World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Imperial and Royal titles of the Mughal Emperors

Article Id: WHEBN0035981404
Reproduction Date:

Title: Imperial and Royal titles of the Mughal Emperors  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mughal Empire
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Imperial and Royal titles of the Mughal Emperors

The Mughal Emperors who ruled South Asia from 1526 to 1857 used titles in Arabic, Persian and Turkish language. Sons of the emperors used the title Shahzada and Mirza.

Alam Panah / Jahan Panah / Azam Panah

Prince Shah Khurram, later called the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, (full title: Shahanshah Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E--Sultanant Ul Hindiya Wal Mughaliya.)

This title means giver of peace (Panah), or the giver of refuge to the world (Alam/Jahan/Azam).


Al is an Arabic definite article meaning 'the' while Sultan (سلطان) is a Persianized Arabic title (literally meaning Authority) for autonomous rulers since the Abbasid era of Islamic history, while Azam (اعظم), another Arabic word, means Great. The title was used by the early rulers of the Mughal Empire such as Babur, Humayun, Shah Jahan and Jahangir.


Padishah (پادشاه) is a Persian title meaning Great King (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while Ghazi (غازى) meant an Islamic warrior.


This imperial title means "The Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction (صاحب قران)" in Persianized Arabic and refers to a ruler whose horoscope features a particular conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, portending a reign of world-conquest and justice. The title has a long and varied history among Islamo-Persianate rulers, beginning with the Mongols and Mamluks and further developed under the Timurids. The Mughal emperors Shah Jahan and Akbar Shah II called themselves Sahib-e Qiran-i sani, which means The Second Lord of Auspicious Conjunction. The first Lord of Conjunction in this formulation is assumed to have been Alexander the Great, but it simultaneously references the progenitor of the Mughals, Timur, who was most famously described as the Sahib-e Qiran by Ibn Khaldun. Timur did not use this title himself, but the court historians of his successors routinely applied this title to him and his successors.


The royal title Shahanshah (شاهنشاه) is a Persian word meaning the King of Kings.

Al Khaqan Al Mukarram

Khaqan or Khagan (خاقان) was an imperial Perso-Turkic Mongol title, used by the Mughal Emperors to show descent from the Khans. Mukarram (مکرم) means 'to be honored' in Urdu.


This is an Arabic word meaning the Shadow of God.


  • Detailed listing of the titles of the Mughal Imperial family
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.