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International Baccalaureate

International Baccalaureate
IB logo
International Baccalaureate logo
Formation 1968
Website .orgibo
Formerly called
International Baccalaureate Organization

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational Margaret Spellings presented a plan for the expansion of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate mathematics and science courses, with the goal of increasing the number of AP and IB teachers and the number of students taking AP and IB exams, as well as tripling the number of students passing those exams.[38] Howard Gardner, a professor of educational psychology at Harvard University, said that the IBDP curriculum is "less parochial than most American efforts" and helps students "think critically, synthesize knowledge, reflect on their own thought processes and get their feet wet in interdisciplinary thinking."[39]

In 2006, government ministers in the United Kingdom provided funding so that "every local authority in England could have at least one centre offering sixth-formers the chance to do the IB."[40] In 2008, due to the devaluing of the A-Levels and an increase in the number of students taking the IB exams, then-Children's Secretary Ed Balls abandoned a "flagship Tony Blair pledge to allow children in all areas to study IB." Fears of a "two-tier" education system further dividing education between the rich and the poor emerged as the growth in IB is driven by private schools and sixth-form colleges.[41]

In a 2006 attempt to eliminate it from a public school in Pittsburgh, PA.[42][43] Some schools in the United States have eliminated the IBDP due to budgetary reasons and low student participation.[44][45] In Utah in 2008, funding for the IBDP was reduced from $300,000 to $100,000 after State Senator Margaret Dayton objected to the program, stating, "First, I have never espoused eliminating IB ...I don't want to create 'world citizens' nearly as much as I want to help cultivate American citizens who function well in the world."[46][47] But not everyone agrees and Mayor Rahm Emanuel of Chicago believes IB needs to be an option for students in Chicago Public Schools.[48] Elizabeth Brackett reports on the IB in Chicago.[49] The City of Miami Beach Commission entered into an education compact with Miami-Dade County Public Schools with one of the initiatives of the compact to implement the IB program throughout Miami Beach feeder schools.[50]

In other parts of the world IB programs has been well received. In 2013, The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and the IB announced a plan that will expand the opportunities for Japanese students to complete the IB curriculum in Japanese.[51] In Malaysia a project has been developed in response to interest expressed by the Malaysia Ministry of Education (MoE) in working with the IB to implement the IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) in select secondary state schools.[52] The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[53] In April 2014 The King Faisal Foundation in Saudi Arabia and the IB signed a memorandum of understanding to develop IB programs, including the IBDP, in up to 40 primary and secondary schools, with the goal of developing these schools as centres of excellence as IB World Schools.[54] Internationally the IB continues to be recognised as innovative. In 2014 The World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) announced the IB Career-related Certificate as a finalist for their annual WISE Awards.[55]

Allegations of plagiarism

After Jeffrey Beard, a past director-general of International Baccalaureate, gave a talk on "Education for a Better World" on 5 August 2010 at the Chautauqua Institution in New York State, the institution issued a statement the next day in which it expressed "genuine disappointment" with the talk, noting that it "drew heavily upon and quoted extensively from a speech given earlier in the year by Sir Ken Robinson", while adding that he "neglected to cite his source or reveal the quotations for what they were".[56] Ken Robinson is a renowned British educationist who lives in the United States. Through an IB spokesperson, Beard admitted that "he could have been more explicit about the sources and authors that inspired him for the content of this speech".[56] In a letter sent to heads of schools that offer the IB curricula, he described this as an "unfortunate incident" due to an "oversight".[57]

In an apparently unrelated development, the Times Educational Supplement revealed on 8 October 2010, that significant portions of one of IB's marking guides for the IB Diploma Programme was lifted wholesale from unattributed websites, including WorldHeritage.[58] In a letter to schools, IB director-general Beard wrote: "We have and always will take immediate and appropriate action when we discover any violation of our policies or standards." The examiner responsible for the plagiarism resigned from the examination board five weeks after the issue came to light.[59]

See also


  1. ^ "IB headquarters." International Baccalaureate. Retrieved on 25 September 2009.
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  8. ^ Peterson, p. 267
  9. ^ Peterson, p. 265
  10. ^ Peterson, p. 243
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  12. ^ Peterson, p. 246
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  15. ^ IB Learner Profile
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  29. ^ Strategic plan. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
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  38. ^ a b
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  56. ^ a b
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External links

  • Official website
The IB Diploma Programme was described as "a rigorous, off-the-shelf curriculum recognized by universities around the world" when it was featured in the December 18, 2006, edition of

Countries with more than 40 schools teaching IB programmes. (as of 15 October 2015)[35]
Country Primary Middle Diploma Career-related Schools
USA 488 602 878 70 1,694
Canada 78 168 162 0 358
Australia 104 43 62 1 163
Ecuador 9 8 240 0 240
United Kingdom 14 13 136 4 145
India 57 14 107 0 122
Mexico 56 35 66 0 108
China 36 26 82 0 99
Spain 10 11 84 0 87
Germany 24 11 65 0 70
Hong Kong 30 9 29 0 54
Turkey 22 10 39 0 54
Argentina 7 2 58 0 59
Switzerland 18 11 43 0 50
Indonesia 30 13 29 0 45
Poland 6 8 39 0 44
Total Global 1,311 1,207 2,968 100 4,375
Countries 104 97 140 18 147


The Board of Governors can comprise between 15 and 25 members. Members are elected by the Board on the recommendation of the governance committee, and from nominations presented from the Heads Council, Regional Councils and the Board. To encourage diversity of gender, culture and geography, there are only three ex officio positions: Director general (non-voting), the chair of the Examining Board and the chair of the Heads Council.[34]

The IB governance is composed of an IB Board of Governors and six committees (access and advancement, audit, education, finance, human resources and governance). The Board of Governors appoints the Director general, sets the strategic direction of the organisation, adopts a mission statement, makes policy, oversees the IB's financial management, and ensures autonomy and integrity of the IB Diploma Programme examinations and other student assessment. The structure of its different committees are based on respect, representation and collaboration.[33]


[32] The IB has consultative status as a non-governmental organisation (NGO) at United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (

The United States has the largest number of IB programmes (1,665 out of 4,502) offered in both private and public schools.[31]

Access remains fundamental to the mission of the IB and a variety of initiatives and projects are helping to take it forward in Ecuador, Poland, Romania, Czech republic, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Spain, Malaysia, and Japan[30]

In 2003, the IB established the IB Fund, incorporated in the United States, for the purpose of enhancing fundraising and keeping funds raised separate from operational funds.[27] In 2004, the IB approved a strategic plan to "ensure that programmes and services are of the highest quality" and "to provide access to people who are socio-economically disadvantaged."[28] In 2010 the strategic plan was updated after substantial consultation. The vision for the next 5 years was to more consciously establish the IB as a leader in international education and the Board outlined a vision and four strategic goals with key strategic objective.[29]

  • fifteen (15) in the IB Africa, Europe and Middle East (IBAEM) region;[24]
  • thirty-six (36) in the IB Americas (IBA) region;[25] and
  • five in the IB Asia Pacific (IBAP) region.[26]

Sub-regional associations "are groups formed by and for IB school practitioners to assist IB schools, teachers and students in their communities—from implementing IB programmes to providing a forum for dialogue."[23] There are currently fifty-six (56) sub-regional associations, including:

The organisation is divided into three regional centres: IB Africa, Europe and Middle East (IBAEM), administered from The Hague; IB Americas (IBA), administered from Bethesda and Buenos Aires, Argentina; and IB Asia-Pacific (IBAP), administered from Singapore.[22]

The IB is a not-for-profit educational foundation. The IB maintains its Foundation Office in Geneva, Switzerland. The Assessment Centre is located in Cardiff, Wales and the curriculum centre moved in 2011 to The Hague, Netherlands. Three Global Centres have been opened: Bethesda Maryland, United States, Singapore and The Hague, Netherlands.



  • Concepts
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Attitudes
  • Action

Five essential elements

  • Language
  • Social studies
  • Mathematics
  • Arts
  • Science
  • Personal, social and physical education

Six subject areas

  • Who we are
  • Where we are in place and time
  • How we express ourselves
  • How the world works
  • How we organise ourselves
  • Sharing the planet

Six transdisciplinary themes

Age range: 3-12

Primary Years Programme (PYP) curriculum outline

  • Personal project and Community Project[19]

Culminating activity for schools offering a 4- to 5-year program

  • Language Acquisition
  • Language and Literature
  • Individuals and Societies
  • Mathematics
  • Design
  • Arts
  • Sciences
  • Physical and Health Education

Eight subject areas

  • Identities and relationships
  • Personal and cultural identity
  • Orientations in space and time
  • Scientific and technical innovation
  • Fairness and development
  • Globalization and sustainability

Six global contexts

Age range: 11-16

Middle Years Programme (MYP) curriculum outline

  • Approaches to learning (ATL) course
  • Community and service
  • Reflective project
  • Language development

CP Core

  • Study of at least two Diploma Programme courses
  • Career-related studies (terminology differs across the world - vocational, professional, technical qualifications and other definitions).
  • CP core

Three-part framework[18]

Age Range: 16-19

Career-related Programme (CP) curriculum outline

  • Studies in Language and Literature
  • Language Acquisition
  • Individuals and Societies
  • Sciences
  • Mathematics
  • The Arts

Subject areas [17]

  • Theory of Knowledge (TOK)
  • The Extended Essay (EE)
  • Creativity Action and Service (CAS)

DP Core [16]

Age Range: 16-19

Diploma Programme (DP) curriculum outline

All four programmes (PYP, MYP, DP and CP) use the IB learner profile.

  • Inquirers
  • Knowledgeable
  • Thinkers
  • Communicators
  • Principled
  • Open-minded
  • Caring
  • Risk-takers
  • Balanced
  • Reflective

The IB Learner Profile is as follows:[15]

The IB Learner Profile


  • The IB Learner Profile 1
  • Diploma Programme (DP) curriculum outline 2
  • Career-related Programme (CP) curriculum outline 3
  • Middle Years Programme (MYP) curriculum outline 4
  • Primary Years Programme (PYP) curriculum outline 5
  • Organization 6
  • Governance 7
  • Reception 8
  • Allegations of plagiarism 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

The IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) adheres to the study of eight subject areas and was developed and piloted in the mid-1990s. Within five years 51 countries had MYP schools.[10] The IB Primary Years Programme (PYP) was piloted in 1996 in thirty primary schools on different continents, and the first PYP school was authorised in 1997,[11] with as many as 87 authorised schools in 43 countries within five years.[12] The newest offering from the IB, the IB Career-related Programme (formerly IB Career-related Certificate[13]) is designed for students of ages 16 to 19 who want to engage in career-related learning. The IB introduced its newly reviewed MYP for first teaching in September 2014.[14]

Marie-Thérèse Maurette[5] created the framework for what would eventually become the IB Diploma Programme (IBDP) in 1948 when she wrote 'Educational Techniques for peace. Do they exist?'.[6] In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate (ISES), which would later become the International Baccalaureate (IB).[7] by Peter Nehr, International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle-East (IBAEM) was established in 1986,[8] and International Baccalaureate Asia Pacific (IBAP) established during the same period.[9]


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