World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hyperthermophile

Article Id: WHEBN0000554438
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hyperthermophile  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Thermophile, Extremophile, Geysers, Geyser, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hyperthermophile

A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments— from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards. An optimal temperature for the existence of hyperthermophiles is above 80 °C (176 °F). Hyperthermophiles are a subset of Archaea, although some bacteria are able to tolerate temperatures of around 100 °C (212 °F), as well. Some bacteria can live at temperatures higher than 100 °C at large depths in sea where water does not boil because of high pressure. Many hyperthermophiles are also able to withstand other environmental extremes such as high acidity or radiation levels.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Research 2
  • Cell structure 3
  • Specific hyperthermophiles 4
    • Archaebacteria 4.1
    • Gram-negative eubacteria 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7

History

Hyperthermophiles were first discovered by Thomas D. Brock in 1965, in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.[1][2] Since then, more than 70 species have been discovered.[3] The most hardy hyperthermophiles yet discovered live on the superheated walls of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, requiring temperatures of at least 90 °C for survival. An extraordinary heat-tolerant hyperthermophile is the recently discovered Strain 121[4] which has been able to double its population during 24 hours in an autoclave at 121 °C (hence its name); the current record growth temperature is 122 °C, for Methanopyrus kandleri.

Although no hyperthermophile has yet been discovered living at temperatures above 122 °C, their existence is very possible (Strain 121 survived being heated to 130 °C for two hours, but was not able to reproduce until it had been transferred into a fresh growth medium, at a relatively cooler 103 °C). However, it is thought unlikely that microbes could survive at temperatures above 150 °C, as the cohesion of DNA and other vital molecules begins to break down at this point.

Research

Early research into hyperthermophiles speculated that their [5][6]

The denatured above 60 °C. Such hyperthermostable proteins are often commercially important, as chemical reactions proceed faster at high temperatures.[7][8]

Cell structure

The cell membrane contains high levels of saturated fatty acids to retain its shape at high temperatures.

Specific hyperthermophiles

Archaebacteria

Gram-negative eubacteria

See also

References

  1. ^ Joseph Seckbach, et al.: Polyextremophiles - life under multiple forms of stress. Springer, Dordrecht 2013, ISBN 978-94-007-6487-3,preface; @google books
  2. ^ and Other Extreme ThermophilesThermus aquaticusThe Value of Basic Research: Discovery of
  3. ^ Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms
  4. ^ Microbe from depths takes life to hottest known limit
  5. ^ High guanine-cytosine content is not an adaptation to high temperature: a comparative analysis amongst prokaryotes
  6. ^ Zheng H, Wu H; Wu (December 2010). "Gene-centric association analysis for the correlation between the guanine-cytosine content levels and temperature range conditions of prokaryotic species". BMC Bioinformatics 11: S7.  
  7. ^ "Analysis of Nanoarchaeum equitans genome and proteome composition: indications for hyperthermophilic and parasitic adaptation."
  8. ^ Saiki, R. K.; Gelfand, D. H.; Stoffel, S; Scharf, S. J.; Higuchi, R; Horn, G. T.; Mullis, K. B.; Erlich, H. A. (1988). "Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science 239 (4839): 487–91.  

Further reading

Stetter, Karl (Feb 2013). "A brief history of the discovery of hyperthermophilic life". Biochemical Society Transactions 41 (1): 416–420.  

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.