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Haplogroup J2

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Haplogroup J2

Haplogroup J-M172
Possible time of origin
Possible place of origin Western Asia[1]
Ancestor J-P209
Defining mutations M172
Highest frequencies Ingush 88.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2%,(Balanovsky 2011) Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72%, (Wells 2001) Iraqis 25% (Al-Zahery 2003)-43.6% Al-Zahery 2011 and Sanchez 2005, Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48% (Wells 2001), Yagnobis 32%, (Wells 2001) Lebanese 25% (Semino 2004)-30%, (Wells 2001) (Capelli 2005) Kurds 28%,(Nebel 2001) Syrians 14% (Di Giacomo 2004)-29%, Turks 13% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40%, (Semino 2000) Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005), Abkhaz 25% (Nasidze 2004), Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Greeks 10%-48%, (Martinez 2007), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24%, (Nasidze 2004) Ossetians 16%(Balanovsky 2011)-24%, (Nasidze 2004) Circassians 21.8%,(Balanovsky 2011) Iranians 22.5% (Grugni 2012)-25% (Wells 2001), Italians 9%-36% (Capelli 2007), Sephardi Jews 15%(Nebel 2001)-29%, (Semino 2004) Palestinians 17%(Nebel 2001)-25%, Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-23.5%, (Semino 2000) Ashkenazi Jews 15% (Shen 2004)-24% (Nebel 2001) Maltese 21%, (Capelli 2005), North Indian Shia Muslims (Sayyid) 28.7% (Wells 2001), and Kalash people 9.1%.[Footnote 1]

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] J-M172 can be classified as Mediterranean/Aegean (Di Giacomo, 2004), Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia and the Aegean. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) within the region spanning eastern Turkey and Persia around 35,000 years ago.

It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314).


The precise region of origin for haplogroup J-M172 remains a topic of discussion. However, at least within a European context, Anatolia and the Aegean seem to be source regions, with Hg J2 having perhaps arisen in the Levant (Di Giacomo 2004) / Middle East (Semino 2004) with the development of agriculture. As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivitovksy method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/ central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested to have been an important vector of spread.


Haplogroup J-M172 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus (Nasidze 2003), Anatolia, the Balkans, Italy, the Mediterranean littoral, and the Iranian plateau(Semino 2004).

The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek (Balanovsky 2011). J-M172 - Associated with Mediterranean, South Caucasian and Fertile Crescent populations, with its peaks at 87.4% in Ingushetia and 72% in Georgia's Kazbegi region (near Mount Kazbek). In the North Caucasus, the largest frequencies are those of Nakh peoples (Chechens (56.7%) and Ingush (88.8%).[26] Other notable values were found among North Caucasian Turkic peoples (Kumyks (25%) and Balkars(24%)[28]). It is notable that according to both Nasidze's study in 2004 and then a later study on Dagestani peoples by Yunusbaev in 2006, J-M172 suddenly collapses as one enters the territory of non-Nakh Northeast Caucasian peoples, dropping to very low values among Dagestani peoples. The overwhelming bulk of Chechen J-M172 is of the subclade J-M67), of which the highest frequencies by far are found among Nakh peoples- Chechens were 55.2% according to the Balanovsky study, while Ingush were 87.4%.

More specifically it is found in Iraq (Al-Zahery 2003), Syria (Luis 2004), Lebanon (Zalloua 2008l), Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), Georgia (Nasidze 2003), Azerbaijan (Di Giacomo 2004), North Caucasus (Nasidze 2004), Armenia (Wells 2001), Iran (Nasidze 2004), Israel (Semino 2004), Palestine (Semino 2004), Cyprus (Capelli 2005), Greece (Martinez 2007), Albania (Semino 2000), Italy (Capelli 2007), and Spain (Di Giacomo 2003), and more frequently in Iraqis 43.6%Al-Zahery 2011, Chechens 51.0%-58.0% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72% (Wells 2001), Lebanese 25% (Semino 2004), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Syrians 23% (Luis 2004), Turks 13% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8%,(Balanovsky 2011) Iranians 10% (Nasidze 2004)-25%, (Wells 2001) Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-24%, (Semino 2000) Italians 9%-36% (Capelli 2007), Sephardi Jews 15%(Nebel 2001)-29%, (Semino 2004) Maltese 21%, (Capelli 2005) Palestinians 17%, (Semino 2004) Saudis 16% (Abu-Amero 2009), Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15% (Di Giacomo 2004), (Luis 2004), and North Indian Shia Muslim (Sayyid) 28.7% (Haber 2011).


North Africa

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Tunisia Tunisia 62 8 El-Sibai 2009
Algeria Oran 102 4.9 Robino 2008
Egypt 124 7.6 El-Sibai 2009
Egypt 147 12.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Morocco 221 4.1 Fregel 2009
North Africa Algeria, Tunisia 202 3.5 Fregel 2009


Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbs 81 8.7 Battaglia 2009
Cyprus 164 12.9 El-Sibai 2009
Greece 154 18.1 El-Sibai 2009
Greece Crete 143 35 El-Sibai 2009
Iberia 655 7 Fregel 2009
Iberia 1140 7.7 Adams 2008
Italy Sicily 212 22.6 El-Sibai 2009
Italy Mainland 699 20 Capelli 2007
Italy Central Marche 59 35.6 Capelli 2007
Italy West Calabria 57 35.1 Capelli 2007
Italy Val Badia 34 8.8 Capelli 2007
Malta 90 21.1 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal North, Center, South 303 6.9 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal Tras-os-Montes (Jews) 57 24.5 Nogueiro 2010
Sardinia 81 9.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Mallorca 62 8.1 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Sevilla 155 7.8 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Leon 60 5 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Ibiza 54 3.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Galicia 292 13 Brion 2004
Spain Canary Islands 652 10.5 Fregel 2009

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36% (Capelli 2007). In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, (Cinnioglu 2004) with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40% (Semino 2000). Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete. Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008).

North Caucasus

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Caucasus Abkhaz 58 13.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Avar 115 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Chechen 330 57 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Circassians 142 21.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Dargins 101 1 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ingush 143 88.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kaitak 33 3 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kubachi 65 0 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Lezghins 81 2.5 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ossets 357 16 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Shapsug 100 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus 1525 28.1 Balanovsky 2011

J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21%-72%, (Wells 2001), Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48%, (Wells 2001) Abkhaz 25%, (Nasidze 2004) Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), and other groups ( Nasidze 2004 and Nasidze 2003).

West Asia

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Jewish Ashkenazim Jewish 442 19 Behar 2004
Iran 92 25 El-Sibai 2009
Iraq 154 43.6 Al-Zahery 2011
Israel Akka 101 18.6 El-Sibai 2009
Jordan 273 14.6 El-Sibai 2009
Lebanon 951 29.4 El-Sibai 2009
Oman 121 10.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Pakistan 176 11.9 Abu-Amero 2009
Pakistan Chitral District Firasat 2007
Qatar 72 8.3 El-Sibai 2009
Saudi Arabia 157 15.9 Abu-Amero 2009
Syria Syria 554 20.8 El-Sibai 2009
Turkey 523 24.2 El-Sibai 2009
UAE 164 10.3 El-Sibai 2009
Yemen 62 9.6 El-Sibai 2009

Sephardi Jews have about 15% (Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15% (Shen 2004)-23% (Semino 2004). It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers (Malaspina 2001) that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now more likely to have originated in regions farther to the north, with the first metallurgists of the Middle East.

South Asia

Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be more common in India's Shia Muslims, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

Subclade distribution

Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.


J-M172 is typical of populations of the Near East, Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa.


J-M410 is found in Georgia, North Ossetia.


J-M47 is found with low frequency in Georgia, (Battaglia 2008) southern Iran (Regueiro 2006), Qatar (Cadenas 2008) Saudi Arabia (AbuAmero 2009), Syria (Di Giacomo 2004), Tunisia (Arredi 2004), Turkey (Di Giacomo 2004 and Cinnioglu 2004), the UAE, (Cadenas 2008), and Central Asia/Siberia (Underhill 2000).


J-M67 (Called J2f in older papers) has its highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%) (Balanovsky 2011). In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%) (Semino 2004), Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%) (Semino 2004), Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), and Cherkess (5.6%) (Balanovsky 2011). It is also found at notable frequencies in the Mediterranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% among N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%) (see Di Giacomo 2004 and Semino 2004).


J-M319 is found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks (Martinez 2007 and King 2008), Iraqi Jews (Shen 2004), and Moroccan Jews (Shen 2004).


J-M158 (location under L24 uncertain) J-M158 is found with low frequency in Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), South Asia (Sengupta 2006 and Underhill 2000), Indochina (Underhill 2000), and Iberian Peninsula.


"Population data is almost there. Thus, Haplogroup J2b1 found with a frequency of 3.2% in the "Phocaea" (west coast of Anatolia), and in one of the regions of Greece with a frequency of 1.7%. It is known that small quantities it is present in Armenia, and in Europe, for example, in the Penza region found 1 of 81 (1.2%), and in the Balkans in Montenegro about 0.5%." J-M205 is typical of populations of the Balkans, Greece, Western Anatolia (Phocaea, Greek colonies), Armenia and Volga Bulgaria, with a moderate distribution through much of Europe in the areas where Greek expansion occurred.


In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic history

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
J-12f2a 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J* J J J - - - - - - J
J-M62 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J1 J1a J1a J1a - - - - - - Private
J-M172 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2* J2 J2 J2 - - - - - - J2
J-M47 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2a J2a J2a1 J2a4a - - - - - - J2a1a
J-M68 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2b J2b J2a3 J2a4c - - - - - - J2a1c
J-M137 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2c J2c J2a4 J2a4h2a1 - - - - - - J2a1h2a1a
J-M158 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2d J2d J2a5 J2a4h1 - - - - - - J2a1h1
J-M12 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e* J2e J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M102 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1* J2e1 J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M99 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1a J2e1a J2b2a J2b2a - - - - - - Private
J-M67 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f* J2f J2a2 J2a4b - - - - - - J2a1b
J-M92 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f1 J2f1 J2a2a J2a4b1 - - - - - - J2a1b1
J-M163 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f2 J2f2 J2a2b J2a4b2 - - - - - - Private

Research publications

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.


Phylogenetic trees

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M172. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's draft tree Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M172, L228
    • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
      • M289
      • L26, L27, L927
        • M47, M322
        • M67, L558
        • M319
        • M339
        • M419
        • P81
        • L24, L207.1
        • L88.2, L198
        • L250.2, L251.2
        • L267
        • P329.2
      • L581
    • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
      • M205
      • M241
        • M99
        • M280
        • M321
        • P84
        • L283

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[2]

The ISOGG tree

Below are the the ISOGG tree (as of January 2013). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M172, L228
    • M410
      • DYS413<8
        • M47, M322
        • M67,S51
        • M68
        • M319
        • M339
        • M419
        • P81
        • L24/S286, L207.1
        • L88.2, L198
      • L581/S398
        • P279
    • L282, M12, M102, M221, M314
      • M205
      • M241
        • L283

See also


Y-DNA J Subclades

  • J-P58
  • J-P209
  • J-M172
  • J-M267

Y-DNA Backbone Tree

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
  • Y-DNA by populations
  • Famous Y-DNA haplotypes



Work Cited


  • This paper reported results from several studies : Di Giacomo 2003, Al-Zahery 2003, Flores 2004, Cinnioglu 2004, Capelli 2005, Goncalves 2005, Zalloua 2008, Cadenas 2008

Further reading

  • Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.

Phylogenetic Notes


  1. ^ Renfrew, A.C. (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5
  2. ^ A. Nebel 2001, The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East, Americal Journal of Human Genetics 69(5):1095-112.
  3. , Ann Hum Genet.2001 Jul;65(Pt 4):339-49.

External links

  • In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
  • Y-DNA by populations
  • Famous Y-DNA haplotypes
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