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Imperial and Royal titles of the Mughal Emperors

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Imperial and Royal titles of the Mughal Emperors

The Mughal Emperors who ruled South Asia from 1526 to 1857 used titles in Arabic, Persian and Turkish language. Sons of the emperors used the title Shahzada and Mirza.

Alam Panah / Jahan Panah / Azam Panah

Prince Shah Khurram, later called the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, (full title: Shahanshah Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E--Sultanant Ul Hindiya Wal Mughaliya.)

This title means giver of peace (Panah), or the giver of refuge to the world (Alam/Jahan/Azam).

Al-Sultan-Al-Azam

Al is an Arabic definite article meaning 'the' while Sultan (سلطان) is a Persianized Arabic title (literally meaning Authority) for autonomous rulers since the Abbasid era of Islamic history, while Azam (اعظم), another Arabic word, means Great. The title was used by the early rulers of the Mughal Empire such as Babur, Humayun, Shah Jahan and Jahangir.

Padishah-e-Ghazi

Padishah (پادشاه) is a Persian title meaning Great King (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while Ghazi (غازى) meant an Islamic warrior.

Sahib-e-Qiran

This imperial title means "The Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction (صاحب قران)" in Persianized Arabic and refers to a ruler whose horoscope features a particular conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, portending a reign of world-conquest and justice. The title has a long and varied history among Islamo-Persianate rulers, beginning with the Mongols and Mamluks and further developed under the Timurids. The Mughal emperors Shah Jahan and Akbar Shah II called themselves Sahib-e Qiran-i sani, which means The Second Lord of Auspicious Conjunction. The first Lord of Conjunction in this formulation is assumed to have been Alexander the Great, but it simultaneously references the progenitor of the Mughals, Timur, who was most famously described as the Sahib-e Qiran by Ibn Khaldun. Timur did not use this title himself, but the court historians of his successors routinely applied this title to him and his successors.

Shahanshah

The royal title Shahanshah (شاهنشاه) is a Persian word meaning the King of Kings.

Al Khaqan Al Mukarram

Khaqan or Khagan (خاقان) was an imperial Perso-Turkic Mongol title, used by the Mughal Emperors to show descent from the Khans. Mukarram (مکرم) means 'to be honored' in Urdu.

Zillullah

This is an Arabic word meaning the Shadow of God.

Sources

  • Detailed listing of the titles of the Mughal Imperial family
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