World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Grylloblattidae

Article Id: WHEBN0000053631
Reproduction Date:

Title: Grylloblattidae  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Notoptera, Insect, Xerophile, Thermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Grylloblattidae

Grylloblattidae
Temporal range: Triassic–Recent
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
[1]
Galloisiana nipponensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Notoptera[2]
Suborder: Grylloblattodea
Family: Grylloblattidae
E. M. Walker, 1914
Genera

Galloisiana
Grylloblatta
Grylloblattella
Grylloblattina
Namkungia

Grylloblattidae is a family of extremophile (psychrophile) and wingless insects that live in the cold on top of mountains. It belongs, along with Mantophasmatidae, to the order Notoptera.[2]

Overview

Galloisiana nipponensis

They are commonly called grylloblattids, but are also sometimes called ice crawlers or icebugs. Their appearance evidently puzzled the scientists who discovered them, E.M. Walker and T.B. Kurata; the first species named was Grylloblatta campodeiformis, which means "cricket-cockroach shaped like a Campodea" (a kind of two-pronged bristletail). Most are nocturnal and appear to feed on detritus. They have long antennae (23–45 segments) and long cerci (5–8 segments), but no wings. Their closest living relatives are the recently discovered Mantophasmatodea.[3]

The family is placed in its own suborder, Grylloblattodea, and in its own former[2] order, Grylloblattaria. It contains 5 genera and 34 species.[4][5]

Habitat

Grylloblattodea are nocturnal extremophiles typically found in leaf litter and under stones in extremely cold environments, usually at higher elevations. They are known to inhabit cold temperate forests to glaciers and ice sheets. Their optimal living temperature is between 1-4°C (33.8-39.2°F). They can be killed at colder temperatures due to ice formation in the body, so when the temperature drops below their optimal range they survive by living under snow pack near the soil.[6]

Diet

They are omnivorous, but feed primarily on deceased arthropods. When arthropod carcasses are scarce, their diet relies heavily on plant material.[6]

References

  1. ^ H. V. Hoell, J. T. Doyen & A. H. Purcell (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity (2nd ed.).  
  2. ^ a b c Arillo, A. & M. Engel (2006) Rock Crawlers in Baltic Amber (Notoptera: Mantophasmatodea). American Museum Novitates 3539:1-10
  3. ^ Stephen L. Cameron, Stephen C. Barker & Michael F. Whiting (2006). "Mitochondrial genomics and the new insect order Mantophasmatodea".  
  4. ^ Terry L. Erwin (1997). "Biodiversity at its utmost: tropical forest beetles". In Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla, Don E. Wilson &  
  5. ^ Zhang, Z.-Q. (2011). "Phylum Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa 3148: 99–103. 
  6. ^ a b David Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel (2005). "Polyneoptera: Grylloblattodea: The Ice Crawlers". Evolution of the Insects. New York City: Cambridge University Press. pp. 222–224.  

External links

  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Grylloblattidae at Wikispecies
  • Video of a walking grylloblattid
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.