 2007 as part of the process to allow a unity government between Hamas and Fatah.[14] He was again sworn in on 18 March 2007 as head of the new cabinet.

Views on peace with Israel

In August 2006, on his first visit abroad as prime minister to Iran, Haniyeh said "We will never recognize the usurper Zionist government and will continue our jihad-like movement until the liberation of Jerusalem".[15] In December 2010, Haniyeh stated at a news conference in Gaza that "We accept a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital, the release of Palestinian prisoners, and the resolution of the issue of refugees," and stated that if the Palestinian electorate approves such a peace agreement with Israel his government will abide by it notwithstanding previous Hamas positions on the issue.[16]

Views on Osama bin Laden

On 2 May 2011, Haniyeh condemned the killing of Osama Bin Laden, leader of Al Qaida by American forces and said that the operation is "the continuation of the American oppression and shedding of blood of Muslims and Arabs". He praised Osama bin Laden, despite doctrinal differences as a holy warrior (mujahid),[17] saying that Hamas condemns the assassination of "a Muslim and Arabic warrior" and prays that bin Laden's "soul rests in peace".[18] The United States government condemned his remarks as "outrageous".[19]

Personal life

Haniyeh is married and in 2009 was reported to have 12 children.[3] The family live in Al-Shati refugee camp in the northern Gaza Strip.[3] Haniyeh's sisters Kholidia, Laila and Sabah, are Israeli citizens and live in the Bedouin town Tel Sheva in Southern Israel.[20] In early 2012, Israeli authorities granted a request to travel to Haniyeh's sister, Suhila Abd el‑Salam Ahmed Haniyeh, and her critically ill husband for emergency heart treatment that could not be treated by hospitals in Gaza. After successful treatment at the Rabin Medical Center in Petah Tikva, Israel, the couple returned to Gaza.[21]

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Ahmed Qurei
Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
2006–present
Incumbent

Template:Prime Ministers of the Palestinian Authority

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