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Islamic Consultative Assembly

National Consultative Assembly
مجلس شورای اسلامی
Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī
32nd Majles
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded March 14, 1980 (1980-03-14)
Preceded by National Consultative Assembly
New session started
28 May 2015
Leadership
Ali Larijani (P)
Since 28 May 2008
First Deputy Speaker
Mohammad-Hassan Aboutorabi Fard (P)
Since 28 May 2012
Second Deputy Speaker
Mohammad-Reza Bahonar (P)
Since 28 May 2012
Structure
Seats 290
Political groups
Supermajority[1]
Other[1]
  •      Independent (88)
  •      Reformist (13)
  •      Religious Minority (5)
  •      Vacant Seat (2)
Length of term
4 years
Elections
Two-round system
Last election
2 March and 4 May 2012
Next election
25 February 2016
Meeting place
Islamic Consultative Assembly
Baharestan
Tehran
Iran
Website
http://www.Majlis.ir
http://parlemannews.ir/
http://www.icana.ir/
Constitution
Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی‎‎ Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), or the People's House (خانه ملت), is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament currently has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election. The recent election took place on 2 March 2012 and the new parliament was opened on 27 May 2012.[2]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Imperial State of Iran: National Consultative Assembly 1.1
    • Islamic Republic of Iran: Islamic Consultative Assembly 1.2
  • 2012 election 2
  • Members 3
  • Leadership 4
  • Building 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes and references 7
  • External links 8

History

Imperial State of Iran: National Consultative Assembly

First Members of Parliament, 1906–1908

Before the Islamic Revolution, Majlis was also the name of the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979, the upper house being the Senate.

It was created by the Iran Constitution of 1906 and first convened on 6 November 1906 (Iranian Calendar: 1285-Mehr-13),[3] soon gaining power under the rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Noteworthy bills passed by the Parliament under the Pahlavi Dynasty include the Oil Nationalization Bill (15 March 1951) and the Family Protection Law (1967), which gave women many basic rights such as custody of children in the case of divorce.

Women were not allowed to vote or be elected to the Parliament until 1963, as part of reforms under the Shah's "White Revolution". The twenty-first National Consultative Assembly, which included female representatives, opened on 6 October 1963.

The last session of the Pre-Revolution Parliament was held on 7 February 1979 (18 Bahman 1357 AP[3]).

Islamic Republic of Iran: Islamic Consultative Assembly

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Senate was abolished and was effectively replaced by the Guardian Council thus the Iranian legislature remained bicameral. In the 1989 revision of the constitution, the National Consultative Assembly became the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

The Parliament of Iran has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was the first chairman, from 1980 to 1989. Then came Mehdi Karroubi (1989–1992), Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri (1992–2000), Mehdi Karroubi (2000–2004), Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (2004–2008) and Ali Larijani since 2008.

Over its history the Parliament is said to have evolved from being "a debating chamber for notables," to "a club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era, to a body dominated by members of "the propertied middle class" under the Islamic Republic.[4][5]

2012 election

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Iran

The last elections of Parliament of Iran were held on 2 March 2012 with a second round on 4 May 2012 in those 65 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast. More than 5,000 candidates registered but more than a third were disqualified[6] by the Guardian Council leaving about 3,400 candidates to run for the 290 seats representing the 31 provinces.

The election has been described by journalists and analysts "as a contest between" Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,[6] with Khamenei supporters winning a large majority of seats.[7] Iranian officials and state media have described the election as a sign of Iranians' trust in the Islamic Republic and a message to the West rejecting pressure over Iran's nuclear program.[7][8] Although no final election turnout figures were released,[8] state media emphasized that voter turnout was high.[8]

The parliament has "no direct control over key foreign and security policy matters" but some influence over those policies and coming elections.[8] In the wake of the crushing of reformist protest against the 2009 election results, few if any reformist candidates were allowed by the Guardian Council to run.

Members

Currently, the Parliament's 290 members, fourteen of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities(4.8%), are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the Parliament are women, while the global average is 13%.[9] The Parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers by no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Parliament also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The Parliament also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget.

All People's House of Iran candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Candidates must pledge in writing that they are committed, in theory and in practice, to the Iranian constitution.

 Summary of the 2 March and 4 May 2012 Islamic Consultative Assembly election results
Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats % +/–
Conservatives United Front of Conservatives 19,087,397 59.7% 98 34.8% –3
Front of Islamic Revolution Stability 43 14.8% –7
People's Voice 19 6.5% +19
Monotheism and Justice Party 17 5.8% –27
Insight and Islamic Awakening Front 5 1.7% +4
Total Conservatives 182 62.8% –13
Reformists Democratic Coalition of Reformists 11,451,367 35.5% 60 20.6% +19
Labour Coalition 11 3.7% +1
Moderate Reformists 4 1.3% +4
Total Reformists 75 25.9% +24
Religious Minorities Armenians 634,122 2.1% 5 1.7% +3
Assyrian and Chaldean (Catholic) 4 1.3% +3
Jewish 3 1.1% +2
Zoroastrian 2 0.6% +1
Total Religious Minorities 14 4.8% +9
Independents 799,304 2.5% 19 6.5% –20
Total parliamentary seats 290 100.0% ±0
Overall Statistics
Registered voters 32,469,937
Valid votes 31,972,190 (98.4%)
Invalid votes 497,747 (1.6%)
Domestic turnout 66.4%
Sources: Ministry of Interior

Leadership

Members of Parliament elect their speaker and deputy speakers during the first session of Parliament for a one year term. Every year, almost always in May, elections for new speakers are held in which incumbents may be re-elected.

The current Speaker of Parliament is Ali Larijani, with First Deputy Speaker Mohammad-Hassan Aboutorabi Fard and Second Deputy Speaker Mohammad Reza Bahonar.

Building

From 1979, the Parliament had convened at the building that used to house the Senate of Iran. A new building was built for the Assembly at Baharestan Square in central Tehran, near the old Iranian Parliament's building that was used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Parliament was held on 16 November 2004 in the new building.

The old building is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 100 rials banknote.[10]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "تعداد و درصد گرایش سیاسی نمایندگان مجلس نهم". Mizan Online. Retrieved March 10, 2015. 
  2. ^ Large scale turn out at polls in IRI March Majlis Elections IRNA
  3. ^ a b Mohammad Modarresi (2005). "An Introduction to the history of the Legislative Assembly In Iran: The First Parliament of the National Consultative Assembly (آشنایی با تاریخ مجالس قانونگذاری در ایران: دوره اول مجلس شورای ملی)" (PDF) (in Persian). The Research Center of Islamic Consultative Assembly (مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی). 
  4. ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 179
  5. ^ Islamic Majles, Ashnai-ye Ba Majles-e Showra-ye Islami, Vol.ii (Guide to the Islamic Majles, Tehran, 1992, p. 205
  6. ^ a b Iran elections clouded by doubts Al Jazeera, 2 March 2012
  7. ^ a b Elections in Iran Favor Ayatollah’s Allies, Dealing Blow to President and His Office Neil MacFarquhar, The New York Times, 4 March 2012
  8. ^ a b c d Iran Elections 2012: Ahmadinejad Routed By Rivals The Huff Post, Ali Akbar Dareini 5 May 2012
  9. ^ On Women’s Day, struggle for equality remains, Kyiv Post (8 March 2012)
  10. ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 100 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009.

External links

  • The official website of the Majlis of Iran
  • Laws and minutes of meetings of the Majlis of Iran (1906-1979) (persian)
  • History of Iran: Constitutional Revolution, a history of Majlis from 1906 to 1953
  • Iranian Ministry of Interior on the history of elections in Iran
  • A report on moving the Majles to Baharestan
  • The Council of Guardians, Official website.
  • The Majles, Iran's parliament news service.
  • Interparliamentary Union (IPU) summary of Majlis of Iran election preparations and/or outcomes (translated into English)
  • Iran Electoral Archive - Iranian Parliament
Videos
  • Iran’s ninth parliament PressTV (2012)
  • Parliamentary election in Iran (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) Second Round PressTV (2012)
  • Video Archive of Iran's Parliament
  • Kourosh Esmāili, People & Power: The Iranian Campaign, Aljazeera, YouTube, April 2008: Part 1 Part 2

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