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Imam Muslim

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Imam Muslim

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
مسلم بن الحجاج
Title Imam Muslim
Born after 815
Nishapur, Khorasan
(in present-day Iran)
Died May 875
Resting place Nasarabad
(a suburb of Nishapur)
Era Islamic Golden Age
Abbasid Caliphate
Occupation Islamic scholar, Hadith compiler
Denomination Sunni Islam
Jurisprudence Shafi'i and ijtihad
Main interest(s) Hadith
Notable work(s) Sahih Muslim

Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī[note 1] (Arabic: أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري‎; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (Persian: مسلم نیشاپوری‎), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith). His hadith collection, known as Sahih Muslim, is one of the six major hadith collections in Sunni Islam and is regarded as one of the two most authentic (sahih) collections, alongside Sahih al-Bukhari.

Biography

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj was born in the town of Nishapur (Arabic: Naysabur), in the Abbasid province of Khorasan, in present-day northeastern Iran. Historians differ as to his date of birth, though it is usually given as 202 AH (817/818),[5][6] 204 AH (819/820),[3][7] or 206 AH (821/822).[5][6][8]

Adh-Dhahabi said, "It is said that he was born in the year 204 AH," though he also said, "But I think he was born before that."[3]

Ibn Khallikan says that he did not find Muslim's date of birth or age at death reported by any of the hafizes (referring to the hadith masters), though they all agree that he was born after 200 AH (815/816). He writes that Ibn as-Salah, citing Ibn al-Bayyi`'s Kitab `Ulama al-Amsar, states the date to be 206 AH (821/822). Ibn Khallikan writes that he acquired the work and found that Ibn as-Salah based the year of birth on Muslim's age (55 hijri years) and date of death (25 Rajab 261) reported by Ibn al-Bayyi`. He thus agrees that Muslim must have been born in 206 AH (821/822).[8]

The nisbah of "al-Qushayri" signifies Muslim's belonging to the Arab tribe of Banu Qushayr, members of which migrated to the newly conquered Persian territory during the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate.[7] However, he was not of Arab descent; he was a mawla – attributed to the Qushayr tribe by way of wala' (alliance), according to As-Sam`ani. An ancestor of Muslim may have been a freed slave of a Qushayri, or may have accepted Islam at the hands of a Qushayri.[3]

Estimates on how many hadiths are in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or whether the text only or the isnad is also counted. His Sahih is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukhari's Sahih.[9]

He died on 25 Rajab 261 AH (May 875) at the age of 55 hijri years, according to Ibn al-Bayyi`, and was buried in Nasarabad, a suburb of Nishapur.

Among the author's teachers were included Harmala ibn Yahya, Sa'id ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qa'nabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Ma'in, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishaburi al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of which wrote works on hadith as well. After many studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown of Nishapur where he first met Bukhari, with whom he would have a friendship until his death.

Estimates on how many hadiths are in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or whether the text only or the isnad is also counted. His Sahih is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukhari's Sahih.[9]

Legacy

The Sunni scholar Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh was first to recommend Muslim's work.[10]

Ishaq's contemporaries did not at first accept this. Abu Zur`a al-Razi objected that Muslim had omitted too much material which Muslim himself recognised as authentic; and that he included transmitters who were weak.[11]

Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327/938) later accepted Muslim as "trustworthy, one of the hadith masters with knowledge of hadith"; but this contrasts with much more fulsome praise of Abu Zur`a and also his father Abu Hatim. It is similar with Ibn al-Nadim.[12]

Muslim's book gradually increased in stature such that it is considered among Sunni Muslims the most authentic collections of hadith, second only to Sahih Bukhari.

Works

Notes

References

External links

  • Short Bio of Imam Muslim
  • Biography of Imam Muslim
  • English translation of Sahih Muslim
  • Interactive Family tree of Imam Muslim by Happy Books
  1. Interactive diagram of teachers and students of Imam Muslim by Happy Books
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